Sancho IV Garcés
called Sancho of Peñalén
or Sancho the Noble
, was King of Navarre
from 1054 to 1076. He was the eldest son and heir of García Sánchez III and Estefanía.
At the age of fourteen Sancho was proclaimed king in the camp by the field where his father was killed at the Battle of Atapuerca
The Battle of Atapuerca was fought in 1 September 1054 at the site of Piedrahita in the valley of Atapuerca between brothers King García Sánchez III, El de Nájera, of Navarre and King Ferdinand I, the Great, of Castile and León....
. Sancho's mother served as his regent, remaining faithful to her husband's wishes, she continued the support of the monastery he founded at Nájera
Nájera is a small town located in the "Rioja Alta" region of La Rioja, Spain on the river Najerilla. Nájera is a stopping point on the Way of St James.-History:...
, where several Navarrese monarchs are interred.
With his uncle, King Ramiro of Aragon
Ramiro I was de facto the first King of Aragon from 1035 until his death. Apparently born before 1007, he was the illegitimate son of Sancho III of Navarre by his mistress Sancha de Aybar...
, he forced al-Muqtadir
Ahmad ibn Sulayman al-Muqtadir was a member of the Banu Hud family who ruled the Islamic taifa of Zaragoza, in what is now Spain, from 1049 to 1082. He was the son of the previous ruler, Al-Mustain I, Sulayman ibn Hud al-Judhami.-References:*...
, ruler of Zaragoza
The taifa of Zaragoza was an independent Muslim state in Moorish Al-Andalus, present day eastern Spain, which was established in 1018 as one of the taifa kingdoms, which emerged in the 11th century following the destruction of the Caliphate of Córdoba in the Moorish Iberian Peninsula.During the...
, into submission and exacted a tribute.
He was in constant conflict with Castile
Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. It emerged as a political autonomous entity in the 9th century. It was called County of Castile and was held in vassalage from the Kingdom of León. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region...
, culminating in the so-called War of the Three Sanchos
The War of the Three Sanchos was a brief military conflict between three Spanish kingdoms in 1065–1067. The kingdoms were all ruled by kings who were first cousins: Sancho II the Strong, King of Castile; Sancho IV Garcés, King of Navarre; and Sancho Ramírez, King of Aragon, all grandsons of...
(1067–1068). Years before, Sancho's father had managed to retain a series of frontier lands, including Bureba and Alta Rioja, which had been claimed by Ferdinand I of Castile. Ferdinand's son, Sancho II the Strong
Sancho II , called the Strong, or in Spanish, el Fuerte, was King of Castile and León .He was the eldest son of Ferdinand I of Castile and Sancha of León, the eventual heiress to the Leonese crown...
sought to reconquer these lands for his kingdom. Faced with an invasion by his cousin the Castilian Sancho, The Navarrese Sancho asked for aid from his other cousin, Sancho of Aragón. But their forces were defeated by Sancho the Strong and his trusted alférez
Alférez is a junior officer rank also used in Spain, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. The variant Alferes is used in Portugal and was formerly also used in Brazil. A naval variant, Frigate Alférez, is used in Spain, Dominican Republic and Peru. "Alférez" is often translated as ensign...
(supreme commander) El Cid
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar , known as El Cid Campeador , was a Castilian nobleman, military leader, and diplomat...
, Sancho lost Bureba, Alta Rioja, and Álava
Álava is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lord of Álava. Its capital city is Vitoria-Gasteiz which is also the capital of the autonomous community...
to Sancho of Castile.
He was assassinated in Peñalén
Peñalén is a municipality located in the province of Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2004 census , the municipality has a population of 126 inhabitants....
, whence his nickname, by a conspiracy headed by his brother Ramón
-Given name:*Ramón , Spanish singer who represented Spain in the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest*Ramon Dekker, Dutch muay thai fighter*Ramón Díaz Argentine football player and coach*Ramón Emeterio Betances , Puerto Rican nationalist...
, the Fratricide) and his sister Ermesinda. During a scheduled hunt, Sancho was forced from a cliff by his siblings. Upon his assassination, Navarre was invaded and ultimately partition between Sancho of Aragon and a third cousin, Alfonso VI of León and Castile. Alfonso occupied La Rioja and Sancho was proclaimed king in Pamplona.
Sancho was married in 1068 to a Frenchwoman Placencia and they had two sons, both named García:
- García Sánchez, who died in Toledo after 1092 and who was displaced by Sancho I of Aragón with the support of the Navarrese nobility who did not want to have a child-king.
With a slave named Ximena, he fathered two children
- Raimundo Sánchez, lord of Esquiroz
- Urraca Sánchez