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Republican Left (Spain)

Republican Left (Spain)

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The Republican Left was a Spanish left-wing republican
Republicanism
Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, where the head of state is appointed by means other than heredity, often elections. The exact meaning of republicanism varies depending on the cultural and historical context...

 party founded in 1934.

The party was founded in 1934 following the left's defeat in the 1933 election
Spanish general election, 1933
Elections to Spain’s legislature, the Cortes Generales, were held on 19 November 1933 for all 473 seats in the unicameral Cortes of the Second Spanish Republic. Since the previous elections of 1931, a new constitution had been ratified, and the franchise extended to more than six million women...

, by the merger of Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña Díaz was a Spanish politician. He was the first Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic , and later served again as Prime Minister , and then as the second and last President of the Republic . The Spanish Civil War broke out while he was President...

's Republican Action, part of Marcelino Domingo's Radical Socialist Republican Party
Radical Socialist Republican Party
Radical Socialist Republican Party , sometimes shortened to Radical Socialist Party , was a Spanish radical political party, created in 1929 after the split of the left-wing in Alejandro Lerroux's Radical Republican Party...

 and Santiago Casares Quiroga
Santiago Casares Quiroga
Santiago Casares y Quiroga was a Spanish politician who was Prime Minister of Spain from 13 May to 19 July 1936....

's Autonomous Galician Republican Organization
Autonomous Galician Republican Organization
The Autonomous Galician Republican Organization was a Spanish left-wing republican and Galician nationalist party in Galicia. It was founded in October 1929 in La Coruña by Santiago Casares Quiroga and Antón Vilar Ponte with the participation of the Irmandades da Fala.In March 1930, it organized...

 (ORGA). Its members included José Giral
José Giral
José Giral y Pereira was a Spanish politician during the Second Spanish Republic.He had degrees in Chemistry and Pharmacy from the University of Madrid. In 1905 he became professor of chemistry in the University of Salamanca. He founded Acción Republicana with Manuel Azaña...

, Victoria Kent
Victoria Kent
Victoria Kent was a Spanish lawyer and republican politician.Born in Málaga, she was affiliated to the Radical Socialist Republican Party and came to fame in 1930 for defending - at a court martial - Álvaro de Albornoz, who would shortly afterwards go on to become minister of justice and later the...

 and Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña Díaz was a Spanish politician. He was the first Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic , and later served again as Prime Minister , and then as the second and last President of the Republic . The Spanish Civil War broke out while he was President...

 who became the party's leader.

Integrated in the Popular Front
Popular Front (Spain)
The Popular Front in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election....

 ahead of the 1936 election
Spanish general election, 1936
Legislative elections were held in Spain on February 16, 1936. At stake were all 473 seats in the unicameral Cortes Generales. The winners of the 1936 elections were the Popular Front, a left-wing coalition of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party , Republican Left , Esquerra Republicana de...

, the party won 87 seats becoming the third largest party while Manuel Azaña obtained the office of President of the Council of Minister. Following the impeachment of Niceto Alcalá Zamora from the presidency in May 1936, Azaña was elected president, an office he held until his resignation in February 1939. He was succeeded as President of the Council first by Santiago Casares Quiroga
Santiago Casares Quiroga
Santiago Casares y Quiroga was a Spanish politician who was Prime Minister of Spain from 13 May to 19 July 1936....

 and then by José Giral
José Giral
José Giral y Pereira was a Spanish politician during the Second Spanish Republic.He had degrees in Chemistry and Pharmacy from the University of Madrid. In 1905 he became professor of chemistry in the University of Salamanca. He founded Acción Republicana with Manuel Azaña...

. Later, alongside the Republican Union Party
Republican Union Party
The Republican Union was a Spanish republican party founded in 1934 by Diego Martinez Barrio.It was formed as a result of a merger of several small republican parties, including notably Diego Martinez Barrio's Radical Democratic Party founded in May 1934 by a split from Alejandro Lerroux's Radical...

, the party was the main component of the Largo Caballero government in September 1936, at the start of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

. The IR participated in all republican governments till the end of the civil war.

In exile in Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, the IR was the main support of the Republican government-in-exile until it was dissolved in 1959 to found the Spanish Democratic Republican Action. A party taking the name Republican Left
Republican Left (Spain, 1977)
The Republican Left is a Spanish republican political party. Founded in 1977, it considers itself as the heir to Manuel Azaña's Republican Left. Its contemporary presence is now limited to a handful of local councillors....

 was founded in 1977 and has achieved no major electoral success as of yet.

Notable members

  • Santiago Casares Quiroga
    Santiago Casares Quiroga
    Santiago Casares y Quiroga was a Spanish politician who was Prime Minister of Spain from 13 May to 19 July 1936....

  • Marcelino Domingo
  • José Giral
    José Giral
    José Giral y Pereira was a Spanish politician during the Second Spanish Republic.He had degrees in Chemistry and Pharmacy from the University of Madrid. In 1905 he became professor of chemistry in the University of Salamanca. He founded Acción Republicana with Manuel Azaña...

  • Victoria Kent
    Victoria Kent
    Victoria Kent was a Spanish lawyer and republican politician.Born in Málaga, she was affiliated to the Radical Socialist Republican Party and came to fame in 1930 for defending - at a court martial - Álvaro de Albornoz, who would shortly afterwards go on to become minister of justice and later the...

  • Manuel Azaña
    Manuel Azaña
    Manuel Azaña Díaz was a Spanish politician. He was the first Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic , and later served again as Prime Minister , and then as the second and last President of the Republic . The Spanish Civil War broke out while he was President...