In Christian eschatology
Christian eschatology is a major branch of study within Christian theology. Eschatology, from two Greek words meaning last and study , is the study of the end of things, whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, or the end of the world...
, the Post-Tribulation Rapture doctrine
Doctrine is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system...
is the belief in a combined Resurrection
Resurrection of the Dead is a belief found in a number of eschatologies, most commonly in Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian. In general, the phrase refers to a specific event in the future; multiple prophesies in the histories of these religions assert that the dead will be brought back to...
The rapture is a reference to the "being caught up" referred to in 1 Thessalonians 4:17, when the "dead in Christ" and "we who are alive and remain" will be caught up in the clouds to meet "the Lord"....
) of all believers coming after the Great Tribulation
The Great Tribulation refers to tumultuous events that are described during the "signs of the times", first mentioned by Jesus in the Olivet discourse...
Doctrine and implications
This doctrine holds that there is a Resurrection-Rapture of living believers in Jesus Christ at the end of the age (or the "End time"). Post-tribulationists believe that Christians will remain on the Earth through the three and a half year great tribulation period. This period starts at the Abomination of Desolation
The abomination of desolation is a term found in the Hebrew Bible, in the book of Daniel. It also occurs in the book of 1 Maccabees and in the New Testament gospels....
and ends at the Battle of Armageddon. They will be gathered by the angels to meet Christ in the air (raptured) at Christ's second coming immediately after the great tribulation just before the battle of Armageddon and then return with Him as Christ descends to the Earth, to usher in the Millennium
Millennialism , or chiliasm in Greek, is a belief held by some Christian denominations that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth in which "Christ will reign" for 1000 years prior to the final judgment and future eternal state...
(World to Come
The World to Come is an eschatological phrase reflecting the belief that the "current world" is flawed or cursed and will be replaced in the future by a better world or a paradise. The concept is similar to the concepts of Heaven and the afterlife, but Heaven is another place generally seen as...
) on earth. This is usually understood as being in line with historic premillennialism
Historic premillennialism is the polemical designation which could be more objectively called post-tribulational premillennialism. The use of the term "historic" implies that this point of view is the historical view of premillennialists, while pre-tribulationism is a new theory...
| Matthew 24:29-31 ASV
|| 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 ASV
| 29But immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: 30and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31And he shall send forth his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
|| 15For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we that are alive, that are left unto the coming of the Lord, shall in no wise precede them that are fallen asleep. 16For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven, with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first; 17then we that are alive, that are left, shall together with them be caught up in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.
For additional references, see also the parallel passages from Mark 13:24-27 and Luke 21:20-28. While the passages in Luke 21 parallels Matthew and Mark, it offers a couple of interesting clarifications. This passage in Luke offers interesting references to some of the major events which are greatly elaborated on in the Book of Revelation. Reading all three Books of the Bible in parallel, it would appear that Luke elaborates on the "abomination of desolation" describing Jerusalem being surrounded by the armies of the world and of Jerusalem's imminent destruction (Luke 21:20).
Another account which lends support to the idea of a post-tribulation rapture is in 2 Peter 3:10-13, where the idea of the "Day of the Lord" coming as a "thief in the night" comes from. This idea of imminence, according to the post-tribulation view, only applies to the wicked and the spiritually unprepared people that are still alive before the Return of Christ. Therefore, only God's elect (Christians) will fully have a clear understanding of the timing of the second coming, and therefore Christ's coming will not catch the believers by surprise, but only those who are spiritually ignorant regarding the truth. In the passage of 2 Peter 3:10-13, Christ's return is equated with the "elements being melted", and "the earth also and the works therein shall be burned up". Opposing views are not non-existent within the realm of Christian Eschatology. Two opposing views, pre-tribulationism and mid-tribulationism, see the rapture and the Second Coming (or Greek
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...
) of Christ as separate events; while in post-tribulationism the two events are identical or simultaneous.
Another key difference between the pre-, mid-, and post-tribulation lines of theology is the number of times that Jesus Christ must return. Although it is not directly referenced, in both the pre- and mid-tribulation raptures, Christ must then return a third time, at the end of the Tribulation period.
The belief is that God's Elect from all ages will be translated from mortal bodies into immortal glorified bodies at the Second Coming
In Christian doctrine, the Second Coming of Christ, the Second Advent, or the Parousia, is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven, where he sits at the Right Hand of God, to Earth. This prophecy is found in the canonical gospels and in most Christian and Islamic eschatologies...
of Christ and that this will be at the end of the age. This event, it is believed, will come at the conclusion of what is termed the 70th Week of Daniel, the final seven years of this present age. This view was held by the early Church Fathers and has been held by Christians since that time. The doctrine of the Post-Tribulation Rapture is today held by a growing number of evangelical Christians
Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement which began in Great Britain in the 1730s and gained popularity in the United States during the series of Great Awakenings of the 18th and 19th century.Its key commitments are:...
. For Post-Tribulationists concerned about the recent decline of Christian faith, doctrine, and morals in the western church, an important reason to advance the Post-Tribulation Rapture doctrine relates to the importance of preparation of believers for "witness under trial".
The "witness under trial" issue was of major concern to evangelist Corrie Ten Boom
Cornelia "Corrie" ten Boom was a Dutch Christian, who with her father and other family members helped many Jews escape the Nazi Holocaust during World War II. Her family was arrested due to an informant in 1944, and her father died 10 days later at Scheveningen prison where they were first held...
, whose family suffered in Nazi prison camps during World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...
for the crime of protecting Jews. Corrie Ten Boom preached that the Pre-Tribulation Rapture would leave the Christian church ill-prepared for witness under persecution, just as it had in China when Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung , and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao , was a Chinese Communist revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution...
rose to power, and warned that Pre-Tribulationism was the sort of false doctrine that Jesus warned about.
Another idea is that following the Great Tribulation, the False Prophet, or "The Beast out of the Earth" and the Antichrist
The term or title antichrist, in Christian theology, refers to a leader who fulfills Biblical prophecies concerning an adversary of Christ, while resembling him in a deceptive manner...
or "The Beast out of the Sea" will be condemned upon Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...
Christ's return, and all those who endured or died for Christ
Christ is the English term for the Greek meaning "the anointed one". It is a translation of the Hebrew , usually transliterated into English as Messiah or Mashiach...
's return will be raptured to heaven and, following the Millennium, Satan will be condemned and the remaining dead believers will be raised and raptured into the new heaven.
Post-tribulationists broadly base their doctrine on the complementary concepts that a two phase pre-Tribulation rapture is never mentioned explicitly in the Bible, and that the "whole counsel of Scripture" seems to clearly teach that the resurrection and rapture of the Church will be the result of the visible, physical Second Coming of Jesus Christ to Earth and that Christians are to look and watch for that event.
and both mention the same actors (Jesus, his angels) and the same events (Jesus coming, the trumpet of God, and the gathering of the elect) in the same order. The latter passage written by the Apostle Paul is seen as being based on the former because of the usage of "by the word of the Lord" in verse 15 and that they are talking about the same event, but the first passage is explicitly dated "after the Tribulation", and the second is where we get the term Rapture
Contrasting opinion maintains that the passages are not talking about the same event despite some similarities because of details that are absent between the two passages and that the rapture event was a "mystery" until it was revealed in First Corinthians which the Thessalonian recipients would have been unaware of.
Post-Tribulationists respond to the opposing views of Pre-Tribulationists in a variety of ways:
Some Post-tribulationalists see the Rapture and the Second Coming of Christ as part of one main event. Support for this claim is found in 2 Thessalonians 2:1-3 in part because of the way the Apostle Paul introduces his topic, "Now concerning
the coming of our Lord and our gathering together with him." This was an ancient way of introducing your topic of discussion and later Paul refers back to the two nouns at least twice as "the Day of the Lord" or "that day." Thus, "the coming" and "gathering" seem to be two ways of referring to one event, "the day of the Lord."
It seems impractical for Paul to go to great lengths describing the coming of the Antichrist (and the falling away) to the Thessalonians in order to calm them down that the day of Christ's reign on earth had not happened yet if they were not going to be there for it as maintained by the pre-tribulational position. He would be more comforting by reminding them that they wouldn't be present for it than to precisely detail his recognition and say "Don't let anyone deceive you in any way, for that day will not come until the rebellion occurs and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the man doomed to destruction".
The most common passage used in defending a pre-tribulational position is . This passage alone does not mention where the gathered ones finally end up but that those who are alive will be caught up to meet Christ in the air and always be with the Lord. Rather it mentions the dead rising, Christ's coming, angels, the trumpet of God along with the gathering of the elect and all of these participants are present in , which is clearly a Second Coming passage even agreed to by pre-tribulationalists. The author, the Apostle Paul says the Rapture will occur "at the last
trumpet". To be consistent with this trumpet call must occur after the Tribulation. In the same way, mentions the first
the Second Coming in . By definition, there can be no trumpet call after the last one, and no resurrection before the first.
Linguistic support for a one-event 2nd Coming are in the words "meet" and "coming" in . The meet
in and in (a Second Coming parable) refers to the custom of people going out to meet a dignitary as he was approaching their city before he got there, and accompanying or welcoming him back to where they came from. This is also the usage in of those going out to meet Paul as he headed toward them in Rome. Also, the Greek term parousia has the idea of a grand dignitary making his arrival to a certain location. The rest of the passage supports this grand arrival with His coming being heralded with trumpet, angels, and a surging 'city' of gathered believers going out to meet Him. Who more grand than the Lord Jesus Christ at His coming to reign on earth? This passage lends more weight to the post-tribulational position.
Another strength for this position is Paul saying when the church would receive rest for its suffering. It would take place at the revealing of Jesus Christ with fire and judgment and at this time those who were afflicting the church at Thessalonica would be repaid for such treatment. No mention is made of a Pre-tribulational removal but that rest comes at His Coming and so does judgment.
A passage much debated regarding the timing of the Rapture is , which speaks of the Philadelphian church being "kept from the hour of trial which is about to come upon the whole earth to test those who dwell on the earth." The debate centers around the phrase "kept from" which could be taken to mean "physical removal from" (Pre-trib) or "preservation from or in the midst of" (Post-trib). However it is interesting to note that the verse denotes that the testing is for "those who dwell on the earth." This is a common phrase referring to unbelievers. What we see later in Revelation, on at least 3 occasions, is that the saints are "sealed" and kept out of harm's way when God pours out specific judgments which only affect His unbelieving enemies.
Linguistic highlight the idea that Christians are preserved by God through tribulation rather than removed:
This passage is one of the most blunt verses, showing that Jesus himself did not want the Christians taken out of the world in order to protect them from evil but had the intention of preservation in the midst of it. This is a place where pre-tribulationism lacks linguistic favor because this verse and are the only places where the exact phrase tereo ek
translated from Greek into keep from
are found and that by the same author, the disciple John.
The pretribulational argument that there are 'two phases' to Christ's coming (a Rapture and a later Second Advent) runs into difficulties with , which nearly equates Christ's Ascension to heaven with his Second Coming. Logically, the Second Coming cannot have two phases if the Ascension only had one. This eliminates two phases of His Coming with a 7 year interval. Likewise, heaven must "receive" or contain Jesus "until the period of restoration of all things about which God spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets from ancient time". Most scholars see this "restoration of all things" as the one-thousand year reign of Christ on earth (as prophesied in the Old Testament) which begins just after the Second Advent. If Christ is to remain in heaven until this coming rule of His according to thess verses (see also Hebrews 9:27,28), it would seem the next main prophetic event would be the Second Coming rather than Him coming 7 years prior to get the church, bring them back to heaven, and then leaving heaven for earth again as the pre-tribulational rapture position indicates.
Pre-tribulational usage of can also be counter-balanced. In this eschatological scenario, explains what happens to the people that are "taken": the eagles gather together at their [dead] bodies. Do they eat them? "Taken" may also have the idea of judgment and that is referring to the unmistakable visual nature of the Second Coming. Even the disciples are warned not to believe reports that Christ has come if they have not seen it "for just as the lightning, when it flashes out of one part of the sky, shines to the other part of the sky, so will the Son of Man be in His day. Many take the fact that vultures hovering over a dead body is clearly visible from a great distance away to mean that the Second Coming will be clearly visible and will not be hidden. It seems that can be compared to , which reads that the fowls are invited to a feast—on the flesh of men, small and great, at the Lord's coming.
The Parable in explains that the unsaved (tares) are destroyed first
before the saved (wheat) are addressed. This parable describes what the kingdom of heaven is like and it uses agricultural metaphor to explain that believers and unbelievers will remain together until the harvest. When is the harvest? Well, when Jesus explains the parable. He says the harvest is the "end of the age" in verse 39. At that time he sends his angels to destroy the tares while the wheat (believers) remain and shine forth as the sun in His Father's kingdom. This seems to fit better with the Rapture and the Second Coming being one event rather than a time gap of 7 years.
, speaks of the "Day of the Lord" and that "in that Day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives." This exactly parallels the angel's statement in , "that as He left so shall He return." Tying this with , we see all the living and dead Christians are gathered to Jesus at that time. Going back to we read, "Then the LORD my God will come, and all the holy ones with him. " This inexorably links the return of Jesus to the glorification and "rapture" of Christians to Him.
In Jesus says to the faithful at Thyatira, "Nevertheless what you have, hold fast until I come." In other words, 'hold onto the truth of the Christian faith and its obedience amidst the false teaching of Jezebel and her sins, until My coming again.' Pre-trib commentators agree this could be talking about the Second Coming of Christ (John MacArthur, Robert L. Thomas). Would Jesus say hold on to the faith until I come again if they were not going to be there when he returned, but would have already been raptured? Expositor's Bible Commentary also makes this assertion.
They are to be patient amidst persecution until when? Until the coming (parousia) of the Lord. Parousia is well known to mean "presence" and refers to His second coming many times in the New Testament. Also notice that the farming analogy seems to indicate that the farmer is aware of the coming rains just as the believer is aware of coming end time events. For example Jesus warned "when you see these things begin to take place [end time signs in the sun, moon, and stars / world chaos], straighten up and lift up your heads, because your redemption is drawing near." This manner of expectancy is objected to on the grounds that it destroys the idea of Christ's rapture of the church being imminent, or able to occur at any moment. But imminent probably doesn't mean 'at any moment' in the New Testament. Many New Testament passages implicitly rule out an "any second" imminency (Matthew 24:45-51…25:5,19;Luke 19:11-27;John 21:18-19...Acts 9:15…). At the very least Apostles Peter and Paul could not have believed in this kind of imminency because Peter was told by Jesus what manner of death he was to die and that it would take place many years later. Jesus said, "Truly, truly, I say to you, when you were younger, you used to gird yourself, and walk wherever you wished; but when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands [be crucified], and someone else will gird you, and bring you where you do not wish to go." Could Peter think the Rapture was at any moment with this enduring prediction by Jesus? Also, it was told of Paul that he would bear Christ's name "before the Gentiles and kings and the sons of Israel" and that God would "show him how much he is to suffer for My name's sake." Does an any moment Rapture fit with such a massive missionary plan revealed by God for Paul's life which took decades to complete? Jesus encouraged the first disciples and all Christians, to look for certain events which would indicate His coming was "at the doors." This coupled with other passages like , seems to indicate moral watchfulness, waiting in expectancy, and sobriety ("be sober") and that the wrath of that day will overtake those in darkness (unbelievers) like a thief "but you, brethren, are not in darkness, that the day should overtake you like a thief." Thus a different concept of imminency emerges.
Jesus, speaking chronologically in the Olivet Discourse regarding end time events, goes from the escalation of troubling times beginning in the 1st century and the present age (highlighting the destruction of Jerusalem by Rome in A.D. 70) to the time of tribulation and then to His Second Coming without any mention of a prior removal of the church 7 or 3.5 years before it. One author sees Jesus as advocating a "delay" between the destruction of Jerusalem and His Second Advent. On the contrary, he states that "immediately after the tribulation of those days…they [the world] shall see the son of Man coming…and He shall send His angels, and they shall gather His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other." Therefore, Jesus seems to put the rapture just before his second coming or on his way to earth. The phrase "gathering together" describes the rapture in using the noun form of the same Greek word.
Paul says: "we who are alive and remain [on the earth]
until the coming of the Lord, shall not precede those who have fallen asleep[died]." Then he points out that the Lord's coming with angels and the trumpet call will invite those already dead in Christ to rise from the dead before the ones on earth participate in the event. Then Paul states: "Then we who are alive and remain [on earth]
shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and thus we shall always be with the Lord." Some commentators note that because Paul used the plural "we"
when referring to those who "are alive and remain[on earth]" indicates that Paul believed that he and all believers on earth might witness and be a part of the Second Coming of Christ from earth. This would indicate that he would be on earth just prior to the coming of the Lord and the Rapture. This is also the usage when he speaks of the same event saying: "We shall not all sleep [die],
but we shall all be changed
-in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we
shall be changed." This passage adds the fact that believers will receive glorified bodies which is missing from the Thessalonian passage]." If believers were raptured before the tribulation then why would Paul use "we" and consider himself with all Christians to possibly be those who would be "alive and remaining [on earth] until the coming of the Lord?" They wouldn't be alive and remaining on the earth at His coming in a pre-tribulational scenario but would already be with Jesus in clouds along with the other believers who had died in Christ.
Opposing doctrines include:
- Midtribulationists believe that the rapture of the faithful will occur halfway through the Tribulation, after it begins, and will endure the phase of the Tribulation which tests their faith, but that they will be removed before the last half occurs, because that three and one-half year period is manifestly dominated by the wrath of God falling on those who reject him, Supporters of this view often cite 1 Thessalonians 5.9, "For God has not destined us for wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ."
- Pretribulationists believe that all Christians then alive will be taken bodily up to Heaven (called the rapture) before the Tribulation begins. They often quote 2 Thessalonians 2:6-7 to support the idea that the Holy Spirit will be withdrawn as a stabilizing influence on secular society (Matt 5.13) through the removal of the Church. Those who become converts after the rapture will, like the Old Testament saints, not be indwelt by the Holy Spirit in the same sense as Christians are said to be today. They will live through (or perish during) the Tribulation. After the Tribulation, Christ will return. This relatively new doctrine has become the most widely accepted eschatological doctrine in the United States during the past century. It is commonly taught in the vast majority of evangelical churches to the exclusion of all others. (See Dispensationalism
Dispensationalism is a nineteenth-century evangelical development based on a futurist biblical hermeneutic that sees a series of chronologically successive "dispensations" or periods in history in which God relates to human beings in different ways under different Biblical covenants.As a system,...
for additional information about the origins and development of Pre-Tribulation Rapture theology.)
- Onarosophers believe the Rapture is largely an error of interpretation, unsupported by prophetic sources elsewhere. There is no physical reality which supports this conjecture which flies in the face of science and reality, and has been foisted on believers by preachers who fail to use or apply Numbers 12:6. A messiah will return, and is expected by Jews (they denied the last one), Christians, Muslims (Madhi), Hindus (Kalki), and Buddhists (Maitreya). It would help those supporting the errant views to realize that Jesus was voted to be God at the Council of Nicea, at the behest of Constantine. It would further help them if they knew that Messiah
A messiah is a redeemer figure expected or foretold in one form or another by a religion. Slightly more widely, a messiah is any redeemer figure. Messianic beliefs or theories generally relate to eschatological improvement of the state of humanity or the world, in other words the World to...
Christ is the English term for the Greek meaning "the anointed one". It is a translation of the Hebrew , usually transliterated into English as Messiah or Mashiach...
, Vate, shaman, and Babalawo
Babalawo is a Yorùbá chieftaincy title that denotes a Priest of Ifá. Ifa is a divination system that represents the teachings of the Orisha Orunmila, the Spirit of Wisdom, who in turn serves as the oracular representative of God...
are actually the same term or meaning originating from different languages.
Events and ideas
- 1 Maccabees
The First book of Maccabees is a book written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom, about the latter part of the 2nd century BC. The original Hebrew is lost and the most important surviving version is the Greek translation contained in the Septuagint...
- 2300 day prophecy
- Abomination of Desolation
The abomination of desolation is a term found in the Hebrew Bible, in the book of Daniel. It also occurs in the book of 1 Maccabees and in the New Testament gospels....
- Antiochus Epiphanes
An Apocalypse is a disclosure of something hidden from the majority of mankind in an era dominated by falsehood and misconception, i.e. the veil to be lifted. The Apocalypse of John is the Book of Revelation, the last book of the New Testament...
Apologetics is the discipline of defending a position through the systematic use of reason. Early Christian writers Apologetics (from Greek ἀπολογία, "speaking in defense") is the discipline of defending a position (often religious) through the systematic use of reason. Early Christian writers...
Armageddon is, according to the Bible, the site of a battle during the end times, variously interpreted as either a literal or symbolic location...
- Bible prophecy
Bible prophecy or biblical prophecy is the prediction of future events based on the action, function, or faculty of a prophet. Such passages are widely distributed throughout the Bible, but those most often cited are from Ezekiel, Daniel, Matthew 24, Matthew 25, and Revelation.Believers in biblical...
- Book of Daniel
The Book of Daniel is a book in the Hebrew Bible. The book tells of how Daniel, and his Judean companions, were inducted into Babylon during Jewish exile, and how their positions elevated in the court of Nebuchadnezzar. The court tales span events that occur during the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar,...
- Daniel Chapter 11
Daniel 11 is a chapter in the Book of Daniel. It describes a series of conflicts between various unidentified combatants typically labeled the King of the North and the King of the South. The narrative begins in Chapter 10 and concludes in Chapter 12....
- Daniel's Vision of Chapter 8
Daniel 8 is the eighth chapter of the Book of Daniel of the Hebrew Bible. This chapter concerns Daniel’s second vision. According to the text, Daniel received his vision in the third year of king Belshazzar. In his vision, he saw himself at Susa , the capital near the river Ulai...
- Day-year principle
The day-year principle, year-day principle or year-for-a-day principle is a method of interpretation of Bible prophecy in which the word day in apocalyptic prophecy is symbolic for a year of actual time. It is used principally by the historicist school of prophetic interpretation...
Exegesis is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, especially a religious text. Traditionally the term was used primarily for exegesis of the Bible; however, in contemporary usage it has broadened to mean a critical explanation of any text, and the term "Biblical exegesis" is used...
Futurism is a Christian eschatological view that interprets the Book of Revelation, the Book of Daniel, the Olivet discourse and the parable of the Sheep and the Goats as future events in a literal, physical, apocalyptic, and global context...
- Internal consistency of the Bible and Biblical inerrancy
Biblical inerrancy is the doctrinal position that the Bible is accurate and totally free of error, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact." Some equate inerrancy with infallibility; others do not.Conservative Christians generally believe that...
- Olivet discourse
The Olivet discourse or Olivet prophecy is a biblical passage found in the Synoptic Gospels of Mark 13, Matthew 24, Luke 21. It is known as the "Little Apocalypse" because it includes Jesus' descriptions of the end times, the use of apocalyptic language, and Jesus' warning to his followers that...
- Prophecy of Seventy Weeks
The Prophecy of Seventy Septets appears in the angel Gabriel's reply to Daniel, beginning with verse 22 and ending with verse 27 in the ninth chapter of the Book of Daniel, a work included in both the Jewish Tanakh and the Christian Bible; as well as the Septuagint...
- Siege of Jerusalem (70)
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD was the decisive event of the First Jewish-Roman War. The Roman army, led by the future Emperor Titus, with Tiberius Julius Alexander as his second-in-command, besieged and conquered the city of Jerusalem, which had been occupied by its Jewish defenders in...
- The Two Witnesses
- Whore of Babylon
The Whore of Babylon or "Babylon the great" is a Christian allegorical figure of evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible. Her full title is given as "Babylon the Great, the Mother of Prostitutes and Abominations of the Earth." -Symbolism:...
- Adolfo Ricardo Ybarra (outstanding post-tribulational Christian writer of Spanish language) , The Basis of the Post-tribulational Faith (http://www.docstoc.com/docs/91582190/Las-Bases-de-la-Fe-Postribulacional---Adolfo-Ricardo-Ybarra)
- Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo , also known as Augustine, St. Augustine, St. Austin, St. Augoustinos, Blessed Augustine, or St. Augustine the Blessed, was Bishop of Hippo Regius . He was a Latin-speaking philosopher and theologian who lived in the Roman Africa Province...
, The City of God, Chapter 23.
Barnabas , born Joseph, was an Early Christian, one of the earliest Christian disciples in Jerusalem. In terms of culture and background, he was a Hellenised Jew, specifically a Levite. Named an apostle in , he and Saint Paul undertook missionary journeys together and defended Gentile converts...
, The Epistle of Barnabas
The Epistle of Barnabas is a Greek epistle containing twenty-one chapters, preserved complete in the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus where it appears at the end of the New Testament...
, chapter 4
- Caecilius Cyprianus
Cyprian was bishop of Carthage and an important Early Christian writer, many of whose Latin works are extant. He was born around the beginning of the 3rd century in North Africa, perhaps at Carthage, where he received a classical education...
(Bishop of Carthage; Post-Tribulationist) [Treatise 7.2]
The Didache or The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles is a brief early Christian treatise, dated by most scholars to the late first or early 2nd century...
(speaks of Jesus gathering the elect after the Tribulation)
- Ephrem the Syrian
Ephrem the Syrian was a Syriac and a prolific Syriac-language hymnographer and theologian of the 4th century. He is venerated by Christians throughout the world, and especially in the Syriac Orthodox Church, as a saint.Ephrem wrote a wide variety of hymns, poems, and sermons in verse, as well as...
- George Müller
George Müller , a Christian evangelist and Director of the Ashley Down orphanage in Bristol, England, cared for 10,024 orphans in his life...
(19th Century Christian evangelist and orphanage coordinator)
- Greg Koukl
Gregory Koukl is a Christian, radio talk show host, author and speaker/teacher. He is the founder of Stand To Reason, a Christian organization dedicated to the articulation and defense of the Christian worldview.-Education:...
(Evangelical Radio Host, Apologist, Author and Speaker for Stand to Reason)
- Hermas, The Shepherd of Hermas
The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian literary work of the 1st or 2nd century, considered a valuable book by many Christians, and considered canonical scripture by some of the early Church fathers such as Irenaeus. The Shepherd had great authority in the 2nd and 3rd centuries...
Hippolytus of Rome was the most important 3rd-century theologian in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born. Photios I of Constantinople describes him in his Bibliotheca Hippolytus of Rome (170 – 235) was the most important 3rd-century theologian in the Christian Church in Rome,...
(Writer of the early Christian Church; Speaks of the Antichrist's reign and persecution of the Church )
Saint Irenaeus , was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, then a part of the Roman Empire . He was an early church father and apologist, and his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology...
(Post-Tribulationist; Disciple of Polycarp who was a disciple of John the apostle)
- John Charles Ryle
John Charles Ryle was the first Anglican bishop of Liverpool.-Life:Ryle was born at Macclesfield, and was educated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he was Craven Scholar in 1836...
(19th Century Anglican bishop and theologian)
- Benjamin Wills Newton
Benjamin Wills Newton, was an evangelist and author of Christian books. He was influential in the Plymouth Brethren...
(Evangelist, leader in the Plymouth Brethren, theological rival to John Nelson Darby.)
- John Gill
John Gill was an English Baptist pastor, biblical scholar, and theologian who held to a firm Calvinistic soteriology. Born in Kettering, Northamptonshire, he attended Kettering Grammar School where he mastered the Latin classics and learned Greek by age 11...
(Held the view that the Church was not raptured out in any event prior the tribulation)
- Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr, also known as just Saint Justin , was an early Christian apologist. Most of his works are lost, but two apologies and a dialogue survive. He is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church....
(Christian apologist and Post-Tribulationist)
- Charles Spurgeon
Charles Haddon Spurgeon was a large British Particular Baptist preacher who remains highly influential among Christians of different denominations, among whom he is still known as the "Prince of Preachers"...
(Christian English Baptist Preacher. Known as the "Prince of Preachers".)
- James Montgomery Boice (Former Pastor of Tenth Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, PA.)
- John Piper
John Stephen Piper is a Christian preacher and author, currently serving as Pastor for Preaching and Vision of Bethlehem Baptist Church in Minneapolis, Minnesota...
(Evangelical Calvinist, Pastor, Author) Article listed below.
- Samuel Prideaux Tregelles
Samuel Prideaux Tregelles was an English biblical scholar, textual critic, and theologian.- Life :Tregelles was born at Wodehouse Place, Falmouth, of Quaker parents, but he himself for many years was in communion with the Plymouth Brethren and then later in life became a Presbyterian...
(19th Century Bible scholar)
- Tertullian (Father of the Latin Church; Post-Tribulationist)
- Victorinus (third or fourth century; Book of Revelation first commentary writer)
- Walter Ralston Martin (20th Century American Apologist, Minister, Author, and Founder of Christian Research Institute)
- George Eldon Ladd
George Eldon Ladd was a Baptist minister and professor of New Testament exegesis and theology at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California....
(Baptist minister and Theologian. Taught at Fuller Theological Seminary.)
- Gordon Clark
Gordon Haddon Clark was an American philosopher and Calvinist theologian. He was a primary advocate for the idea of presuppositional apologetics and was chairman of the Philosophy Department at Butler University for 28 years...
(Christian Philosopher and Theologian.)
- Francis Schaeffer
Francis August Schaeffer was an American Evangelical Christian theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor. He is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the L'Abri community in Switzerland...
(Christian Philosopher, Theologian, and Presbyterian Pastor.)
- Wayne Grudem
Wayne A. Grudem is a Protestant theologian and author. He was born in 1948 in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin and married Margaret White on June 6, 1969 in Eau Claire, Wisconsin...
(well known Christian theologian, author, and professor)
- 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 (Resurrection of the righteous dead in connection with the Rapture)
- 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12
Ezekiel , "God will strengthen" , is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible. In Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Ezekiel is acknowledged as a Hebrew prophet...
34:12 (Prophet Ezekiel about the Resurrection-Rapture)
The Gospel According to Matthew is one of the four canonical gospels, one of the three synoptic gospels, and the first book of the New Testament. It tells of the life, ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth...
24:29-31 (Jesus about the Resurrection-Rapture)
The Book of Revelation is the final book of the New Testament. The title came into usage from the first word of the book in Koine Greek: apokalupsis, meaning "unveiling" or "revelation"...
20:4-5 ("First Resurrection" taking place after the Tribulation)
Other Biblical sources
- Luke 17
- Matthew 24
- John 14
- Acts 2 and Acts 3
- Peter 1
- 1 Corinthians 15
- 1 Thessalonians 4 and 1 Thessalonians 5
- 2 Thessalonians 1 and 2 Thessalonians 2
- Titus 2:13
- Revelation 14:14-20 and Revelation 20:1-6
- Anderberg, Roy W., Post Tribulation Rapture Wheatmark Publishing, 2008, ISBN 978-1-58736-018-3
- Alnor, William M., Soothsayers of the Second Advent. Fleming H. Revell, 1989. ISBN 0-8007-5324-0
- Barnhouse, Donald Grey, Revelation - An Expositional Commentary. Zondervan, 1971. ISBN 0-310-20491-7
- Boston, Robert, Close Encounters with the Religious Right. Prometheus Books
Prometheus Books is a publishing company founded in August 1969 by Paul Kurtz, who also founded the Council for Secular Humanism and co-founded the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. He is currently the chairman of all three organizations. Prometheus Books publishes a range of books, including many...
, 2000. ISBN 1-57392-797-X
- Brog, David, Standing With Israel. Front Line, A Strang Company, 2006. ISBN 1-59185-906-9
- Clarkson, Frederick, Eternal Hostility. Common Courage Press, 1997. ISBN 1-56751-088-4
- Coombes, R. A., America, The Babylon - America's Destiny Foretold in Biblical Prophecy A Real Book, 1998. ISBN 1-890622-33-8
- Culver, Robert Duncan, Daniel and the Latter Days. Fleming H. Revell Company, 1954.
- Dyer, Charles H., The Rise of Babylon. Moody Publishers, 2003. ISBN 0-8024-0905-9
- Feinberg, Charles L.
Charles Lee Feinberg was an American Biblical scholar and professor of Semitics and Old Testament. He was an authority on the Jewish history, languages and customs of the Old Testament and Biblical prophecies....
, Millennialism - Two Major Views. Moody Press, 1980. ISBN 0-8024-6815-2
- Graves, Joel C., Gathering Over Jerusalem. Xulon Press, 2003. ISBN 1-59160-829-5
- Hitchcock, Mark, Is America in Bible Prophecy?. Multnomah Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-57673-496-X
- Hunt, Dave, A Cup of Trembling - Jerusalem and Bible Prophecy. Harvest House Publishers, 1995. ISBN 1-56507-334-7
- Ironside, Harry A., Revelation. Loizeaux Brothers, 1982. ISBN 0-87213-384-2
- Jeffrey, Grant R., Armageddon - Appointment with Destiny. Bantam Books, 1990. ISBN 0-553-28537-8
- Juster, Dan; Intrater, Keith, Israel, the Church and the Last Days. Destiny Image Publishers, 1991. ISBN 1-56043-061-3
- Ladd, George Eldon, "A Commentary on the Revelation of John". William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1972. ISBN 0-8028-1684-3
- Lalonde, Peter & Patti, "Left Behind". Harvest House Publishers, 1995. ISBN 0-9636407-3-9
- LaSor, William Sanford, "The Truth About Armageddon". Harper & Row, 1982. ISBN 0-06-064919-4
- Lindsey, Hal, "Planet Earth - 2000 A.D." Western Front, Ltd., 1994. ISBN 0-9641058-0-2
- Linker, Damon, "The Theocons". Doubleday, 2006. ISBN 978-0-385-51647-1
- Moesta, Louis, "The Crucible and the Crown". WordFire Press, October 1999. ISBN 0-9673548-0-3
- Paterson, Stella, "Calling Forth The Remnant By Way of the Cross". Preparing The Way Publishers, 2006. ISBN 1-929451-21-0
- Pentecost, J. Dwight, "Things To Come". Dunham Publishing Company, 1962.
- Perry, Richard H., "Of the Last Days: Listen, I Tell You a Mystery". Essence Publishing (Canada), July 2003. ISBN 1-55306-595-6
- Pink, Arthur W., "The Antichrist". Kregel Publications, 1988. ISBN0-8254-3539-0
- Rausch, David A., "Zionism Within Early American Fundamentalism 1878-1918 - A Convergence of Two Traditions". The Edwin Mellen Press, 1979. ISBN 0-88946-875-3
- Ryrie, Charles Caldwell, "Dispensationalism Today". Moody Press, 1965. ISBN 0-8024-2256-X
- Shearer, S. R. (Steve), "The Beginning of the End". End of the Age Ministries, 1985.
- Spargimino, Larry, "The Anti-Prophets - The Challenge of Preterism". Hearthstone Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1-57558-080-2
- Sutton, William Josiah, "Ancient Prophecies About the Dragon, The Beast, and the False Prophet". The Institute of Religious Knowledge, 1999. ISBN 0-917013-02-6
- Sutton, William Josiah, "The Antichrist 666". Teach Services, Inc., 1995. ISBN 1-57258-015-1
- Walvoord, John F., "Every Prophecy of the Bible". Chariot Victory Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-7394-0215-3
- Walvoord, John F., "The Prophecy Knowledge Handbook". Victor Books, 1977. ISBN 0-89693-509-4
- White, E. G., "America in Prophecy". Inspiration Books East, Inc., 1888. ISBN 0-916547-04-3
- Woodrow, Ralph, "His Truth is Marching On -Advanced Studies on Prophecy in the Light of History". Ralph Woodrow Evangelistic Assn., Inc., 1996 Edition. ISBN 0-916938-03-04
- Woods, Dennis James, "Unlocking the Door: A Key to Biblical Prophecy". Vital Issues Press, June 1994. ISBN 1-56384-039-1
- Ybarra, Adolfo Ricardo, "Las Bases de la Fe Postribulacional - The Basis of the Post-tribulational Faith". http://www.docstoc.com/docs/91582190/Las-Bases-de-la-Fe-Postribulacional---Adolfo-Ricardo-Ybarra