aims to handle time-series
In statistics, signal processing, econometrics and mathematical finance, a time series is a sequence of data points, measured typically at successive times spaced at uniform time intervals. Examples of time series are the daily closing value of the Dow Jones index or the annual flow volume of the...
data like network
A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information....
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The central processing unit is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. The CPU plays a role somewhat analogous to the brain in the computer. The term has been in...
load, etc. The data are stored in a round-robin
The term round-robin was originally used to describe a document signed by multiple parties in a circle to make it more difficult to determine the order in which it was signed, thus preventing a ringleader from being identified...
A database is an organized collection of data for one or more purposes, usually in digital form. The data are typically organized to model relevant aspects of reality , in a way that supports processes requiring this information...
A circular buffer, cyclic buffer or ring buffer is a data structure that uses a single, fixed-size buffer as if it were connected end-to-end.This structure lends itself easily to buffering data streams.-Uses:...
), thus the system storage footprint remains constant over time.
It also includes tools to extract RRD
data in a graphical format.
Tobi Oetiker wrote RRDtool as a solution to store and graph the time series data points of his MRTG
The Multi Router Traffic Grapher, or just simply MRTG, is free software for monitoring and measuring the traffic load on network links. It allows the user to see traffic load on a network over time in graphical form....
and licenses it as free software
Free software, software libre or libre software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions that only ensure that further recipients can also do...
under the terms of the GNU General Public License
The GNU General Public License is the most widely used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU Project....
Bindings exist for Perl
Perl is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions and become widely popular...
Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability. Python claims to "[combine] remarkable power with very clear syntax", and its standard library is large and comprehensive...
Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, general-purpose object-oriented programming language that combines syntax inspired by Perl with Smalltalk-like features. Ruby originated in Japan during the mid-1990s and was first developed and designed by Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto...
Tcl is a scripting language created by John Ousterhout. Originally "born out of frustration", according to the author, with programmers devising their own languages intended to be embedded into applications, Tcl gained acceptance on its own...
PHP is a general-purpose server-side scripting language originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document...
and Lua. Two independent full Java
Java is a programming language originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++ but has a simpler object model and fewer low-level facilities...
implementations exist : rrd4j
RRD4J is a high performance data logging and graphing system for time series data, implementing RRDTool's functionality in Java. It follows much of the same logic and uses the same data sources, archive types and definitions as RRDTool does....
General data storage
RRDtool assumes time-variable data in intervals of a certain length. This interval, usually named step
, is specified upon creation of an RRD file and cannot be changed afterwards. Because data may not always be available at just the right time, RRDtool will automatically interpolate any submitted data to fit its internal time-steps.
The value for a specific step, that has been interpolated, is named a primary data point (PDP
). Multiple PDPs may be consolidated according to a consolidation function (CF
) to form a consolidated data point (CDP
). Typical consolidation functions are average
In mathematics, an average, or central tendency of a data set is a measure of the "middle" value of the data set. Average is one form of central tendency. Not all central tendencies should be considered definitions of average....
, minimum, maximum.
After the data have been consolidated, the resulting CDP is stored in a round-robin archive (RRA
). A round-robin archive stores a fixed number of CDPs and specifies how many PDPs should be consolidated into one CDP and which CF to use. The total time covered by an RRA can be calculated as follows:
time covered = (#CDPs stored) * (#PDPs per CDP) * steps
After this time the archive will "wrap around": the next insertion will overwrite the oldest entry. This behavior is sometimes referred to as "round-robin" and is the reason for the program's name.
To cover several timespans and/or use several consolidation functions, an RRD file may contain multiple RRAs. The data retrieval function of RRDtool automatically selects the archive with the highest resolution that still covers the requested timespan. This mechanism is also used by RRDtool's graphing subsystem.
| Colour || Meaning
|| Release no longer supported
|| Release still supported
|| Future release
RRDTool is sponsored since 1.2, each release comes with a list of sponsors.
The following table contains the release history of RRDtool
, showing its major releases.
| Version number
|| Notable changes
|| July 16, 1999
|| Full release notes, Announce
|| First release. Basically MRTG "done right".
|| April 25, 2005
|| Full release notes, Announce
|| libart; output EPS, PDF & SVG; VDEF; trends; percentiles; updatev; Holt-Winters Forecasting; COMPUTE; .rrd format change.
|| June 11, 2008
|| Full release notes, Announce
|| Safer & faster file access; cairo/pango; anti-aliasing; TEXTALIGN; dashed lines; new HWPREDICT; libxml; i18n; XML dump;
|| October 27, 2009
|| Full release notes, Announce
|| Caching daemon; VDEF PERCENTNAN; CDEF PREDICT & PREDICTSIGMA; libDBI; graph legends positioning; Lua bindings; 3D border width; and more ...
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- RRD Editor
RRD Editor is a GUI based application that provides access to archived RRDtoolRRDtool is a data logging and graphing database by Swiss software developer Tobi Oetiker. data.-Features:...