Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders

Overview
Reporters Without Borders (RWB) is a France-based international non-governmental organization
Non-governmental organization
A non-governmental organization is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government. The term originated from the United Nations , and is normally used to refer to organizations that do not form part of the government and are...

 that advocates freedom of the press
Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through vehicles including various electronic media and published materials...

. It was founded in 1985, by Robert Ménard
Robert Ménard
Robert Ménard is one of the founders and the former secretary-general of the Paris-based international NGO Reporters Sans Frontières....

, Rony Brauman and the journalist Jean-Claude Guillebaud. Jean-François Julliard has served as Secretary General since 2008. English speakers also commonly refer to the organization by its French name, Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF). Its head office is in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

.

RWB was founded in Montpellier
Montpellier
-Neighbourhoods:Since 2001, Montpellier has been divided into seven official neighbourhoods, themselves divided into sub-neighbourhoods. Each of them possesses a neighbourhood council....

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, in 1985.
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Encyclopedia
Reporters Without Borders (RWB) is a France-based international non-governmental organization
Non-governmental organization
A non-governmental organization is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any government. The term originated from the United Nations , and is normally used to refer to organizations that do not form part of the government and are...

 that advocates freedom of the press
Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through vehicles including various electronic media and published materials...

. It was founded in 1985, by Robert Ménard
Robert Ménard
Robert Ménard is one of the founders and the former secretary-general of the Paris-based international NGO Reporters Sans Frontières....

, Rony Brauman and the journalist Jean-Claude Guillebaud. Jean-François Julliard has served as Secretary General since 2008. English speakers also commonly refer to the organization by its French name, Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF). Its head office is in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

.

Press freedom


RWB was founded in Montpellier
Montpellier
-Neighbourhoods:Since 2001, Montpellier has been divided into seven official neighbourhoods, themselves divided into sub-neighbourhoods. Each of them possesses a neighbourhood council....

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, in 1985. At first, the association was aimed at promoting alternative journalism, but before the failure of their project, the three founders stumbled on disagreements between themselves. Finally, only Robert Ménard stayed and became its Secretary General. Ménard changed the NGO's aim towards freedom of the press
Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through vehicles including various electronic media and published materials...

.

Reporters Without Borders states that it draws its inspiration from Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly . The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled...

, according to which everyone has "the right to freedom of opinion and expression" and also the right to "seek, receive and impart" information and ideas "regardless of frontiers." This has been re-affirmed by several charters and declarations around the world. In Europe, this right is included in the 1950 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

Reporters Without Borders is a founding member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange
International Freedom of Expression Exchange
The International Freedom of Expression eXchange , founded in 1992, is a global network of around 90 non-governmental organisations that promotes and defends the right to freedom of expression....

, a virtual network of non-governmental organizations that monitors free expression violations worldwide and defends journalists, writers and others who are persecuted for exercising their right to freedom of expression.

In 2005, Reporters Without Borders shared the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize
Sakharov Prize
The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, named after Soviet scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, was established in December 1988 by the European Parliament as a means to honour individuals or organisations who have dedicated their lives to the defence of human rights and freedom of thought...

 for freedom of thought with Nigerian human rights lawyer Hauwa Ibrahim
Hauwa Ibrahim
Hauwa Ibrahim is a Nigerian human rights lawyer who won the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize in 2005. She was especially cited for her pro bono work defending people condemned under the Islamic Sharia laws that are in force in the northern Nigerian provinces, including her defence of Amina...

 and Cuba's Ladies in White
Ladies in White
Ladies in White is an opposition movement in Cuba consisting of wives and other female relatives of jailed dissidents. The women protest the imprisonments by attending Mass each Sunday wearing white dresses and then silently walking through the streets dressed in white clothing...

 movement.

Books


Over the years, RWB has published several books to raise public awareness of threats to press freedom around the world. One such publication is the Handbook for Bloggers and Cyber-Dissidents, which was launched in September 2005 and updated in 2008. The handbook provides technical tips on how to blog
Blog
A blog is a type of website or part of a website supposed to be updated with new content from time to time. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in...

 anonymously and avoid censorship
Censorship
thumb|[[Book burning]] following the [[1973 Chilean coup d'état|1973 coup]] that installed the [[Military government of Chile |Pinochet regime]] in Chile...

. It includes contributions from well-known blogger-journalists Dan Gillmor
Dan Gillmor
Dan Gillmor is a noted American technology writer and columnist. He is director of the Knight Center for Digital Media Entrepreneurship at Arizona State University's Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication and a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard...

 and Ethan Zuckerman
Ethan Zuckerman
Ethan Zuckerman is the director of the MIT Center for Civic Media, officially starting in September 2011.Zuckerman was one of the first staff members of Tripod.com, one of the first successful "dot com" enterprises, and later founder of Geekcorps and Global Voices Online...

.

Funding


According to the annual accounts, its total budget is of €4,000,000, which is mostly financed by sale of photo-albums (of which the authors freely grant copyright
Copyright
Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time...

, and which are freely distributed by the Nouvelles Messageries de la Presse Parisienne
Presstalis
Presstalis, known until December 2009 as Nouvelles Messageries de la Presse Parisienne , is a French media distribution corporation. More than 100 newspapers and 3,500 French and foreign magazines are distributed by Presstalis...

, or NMPP), as well as extras such as T-shirts, etc.

More than 20% of its funding comes from private groups, such as Sanofi-Aventis
Sanofi-Aventis
Sanofi S.A. is a multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Paris, France, the world's fourth-largest by prescription sales. Sanofi engages in the research and development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical products for sale principally in the prescription market, but the...

 (€400,000, 10% of its budget), François Pinault
François Pinault
François Pinault is a French businessman who runs the retail company PPR. He is a friend of former French President Jacques Chirac....

, the Fondation de France
Fondation de France
The Foundation de France is an independent administrative agency which was established by the French government in an effort to stimulate and foster the growth of private philanthropy and private foundations in France.-History:...

, the Open Society Institute
Open Society Institute
The Open Society Institute , renamed in 2011 to Open Society Foundations, is a private operating and grantmaking foundation started by George Soros, aimed to shape public policy to promote democratic governance, human rights, and economic, legal, and social reform...

 of George Soros
George Soros
George Soros is a Hungarian-American business magnate, investor, philosopher, and philanthropist. He is the chairman of Soros Fund Management. Soros supports progressive-liberal causes...

, the Sigrid Rausing Trust
Sigrid Rausing Trust
Sigrid Rausing Trust is a grant-giving charitable foundation in the United Kingdom set up in 1995 by Sigrid Rausing to promote international human rights.The Trust was originally named the Ruben and Elisabeth Rausing Trust, after Sigrid Rausing's grandparents...

, Benetton
Benetton Group
Benetton Group S.p.A. is a global luxury fashion brand, based in Treviso, Italy. The name comes from the Benetton family who founded the company in 1965. Benetton Group is listed in Milan....

, or the Center for a Free Cuba
Center for a Free Cuba
The Center for a Free Cuba is a Washington, DC-based Cuban democracy organization. It states that it is "is an independent, non-partisan institution dedicated to promoting human rights and a transition to democracy and the rule of law on the island...

 (which donated €64,000 in 2002). Furthermore, Saatchi & Saatchi
Saatchi & Saatchi
Saatchi & Saatchi is a global advertising agency network with 140 offices in 80 countries and over 6,500 staff. It was founded in London in 1970 but now headquartered in New York. The parent company of the agency group was known as Saatchi & Saatchi PLC from 1976 to 1994, was listed on the London...

 has realized various communication campaigns of RWB for free (for instance, concerning censorship in Algeria
Censorship in Algeria
The working conditions of journalists in Algeria have evolved since the 1962 independence. After 1990, the Code of Press was suppressed, allowing for greater freedom of press. However, with the civil war in the 1990s, more than 70 journalists were assassinated, either by security forces or by...

).

Some of its funding (12% of total in 2007) comes from governmental organisations. According to RWB president Robert Ménard, the donations from the French government account for 4,8% of RWB's budget; the total amount of governmental aid being 11% of its budget (including money from the French government, the OSCE
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization. Its mandate includes issues such as arms control, human rights, freedom of the press and fair elections...

, UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie). Daniel Junqua, the vice-president of the French section of RWB (and also vice-president of the NGO Les Amis du Monde diplomatique), states that the NED
National Endowment for Democracy
The National Endowment for Democracy, or NED, is a U.S. non-profit organization that was founded in 1983 to promote US-friendly democracy by providing cash grants funded primarily through an annual allocation from the U.S. Congress...

's funding, which reaches an amount of €35,000, does not compromise RWB's impartiality. RSF's Chinese website credits support from Taiwan Foundation for Democracy
Taiwan Foundation for Democracy
The Taiwan Foundation for Democracy is an non-profit organisation headquartered in Taipei. Originally proposed by the Taiwanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Foundation's purpose is to promote democracy around the world...

, a quasi-government organization funded by the ROC
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Reporters Without Borders books are sold by the French leisure chains and supermarkets Fnac, Carrefour
Carrefour
Carrefour S.A. is an international hypermarket chain headquartered in Levallois-Perret, France. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world...

, Casino, Monoprix and Cora, the websites alapage.com, fnac.com and amazon.fr, as well as A2Presse and over 300 bookshops throughout France.

Journalist Salim Lamrani has estimated that RSF would have to sell 170,200 books in 2004 and 188,400 books in 2005 to earn the more than $2 million in the organisation's income statement. In fact, Reporters Without Borders book sales were 230,000 in 2007.

Predators of Press Freedom


Reporters Without Borders publishes the annual Predators of Press Freedom list which highlights what it feels are the worst violators.

Philippines


On August 23, 2007, RWB condemned the continuing threats and violence against Philippine radio commentators who report on organized crime and corruption, following a death threat on RGMA Palawan
Palawan
Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region or Region 4. Its capital is Puerto Princesa City, and it is the largest province in the country in terms of total area of jurisdiction. The islands of Palawan stretch from Mindoro in the northeast to Borneo in the...

 station manager Lily Uy. On December 27, 2007, RSF appealed to Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

 administration to forthwith arrest the killers of radio broadcaster Ferdinand Lintuan, 51, the 5th journalist killed in 2007 in the Philippines. As first president of the Davao Association of Sports Journalists he was murdered in Davao City
Davao City
The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

 on December 24.

World Day Against Cyber Censorship


Reporters Without Borders launched the first International Online Free Expression Day on March 12, 2008. Now named World Day Against Cyber Censorship
World Day Against Cyber Censorship
World Day Against Cyber Censorship was first observed on March 12, 2008 at the request of Reporters Without Borders and Amnesty International. A letter written by Jean-Francois Julliard, Secretary-General of Reporters Without Borders, and Larry Cox, Executive Director of Amnesty International, was...

, this annual event rallies support for a single Internet without restrictions and accessible to all.

Enemies of the Internet list


In conjunction with its World Day Against Cyber Censorship, RWB updates its Enemies of the Internet list which highlights what it considers the countries that are the worst violators of freedom of expression on the Internet. A second list of countries Under Surveillance is released at the same time.

Netizen Prize


The annual Netizen Prize recognizes an Internet user, blogger or cyber-dissident who has made a notable contribution to the defense of online freedom of expression.
  • In 2010 RWB awarded its first annual Netizen Prize to the Iranian women’s rights activists of the Change for Equality website, www.we-change.org.
  • The 2011 Netizen Prize was awarded to the founders of a Tunisian blogging group named Nawaat.org.

Cyber-dissident prize


Reporters Without Borders awards a cyber-dissident prize under various names including: Cyber-Freedom Prize and Cyber-dissident. Winners include:
  • 2003: Zouhair Yahyaoui
    Zouhair Yahyaoui
    Zouhair Yahyaoui was the first cyber-dissident to be pursued and condemned in Tunisia, a country that is often rated at the top of lists of internet policing by independent third-party sources such as the OpenNet Initiative...

     (Tunisia),
  • 2004: Huang Qi
    Huang Qi
    Huang Qi is a Chinese webmaster and human rights activist. He is the co-founder of Tianwang Center for Missing Persons , along with his wife Zeng Li...

     (China),
  • 2005: Massoud Hamid
    Massoud Hamid
    Massoud Hamid is a Kurdish Syrian journalism student. He took photographs of a pro-Kurdish event.He received a three-year prison sentence. Hamid was held in solitary confinement in Adra Prison for one year from 2003–04 before he was allowed monthly visits, and Human Rights Watch said that...

     (Syria),
  • 2006: Guillermo Fariñas
    Guillermo Fariñas
    Guillermo Fariñas Hernández is a Cuban doctor of psychology, independent journalist and political dissident in Cuba. He has conducted 23 hunger strikes over the years to protest various elements of the Cuban regime. He has stated that he is ready to die in the struggle against censorship in...

     (Cuba),
  • 2007: Kareem Amer, Egyptian blogger,
  • 2008: Zarganar and Nay Phone Latt, two Burmese bloggers,

Worldwide Press Freedom Index


RWB compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization's assessment of their press freedom records. Small countries, such as Andorra
Andorra
Andorra , officially the Principality of Andorra , also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra, , is a small landlocked country in southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France. It is the sixth smallest nation in Europe having an area of...

, are excluded from this report.

The report is based on a questionnaire sent to partner organizations of Reporters Without Borders (14 freedom of expression groups in five continents) and its 130 correspondents around the world, as well as to journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists.

The survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press. RWB is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom, and does not measure the quality of journalism. Due to the nature of the survey's methodology based on individual perceptions, there are often wide contrasts in a country's ranking from year to year.

Robert Ménard on the ethics of torture


In an interview with France Culture
France Culture
France Culture is a French public radio channel and part of Radio France. Its programming encompasses a wide variety of features on historical, philosophical, sociopolitical, and scientific themes , as well as literary readings, radio plays, and experimental productions...

 in 2007, whilst speaking about the case of the kidnapped journalist Daniel Pearl
Daniel Pearl
Daniel Pearl was an American journalist who was kidnapped and killed by Al-Qaeda.At the time of his kidnapping, Pearl served as the South Asia Bureau Chief of the Wall Street Journal, and was based in Mumbai, India. He went to Pakistan as part of an investigation into the alleged links between...

, RWB president Robert Ménard
Robert Ménard
Robert Ménard is one of the founders and the former secretary-general of the Paris-based international NGO Reporters Sans Frontières....

 discussed the ethics of torture
Torture
Torture is the act of inflicting severe pain as a means of punishment, revenge, forcing information or a confession, or simply as an act of cruelty. Throughout history, torture has often been used as a method of political re-education, interrogation, punishment, and coercion...

.
Menard told France Culture:
Mr. Robert Ménard, secretary general of the RSF for twenty years, has confirmed receiving funding from the National Endowment for Democracy
National Endowment for Democracy
The National Endowment for Democracy, or NED, is a U.S. non-profit organization that was founded in 1983 to promote US-friendly democracy by providing cash grants funded primarily through an annual allocation from the U.S. Congress...

 (NED), an organization that has been accused of using American taxpayer dollars to subvert democracy abroad.

Western intelligence agencies


An article by John Cherian in the leftist Indian magazine Frontline
Frontline (magazine)
Frontline is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India. Narasimhan Ram is the editor-in-chief of the magazine. As a current affairs magazine, it covers domestic and International news. Frontline gives a prominent place to various...

alleged that RWB "is reputed to have strong links with Western intelligence agencies" and "Cuba has accused Robert Meynard [sic] the head of the group, of having CIA links". The organization has denied the allegation made by Cuba.

Otto Reich


Lucie Morillon, RWB's Washington representative, confirmed in an interview on 29 April 2005 that the organization has a contract with US State Department's Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich
Otto Reich
Otto Juan Reich , a Cuban-American, is former senior official in the administrations of Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush...

, who signed it in his capacity as a trustee for the Center for a Free Cuba
Center for a Free Cuba
The Center for a Free Cuba is a Washington, DC-based Cuban democracy organization. It states that it is "is an independent, non-partisan institution dedicated to promoting human rights and a transition to democracy and the rule of law on the island...

, to inform Europeans about the repression of journalists in Cuba.

Critics of RWB, such as CounterPunch
Counterpunch
Counterpunch can refer to:* Counterpunch , a punch in boxing* CounterPunch, a bi-weekly political newsletter* Counterpunch , a type of punch used in traditional typography* Punch-Counterpunch, a Transformers character...

, have cited Reich's involvement with the group as a source of controversy: when Reich headed the Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

 administration's Office of Public Diplomacy
Office of Public Diplomacy
The Office of Public Diplomacy for Latin America and the Caribbean was an intra-agency propaganda organization established in the United States during the administration of Ronald Reagan...

 in the 1980s, the body partook in what its officials termed "White Propaganda" – covert dissemination of information to influence domestic opinion regarding US backing for military campaigns against Left-wing governments in Latin America. An investigation into the Office's activities by the US Comptroller-General
Comptroller General of the United States
The Comptroller General of the United States is the director of the Government Accountability Office , a legislative branch agency established by Congress in 1921 to ensure the fiscal and managerial accountability of the federal government...

 found that under Otto Reich it was engaged in "prohibited, covert propaganda activities ... beyond the range of acceptable agency public information activities".

In 2002, Reich was appointed to the visiting board of the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation
Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation
The Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation , formerly the United States Army School of the Americas is a United States Department of Defense educational and training facility at Fort Benning near Columbus, Georgia in the United States...

, which was formerly known as the School for the Americas, and described in 2004 by the LA Weekly
LA Weekly
LA Weekly is a free weekly tabloid-sized "alternative weekly" in Los Angeles, California. It was founded in 1978 by Editor/Publisher Jay Levin and a board of directors that included actor-producer Michael Douglas...

 as a "torture-teaching institution". According to Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Amnesty International is an international non-governmental organisation whose stated mission is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated."Following a publication of Peter Benenson's...

, the School in the past has produced training manuals which advocated torture, blackmail, beatings and executions.

Reacting to Otto Reich's appointment to the visiting board, School of the Americas Watch
School of the Americas Watch
School of the Americas Watch is an advocacy organization founded by Maryknoll Father Roy Bourgeois and a small group of supporters in 1990 to protest the training of mainly Latin American military officers, by the United States Department of Defense, at the School of the Americas...

 said, "Reich on a board charged with monitoring the human rights integrity of an institution as notorious as this one is like the fox guarding the henhouse. His appointment to this position exposes the rubber-stamp character and hypocritical function of such a board...The underlying objective of both the school and Mr. Reich is to continue to control the economic and political systems of Latin America by training and arming Latin American militaries."

According to critics, Reich has a "Stalinist-type contempt for press freedom". In the 1980s, it is alleged that he conducted sex smears against journalists critical of the Contra rebel group in Nicaragua. Reich himself has joked about his attitude to criticism – in 2002 in mock indignation he joked that opponents had "said that I can't make rational decisions because of my ideology. Well, they are not saying that anymore, because I had them all arrested this morning."

Cuba


RWB has been highly critical of press freedom in Cuba, describing the Cuban government as "totalitarian
Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism is a political system where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible...

" and engages in direct campaigning
Opposition to Fidel Castro
The Cuban dissident movement is a political movement in Cuba whose aim is "to replace the current regime with a more democratic form of government". According to Human Rights Watch, the Cuban government represses nearly all forms of political dissent....

 against it. RWB's campaign includes declarations on radio and television, full-page ads in Parisian dailies, posters, leafletting at airports, and an April 2003 occupation of the Cuban tourism office in Paris. A Paris court (tribunal de grande instance) ordered RWB to pay 6,000 Euros to the daughter and heir of Alberto Korda
Alberto Korda
Alberto Díaz Gutiérrez, better known as Alberto Korda or simply Korda was a Cuban photographer, remembered for his famous image Guerrillero Heroico of Argentine Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara.-Early life:Korda, whose real name was Alberto Díaz Gutiérrez, was born on 14 September 1928 in...

 for non-compliance with a court order of 9 July 2003 banning it from using Korda's famous (and copyright
Copyright
Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time...

ed) photograph of Ernesto "Che" Guevara in a beret, taken at the funeral of La Coubre victims. RWB said it was "relieved" it was not given a harsher sentence. The face had been superimposed by RSF with that of a May 1968 CRS
Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité
The Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité are the riot control forces and general reserve of the French National Police. The CRS were created on 8 December 1944 and the first units were organised by 31 January 1945. The CRS were reorganized in 1948...

 anti-riot police agent, and the postcard handed out at Orly Airport
Orly Airport
Paris-Orly Airport is an airport located partially in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, south of Paris, France. It has flights to cities in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Caribbean, North America and Southeast Asia. Prior to the construction of Charles de Gaulle Airport, Orly was...

 in Paris to tourists boarding on flights for Cuba. Korda's daughter declared to Granma
Granma (newspaper)
Granma is the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party.Its name comes from the yacht Granma that carried Fidel Castro and 81 other rebels to Cuba's shores in 1956 launching the Cuban Revolution.-Editions:...

that "Reporters Without Borders should call themselves Reporters Without Principles." Led by Robert Ménard, RWB also burst into the Cuban Tourism Office in Paris on 4 April 2003, obstructing the running of the office for nearly four hours. On April 24, 2003, RWB organized a demonstration outside the Cuban embassy in Paris.

RWB in turn has been described as an "ultra-reactionary" organization by the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party, Granma
Granma (newspaper)
Granma is the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party.Its name comes from the yacht Granma that carried Fidel Castro and 81 other rebels to Cuba's shores in 1956 launching the Cuban Revolution.-Editions:...

. Tensions between Cuban authorities and RWB are high, particularly after the imprisonment in 2003 of 75 dissidents (27 journalists) by the Cuban Government, including Raúl Rivero
Raúl Rivero
Raúl Rivero Castañeda is a Cuban poet, journalist, and dissident. Rivero was born in 1945 in Morón, Camagüey, in central Cuba.In his youth, he was an ardent follower of Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution. He was among the first generation of journalists to graduate after the triumph of the...

 and Óscar Elías Biscet
Oscar Elías Biscet
Óscar Elías Biscet González , is a Cuban medical professional and a noted advocate for human rights and democratic freedoms in Cuba. He is also the founder of the Lawton Foundation....

.

RWB has denied that its campaigning on Cuba are related to payments it has received from anti-Castro organisations. In 2004, it received $50,000 from the Miami based exile group, the Center for a Free Cuba
Center for a Free Cuba
The Center for a Free Cuba is a Washington, DC-based Cuban democracy organization. It states that it is "is an independent, non-partisan institution dedicated to promoting human rights and a transition to democracy and the rule of law on the island...

, which was personally signed by the US State Department's Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich
Otto Reich
Otto Juan Reich , a Cuban-American, is former senior official in the administrations of Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush...

. RWB has also received extensive funding from other institutions long critical of Fidel Castro's government, including the International Republican Institute
International Republican Institute
Founded in 1983, the International Republican Institute is an organization, funded by the United States government, that conducts international political programs, sometimes labeled 'democratization programs'....

.

Salim Lamrani, a pro-Castro journalist, has accused Reporters Without Borders with making unsupported and contradictory statements regarding Internet connectivity in Cuba.

Haiti


In 2004, Reporters Without Borders released an annual report on Haiti, claiming that a "climate of terror" existed in which attacks and threats persisted against those journalists who were critical of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

CounterPunch
Counterpunch
Counterpunch can refer to:* Counterpunch , a punch in boxing* CounterPunch, a bi-weekly political newsletter* Counterpunch , a type of punch used in traditional typography* Punch-Counterpunch, a Transformers character...

 reported:

An American reporter on human rights, Kevin Pina
Kevin Pina
Kevin Pina is an American journalist and filmmaker. He is known for his reporting that focused on human rights abuses in Haiti following the ouster of Jean-Bertrand Aristide on February 29, 2004 and the installation of the interim government of Gerard Latortue and Boniface Alexandre in March 2004...

, who was imprisoned under Gérard Latortue's rule, said of RSF:

Venezuela


Le Monde diplomatique
Le Monde diplomatique
Le Monde diplomatique is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. It was first created mainly for a diplomatic audience as its name implies...

has criticized RWB's attitude towards Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías is the 56th and current President of Venezuela, having held that position since 1999. He was formerly the leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when he became the leader of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela...

's government in Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

, in particular during the 2002 coup attempt. In a right of reply
Right of reply
The right of reply is the right to defend oneself against public criticism in the same venue where it was published.In Europe there have been proposals for a legally enforceable right of reply that applies to all media, including newspapers, magazines, and other print media, along with radio,...

, Robert Ménard declared that RWB had also condemned the support of Venezuela media to the coup attempt. RWB has also been criticized for supporting Globovision
Globovisión
Globovisión is a 24-hour television news network in Venezuela. It broadcasts over-the-air in Caracas, Aragua, Carabobo and Zulia on UHF channel 33. Globovisión is seen in the rest of Venezuela on cable or satellite and worldwide from their website...

's version of events about its false reporting in relation to a 2009 earthquake, claiming Globovision was "being hounded by the government and the administration."

France


According to Observatoire de l'Action Humanitaire (Centre for Humanitarian Action), ever since Robert Menard was replaced by Jean-François Julliard in September 2008, RSF has been concerned with violations of press freedom not only in third-world dictatorships but also in developed countries like France. Through widening its geographical scope, RSF aims at countering accusations of overly focusing on left-wing regimes unfriendly to the US.

UNESCO withdraws support for International Online Free Expression Day


UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

, who initially had granted patronage to the first International Online Free Expression Day to be held on March 12, 2008, withdrew its patronage on the day of the event giving as reasons that RWB "published material concerning a number of UNESCO's Member States, which UNESCO had not been informed of and could not endorse" and that "UNESCO's logo was placed in such a way as to indicate the Organization's support of the information presented." RWB responded in a press release that “UNESCO has withdrawn its support to the promotion of this campaign because several of the Nations which are part of the list of Internet Enemies published by the nongovernmental organization have directly put pressure to achieve it.”

See also


  • Avocats Sans Frontières
    Avocats Sans Frontières
    Avocats Sans Frontières , also known as Advocaten Zonder Grenzen is an international non-governmental organization contributing to the creation of fair and equitable societies, in which the law and its institutions serve the most vulnerable groups and individuals...

  • Censorship
    Censorship
    thumb|[[Book burning]] following the [[1973 Chilean coup d'état|1973 coup]] that installed the [[Military government of Chile |Pinochet regime]] in Chile...

  • Chilling effect
  • Committee to Protect Journalists
    Committee to Protect Journalists
    The Committee to Protect Journalists is an independent nonprofit organisation based in New York City that promotes press freedom and defends the rights of journalists.-History:A group of U.S...

  • Concerns and controversies over the 2008 Summer Olympics
  • Cyber-dissident
    Cyber-dissident
    A cyber-dissident is a professional journalist, an activist or citizen journalist who posts news, information, or commentary on the internet that implies criticism of a government or regime....

  • Freedom of the press
    Freedom of the press
    Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through vehicles including various electronic media and published materials...

  • Freedom of Speech
    Freedom of speech
    Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without censorship. The term freedom of expression is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used...

  • Internet censorship
    Internet censorship
    Internet censorship is the control or suppression of the publishing of, or access to information on the Internet. It may be carried out by governments or by private organizations either at the behest of government or on their own initiative...

  • Internet censorship by country
    Internet censorship by country
    Internet censorship by country provides information on the types and levels of Internet censorship or filtering that is occurring in countries around the world. -Classifications:...

  • Internet freedom
  • List of European countries by press freedom index
  • List of indices of freedom
  • List of Without Borders organizations
  • Media transparency
    Media transparency
    Media transparency is the concept of determining how and why information is conveyed through various means.As used in the humanities,the topic of media transparency implies openness and accountability...

  • Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe statistics
    Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe statistics
    1 These countries are currently not participating in the EU's single market , but the EU has common external Customs Union agreements with Turkey , Andorra and San Marino . Monaco participates in the EU customs union through its relationship with France; its ports are administered by the French...

  • Political repression of cyber-dissidents
    Political repression of cyber-dissidents
    Political repression of cyber-dissidents is the oppression or persecution of people for expressing their political views in the Internet.Along with development of the Internet, state authorities in many parts of the world are moving forward to install mass surveillance of the electronic...

  • Technology diffusion

External links