Rogun Dam

Rogun Dam

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Rogun Dam is an under construction dam on the Vakhsh River
Vakhsh River
The Vakhsh has been intensively developed for human use. Electricity, aluminum, and cotton are the mainstays of Tajikistan’s economy, and the Vakhsh is involved with all three of these sectors. Hydroelectricity provides 91% of the country’s electricity as of 2005, and 90% of that total comes from...

 in southern Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan , officially the Republic of Tajikistan , is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east....

. It is one of the planned hydroelectric power plants of Vakhsh Cascade. If finished, it would be the world's tallest dam with a height of 335 metres (1,099.1 ft) height compared to the second tallest dam Nurek Dam
Nurek Dam
The Nurek Dam is an earth fill embankment dam on the Vakhsh River in the central Asian nation of Tajikistan. Construction of the dam began in 1961 and was completed in 1980, when Tajikistan was still a republic within the Soviet Union. At it is currently the tallest dam in the world...

 at 300 metres (984.3 ft).

History


The Rogun Dam was first proposed in 1959 and a technical scheme was developed by 1965. Construction began in 1976, however the project was frozen after the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. An agreement on finishing the construction was signed between Tajikistan and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 in 1994; however, as the agreement was not implemented, it was denounced by Tajikistan parliament. In October 2004, an agreement was signed with RUSAL according to which RUSAL agreed to complete the Rogun facility, to build a new aluminum plant and to rebuild the Tursunzade Aluminum Smelter. In February 2007, a new partnership between Russia and Tajikistan to complete the dam was announced but later was refused by Russia because of disagreements concerning the controlling stake in the project. In May 2008, Takijistan announced that construction on the dam had resumed. By December 2010, one of the river diversion tunnels was renovated and rebuilt and the second expected to commence in June or July 2011.

In 2010, Tajikistan launched an IPO
Initial public offering
An initial public offering or stock market launch, is the first sale of stock by a private company to the public. It can be used by either small or large companies to raise expansion capital and become publicly traded enterprises...

 to raise US$1.4 billion to finish construction of the dam. As of April 26, 2010, the Tajik government had raised just US$184 million, enough for two years of construction.

Technical description


Rogun was listed as the highest dam in the world — 334.98 metres (1,099 ft) high — but this is a projected height. In reality the dam was only circa 60.96 metres (200 ft)

high until 1993 when it was destroyed in a flood. two projects are under consideration: the original, 334.98 metres (1,099 ft), and an alternative one, 280 to 300 m (918.6 to 984.3 ), both having their advantages and drawbacks.

The hydroelectric power plant is expected to have six turbines with total capacity of 3,600 MW. When constructed, it expected to produce 13.3 TWh of electrical power per year.

Impact assessment


In response to the request of the bordering countries and especially Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

, the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

 has financed the Techno-Economic Assessment Study (TEAS) conducted by consortium of Coyne et Bellier, Electroconsult and IPA, and Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) conducted by Pöyry
Pöyry
Pöyry is a global consulting and engineering firm focusing on the energy, forest industry and infrastructure & environment sectors. It changed its name from Jaakko Pöyry Group in 2006...

. The report estimated to be provided by Consultants (Pöyry and Coyne et Bellier) in February 2012.

International tensions


The project has raised tensions with Uzbekistan over the impact of the dam on its cotton fields' irrigation systems. In February 2010, Uzbek Prime Minister Shavkat Mirziyoyev sent a letter to his Tajik counterpart demanding an independent examination of the possible consequences of the dam. During October 2010, Uzbek President Islam Karimov called the Rogun hydropower plants a "stupid project."