Rehbar-I

Rehbar-I

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Rehbar-I or Rehbar-1 was a family member of Pakistan's space launch vehicles, Rehbar Sounding Rocket Program. Rehbar-I was the first rocket launched into outer space
Outer space
Outer space is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth. It is not completely empty, but consists of a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles: predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, and neutrinos....

 by the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
The Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission , is an executive agency of the Government of Pakistan, responsible for nation's public and civil space program and aeronautics and aerospace research...

 (SUPARCO). Rehbar-I was the Solid fuel
Solid fuel
Solid fuel refers to various types of solid material that are used as fuel to produce energy and provide heating, usually released through combustion....

 rocket with a combination of 2 different rocket stages.

Various Rehbar Sounding rocket models were launched 200 times between 1961 and 1972. There were only 2 rocket launches of Rehbar XXIII and Rehbar XXIV with a Nike-Cajun launch vehicle, all in April 1972. The Rehbar Sounding Rockets are no longer in services of SUPARCO. Rehbar is an Urdu Language word which literary means "Teller of the way".

Description


It was a two stage solid-fuel rocket consisting of a Nike-Cajun
Nike-Cajun
The Nike-Cajun was a two-stage sounding rocket built by combining a Nike base stage with a Cajun upper stage. It was launched 714 times between 1956 and 1976 and was the most frequently used sounding rocket of the western world...

 combination (which was earlier developed by NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

). It was launched from the Sonmiani Satellite Launch Center on June 7, 1961. It was dr. Abdus Salam
Abdus Salam
Mohammad Abdus Salam, NI, SPk Mohammad Abdus Salam, NI, SPk Mohammad Abdus Salam, NI, SPk (Urdu: محمد عبد السلام, pronounced , (January 29, 1926– November 21, 1996) was a Pakistani theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his work on the electroweak unification of the...

's effort and ideas that United States Government  trained and educated Pakistani scientists in the field of rocket technology. Later, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 also cooperated with SUPARCO till 1970.

The project was started in early 1961 by SUPARCO's engineer with the cooperation of NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

's engineers. The primary goal was to develop the technology needed to launch satellites.

Design


The project director
Project manager
A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution, and closing of any project, typically relating to construction industry, architecture, computer networking, telecommunications or software...

 of the Rehbar Rocket Program, was Air Force
Pakistan Air Force
The Pakistan Air Force is the leading air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport...

's aeronautical engineer Air Commodore
Air Commodore
Air commodore is an air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force...

 dr. W. J. M. Turowicz. Air Cdre. W.J.M. Turowicz indigeniously designed and developed the rehbar rocket program during the 1960s; it was under his leadership the Rehbar-I was fired into the outer space. The Rehbar-I successful launch carried a payload of 80 pounds
Pound (mass)
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the Imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement...

 of sodium
Sodium
Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

 and it streaked up about 130 km into the atmosphere
Atmosphere
An atmosphere is a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass, and that is held in place by the gravity of the body. An atmosphere may be retained for a longer duration, if the gravity is high and the atmosphere's temperature is low...

. The Rehbar-I was a two-stage rocket with all solid-propellant motors. The first launch of the Rehbar-I took place in Sonmiani
Sonmiani
Sonmiani is a coastal town in the southeast of Balochistan province in Pakistan, approximately 145 kilometres northwest of Karachi. The coast of Sonmiani is the northernmost point of the Arabian Sea. The town also serves as a Union Council of Hub Tehsil. Sonmiani is noted for its space research...

 on June 7, 1961.

Achievements


The Rehbar Rocket Series was an experiemental rocket program which later in future played an important role in Pakistan's development of missile program. Throughout the 1960s till early 1970s, the SUPARCO launched more than 200 rockets using the different payloads of a experimental satellite. With the launching of Rehbar-1, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 became the third country in Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, first country in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

, and the tenth in the world
World
World is a common name for the whole of human civilization, specifically human experience, history, or the human condition in general, worldwide, i.e. anywhere on Earth....

 in carrying out such a launch. It was followed by the successful launch of the Rehbar-II in 1962. The last launch of the Rehbar Rocket Program took place on April 8, 1972. The Rehbar Program formed the basis of the Hatf Ballistic Missiles.

Launch log

Version Date of Launch Launch Location Launch Pad Payload Mission Status
1 Nike Cajun Rehbar-I 07 June 1961 SSLC, Sonmiani Beach
Sonmiani Beach
Sonmiani Beach is a beach located in the Lasbela District of the Balochistan state of Pakistan. It is located in Sonmiani Bay. The beach is a two-hour drive from Karachi and is very popular amongst tourists....

1 Rehbar-1A Experimental Technology mission, 80 kg of Sodium
Sodium
Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

Successful, developmental Flight.
2 Nike Cajune Rehbar-II 11 June 1962 SSLC, Sonmiani Beach
Sonmiani Beach
Sonmiani Beach is a beach located in the Lasbela District of the Balochistan state of Pakistan. It is located in Sonmiani Bay. The beach is a two-hour drive from Karachi and is very popular amongst tourists....

1 Rehbar-2B RS-1 Experimental Technology mission, 130 Kg Success, Developmental Flight with a small pay load of small weather satellite
Weather satellite
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth. Satellites can be either polar orbiting, seeing the same swath of the Earth every 12 hours, or geostationary, hovering over the same spot on Earth by orbiting over the equator while...

.
23 Nike Cajun Rehbar- XXIII 27 March 1970 SSLC, Sonmiani Beach
Sonmiani Beach
Sonmiani Beach is a beach located in the Lasbela District of the Balochistan state of Pakistan. It is located in Sonmiani Bay. The beach is a two-hour drive from Karachi and is very popular amongst tourists....

1 Rehbar-23 RS-1 Experimental Rocket Technology mission, 38 kg Successful, Developmental Flight.
24 Nike Cajun Rehbar- IIIV 28 March 1971 SSLC, Sonmiani Beach
Sonmiani Beach
Sonmiani Beach is a beach located in the Lasbela District of the Balochistan state of Pakistan. It is located in Sonmiani Bay. The beach is a two-hour drive from Karachi and is very popular amongst tourists....

1 Rehbar-24 Nike Cajune Experimental Rocket Technology mission, 141.5 kg Success, Developmental Flight.

See also

  • Nike Cajun
  • Judi-Dart
    Judi-Dart
    The Judi-Dart is a United States sounding rocket. The Judi-Dart was launched 89 times between 1964 and 1970. The Judi-Dart has a length of 2.70 metres, a dimetre of 0.08 metres, a maximum flight altitude of 65 kilometres and a launch thrust of 9000 newtons....

  • Satellite Launch Vehicle
    Satellite Launch Vehicle
    The Indian Satellite Launch Vehicle or SLV was a project started in the early 1970s by Indian Space Research Organisation to develop the technology needed to launch satellites. The project was headed by Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. SLV was intended to reach a height of 400 km and carry a payload of...

  • SUPARCO
  • Chronology of Pakistan's rocket tests
    Chronology of Pakistan's rocket tests
    These are tables showing all the tests of rockets that have been carried out in Pakistan since the early 1960s. Note that at the bottom of the list, some of the recent ballistic missile tests have also been mentioned.-June 7, 1962 - April 28, 1972:...

  • Solid-fuel rocket