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PBM Mariner

PBM Mariner

Overview


The Martin
Glenn L. Martin Company
The Glenn L. Martin Company was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company that was founded by the aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many important aircraft for the defense of the United States and its allies, especially during World War II and the Cold War...

 PBM Mariner
was a patrol bomber
Patrol bomber
A maritime patrol aircraft , also known as a patrol aircraft, maritime reconnaissance aircraft, or by the older American term patrol bomber, is a fixed-wing aircraft designed to operate for long durations over water in maritime patrol roles - in particular anti-submarine, anti-ship and search and...

 flying boat
Flying boat
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water. It differs from a float plane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, granting the aircraft buoyancy. Flying boats may be stabilized by under-wing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage...

 of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 and the early Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 period. It was designed to complement the PBY Catalina
PBY Catalina
The Consolidated PBY Catalina was an American flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used multi-role aircraft of World War II. PBYs served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other...

 in service. A total of 1,366 were built, with the first example flying on 18 February 1939 and the type entering service in September 1940.

In 1937, the Glenn L. Martin Company
Glenn L. Martin Company
The Glenn L. Martin Company was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company that was founded by the aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many important aircraft for the defense of the United States and its allies, especially during World War II and the Cold War...

 designed a new twin engined flying boat
Flying boat
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water. It differs from a float plane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, granting the aircraft buoyancy. Flying boats may be stabilized by under-wing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage...

 to succeed its earlier Martin P3M and supplement the Consolidated PBY
PBY Catalina
The Consolidated PBY Catalina was an American flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used multi-role aircraft of World War II. PBYs served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other...

, the Model 162.
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Encyclopedia


The Martin
Glenn L. Martin Company
The Glenn L. Martin Company was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company that was founded by the aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many important aircraft for the defense of the United States and its allies, especially during World War II and the Cold War...

 PBM Mariner
was a patrol bomber
Patrol bomber
A maritime patrol aircraft , also known as a patrol aircraft, maritime reconnaissance aircraft, or by the older American term patrol bomber, is a fixed-wing aircraft designed to operate for long durations over water in maritime patrol roles - in particular anti-submarine, anti-ship and search and...

 flying boat
Flying boat
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water. It differs from a float plane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, granting the aircraft buoyancy. Flying boats may be stabilized by under-wing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage...

 of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 and the early Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 period. It was designed to complement the PBY Catalina
PBY Catalina
The Consolidated PBY Catalina was an American flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used multi-role aircraft of World War II. PBYs served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other...

 in service. A total of 1,366 were built, with the first example flying on 18 February 1939 and the type entering service in September 1940.

Design and development


In 1937, the Glenn L. Martin Company
Glenn L. Martin Company
The Glenn L. Martin Company was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company that was founded by the aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many important aircraft for the defense of the United States and its allies, especially during World War II and the Cold War...

 designed a new twin engined flying boat
Flying boat
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water. It differs from a float plane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, granting the aircraft buoyancy. Flying boats may be stabilized by under-wing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage...

 to succeed its earlier Martin P3M and supplement the Consolidated PBY
PBY Catalina
The Consolidated PBY Catalina was an American flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most widely used multi-role aircraft of World War II. PBYs served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other...

, the Model 162. It received an order for a single prototype XPBM-1 on 30 June 1937. This was followed by an initial production order for 21 PBM-1 aircraft on 28 December 1937.

To test the PBM's layout, Martin built a ⅜ scale flying model, the Martin 162A Tadpole Clipper with a crew of one and powered by a single 120 hp (90 kW) Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Chevrolet , also known as Chevy , is a brand of vehicle produced by General Motors Company . Founded by Louis Chevrolet and ousted GM founder William C. Durant on November 3, 1911, General Motors acquired Chevrolet in 1918...

 engine, this flying in December 1937. The first genuine PBM, the XPBM-1, flew on 18 February 1939.

The aircraft was fitted with five gun turrets and bomb bays that were in the engine nacelles. The gull wing
Gull wing
The gull wing is an aircraft's wing configuration with a prominent bend in the wing somewhere along the span, generally near the wing root. Its name is derived from the seabirds which it resembles. It has been incorporated in aircraft for many reasons....

 was of cantilever design, and featured clean aerodynamics with an unbraced twin tail
Twin tail
A twin tail is a specific type of vertical stabilizer arrangement found on the empennage of some aircraft. Two vertical stabilizers — often smaller on their own than a single conventional tail would be — are mounted at the outside of the aircraft's horizontal stabilizer...

. The PBM-1 was equipped with retractable wing landing floats that were hinged inboard, like the Catalina. The PBM-3 had fixed floats, and the fuselage was three ft longer than that of the PBM-1.

Operational history


The first PBM-1s entered service with Patrol Squadron Fifty-Five (VP-55) of the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 on 1 September 1940. Prior to the outbreak of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, PBMs were used (together with PBYs) to carry out Neutrality Patrol
Neutrality Patrol
At the beginning of World War II, when Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939 started the hostilities in Europe, President Franklin D...

s in the Atlantic, including operations from Iceland
Iceland
Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

. Following the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941...

, PBMs were used on anti-submarine patrols, sinking their first German U-Boat
U-boat
U-boat is the anglicized version of the German word U-Boot , itself an abbreviation of Unterseeboot , and refers to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in World War I and World War II...

, U-158
German submarine U-158 (1941)
German submarine U-158 was a Type IXC U-boat of the German Kriegsmarine built for service during World War II.Her keel was laid down on November 1, 1940 by AG Weser in Bremen...

 on 30 June 1942. In total, PBMs were responsible, wholly or in part, for sinking 10 U-Boats during World War II. PBMs were also heavily used in the Pacific
Pacific War
The Pacific War, also sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War refers broadly to the parts of World War II that took place in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, then called the Far East...

, operating from bases at Saipan
Saipan
Saipan is the largest island of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands , a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean with a total area of . The 2000 census population was 62,392...

, Okinawa, Iwo Jima
Iwo Jima
Iwo Jima, officially , is an island of the Japanese Volcano Islands chain, which lie south of the Ogasawara Islands and together with them form the Ogasawara Archipelago. The island is located south of mainland Tokyo and administered as part of Ogasawara, one of eight villages of Tokyo...

 and the South-West Pacific.

The United States Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...

 acquired 27 Martin PBM-3 aircraft during the first half of 1943. In late 1944, the service acquired 41 PBM-5 models and more were delivered in the latter half of 1945. Ten were still in service in 1955, although all were gone from the active Coast Guard inventory by 1958 when the last example was released from CGAS San Diego and returned to the US Navy. These flying boats became the backbone of the long-range aerial search and rescue efforts of the Coast Guard in the early post-war years until supplanted by the P5M and the HU-16 Albatross
HU-16 Albatross
The Grumman HU-16 Albatross is a large twin-radial engine amphibious flying boat that was utilized by the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard, primarily as a search and rescue and combat search and rescue aircraft...

 in the mid-1950s.

PBMs continued in service with the US Navy following the end of World War II, flying long patrol missions during the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

. It continued in front line use until replaced by its direct development, the P5M Marlin
P5M Marlin
|- See also :- References :NotesBibliography* Andrade, John, U.S.Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909, Midland Counties Publications, 1979, ISBN 0 904597 22 9.* Barth, Bruce D., "The Martin P5M 'Marlin'". Pacific Aero Press, 1994....

, with the last USN squadron equipped with the PBM, Patrol Squadron Fifty (VP-50), retiring them in July 1956.

The British Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 acquired 32 Mariners, but they were not used operationally, with some returned to the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

. A further 12 PBM-3Rs were transferred to the Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps , which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts...

 for transporting troops and cargo.

The Royal Netherlands Navy
Royal Netherlands Navy
The Koninklijke Marine is the navy of the Netherlands. In the mid-17th century the Dutch Navy was the most powerful navy in the world and it played an active role in the wars of the Dutch Republic and later those of the Batavian Republic and the Kingdom of the Netherlands...

 acquired 17 PBM-5A Mariners at the end of 1955 for service in Netherlands New Guinea
Netherlands New Guinea
Netherlands New Guinea refers to the West Papua region while it was an overseas territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1949 to 1962. Until 1949 it was a part of the Netherlands Indies. It was commonly known as Dutch New Guinea...

. The PBM-5A was an amphibian with retractable landing gear. The engines were 2,100 hp (1,566 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800
Pratt & Whitney R-2800
The Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp is a two-row, 18-cylinder, air-cooled radial aircraft engine with a displacement of 2,804 in³ , and is part of the long-lived Wasp family....

-34. After a series of crashes, the Dutch withdrew their remaining aircraft from use in December 1959.

Variants


XPBM-1 (Model 162)
Prototype. Powered by two 1,600 hp (1,194 kW) R-2600-6 engines.

PBM-1 (Model 162)
Initial production version. 5× .50 inch (12.7 mm) machine guns. Two R-2600-6 engines; 21 built.

XPBM-2 (Model 162)
Conversion of one PBM-1 as experimental catapult
Assisted take off
Assisted take off is any system for helping aircraft into the air . The reason it might be needed is due to the aircraft's weight exceeding the normal maximum take off weight, insufficient power, or the available runway length may be insufficient, or a combination of all three factors...

 launched long range strategic bomber.

PBM-3 (Model 162B)
Improved version. 1,700 hp (1,270 kW) R-2600-12 engines; 32 built.

PBM-3R (Model 162B)
Unarmed transport version of PBM-3. 18 new build plus 31 converted from PBM-3.

PBM-3C (Model 162C)
Improved patrol version with twin .50 in machine guns in nose and dorsal turrets, and single guns in tail turret and waist positions. AN/APS-15 radar in radome
Radome
A radome is a structural, weatherproof enclosure that protects a microwave or radar antenna. The radome is constructed of material that minimally attenuates the electromagnetic signal transmitted or received by the antenna. In other words, the radome is transparent to radar or radio waves...

 behind cockpit; 274 built.

PBM-3B (Model 162C)
Designation for ex-RAF Mariner GR.1A after return to US Navy.

PBM-3S (Model 162C)
Dedicated anti-submarine aircraft with reduced armament (2× fixed 0.50 in machine guns in nose, single machine gun in port waist position and single gun in tail turret) and increased range; 94 built as new plus 62 conversions.

PBM-3D (Model 162D)
Patrol bomber with increased power (two 1,900 hp (1,417 kW) R-2600-22s) and increased armament (twin 0.50 machine guns in nose, dorsa and tail turrets, plus two waist guns). 259 built.

PBM-4 (Model 162E)
Proposed version with two 2,700 hp (2,015 kW) Wright R-3350
Wright R-3350
The Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone was one of the most powerful radial aircraft engines produced in the United States. It was a twin row, supercharged, air-cooled, radial engine with 18 cylinders. Power ranged from 2,200 to over 3,700 hp , depending on the model...

 engines; unbuilt.

PBM-5 (Model 162F)
Version with 2,100 hp (1,566 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-2800
Pratt & Whitney R-2800
The Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp is a two-row, 18-cylinder, air-cooled radial aircraft engine with a displacement of 2,804 in³ , and is part of the long-lived Wasp family....

 engines; 628 built.
PBM-5E
:Variant of PBM-5 with improved radar
PBM-5S
:Lightened anti-submarine variant of PBM-5
PBM-5S2
:Improved anti-submarine aircraft with revised radar installation

PBM-5A (Model 162G)
Amphibian version of PBM-5, with retractable nosewheel undercarriage; 36 built plus four conversions.

Mariner I
British designation for 32 PBM-3B supplied to the Royal Air Force.

Operators


  • Argentine Navy
    Argentine Navy
    The Navy of the Argentine Republic or Armada of the Argentine Republic is the navy of Argentina. It is one of the three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force....

     purchased nine PBMs during the 1950s for the Argentine Naval Aviation
    Argentine Naval Aviation
    The Argentine Naval Aviation is the naval aviation branch of the Argentine Navy and one of its four operational commands...

    , retiring its last Mariner in May 1962.

  • Royal Australian Air Force
    Royal Australian Air Force
    The Royal Australian Air Force is the air force branch of the Australian Defence Force. The RAAF was formed in March 1921. It continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps , which was formed on 22 October 1912. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts...

    • No. 40 Squadron RAAF
      No. 40 Squadron RAAF
      No. 40 Squadron was a Royal Australian Air Force transport squadron of World War II. It was formed in March 1944 and operated flying boats between Australia and New Guinea. The squadron was disbanded in June 1946.-Squadron history:...

    • No. 41 Squadron RAAF
      No. 41 Squadron RAAF
      No. 41 Squadron was a Royal Australian Air Force transport squadron of World War II. It was formed in August 1942 and operated flying boats in the South West Pacific area. The squadron was disbanded in September 1945.-Squadron history:...


  • Royal Netherlands Navy
    Royal Netherlands Navy
    The Koninklijke Marine is the navy of the Netherlands. In the mid-17th century the Dutch Navy was the most powerful navy in the world and it played an active role in the wars of the Dutch Republic and later those of the Batavian Republic and the Kingdom of the Netherlands...

     - Dutch Naval Aviation Service
    • VSQ 321 based at Biak Air Base
      Biak
      Biak features a tropical rainforest climate with nearly identical temperatures throughout the course of the year. The average annual temperature in the city is 27 degrees celsius, which is also generally the average temperature of each day in Biak...

      , Dutch New Guinea operated 15 PBM-5A between 1955 and 1960 after the retirement of their PBY's.


  • Royal Air Force
    Royal Air Force
    The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

     ordered 33 aircraft but only 28 were delivered.
    • 524 Squadron
      No. 524 Squadron RAF
      No. 524 Squadron was a Royal Air Force Coastal Command aircraft squadron that operated during the Second World War.-History:No. 524 Squadron was formed at RAF Oban, Argyll and Bute in Scotland on 20 October 1943 to operate the Martin Mariner flying boat. The squadron's role was to introduce the...

       operated 28 Mariner Is from October–December 1943 under command of No. 15 Group Coastal Command.


  • United States Navy
    United States Navy
    The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

    • ATU-1
    • ATU-10
    • VPB-2
    • VR-8
    • VR-10
    • VR-21
    • VP-16
    • VP-17
    • VPB-20
    • VP-21
    • VP-40
    • VP-46
    • VP-47
    • VP-55 (later VP-74)
    • VP-56
    • VP-200
    • VP-203
    • VP-204
    • VP-205
    • VP-207
    • VP-208
    • VP-209
    • VP-210
    • VP-213
    • VP-214
    • VP-892

  • United States Coast Guard
    United States Coast Guard
    The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...


  • National Navy of Uruguay
    National Navy of Uruguay
    The National Navy of Uruguay is a branch of the Armed Forces of Uruguay under the direction of the Ministry of National Defense and the commander in chief of the Navy Admiral Juan H...

     purchased three PBM-5S2s in 1956, with the last retired on 3 February 1964.

Survivors

  • United States Navy PBM-5A (Bureau Number (BuNo)
    United States military aircraft serials
    In the United States, all military aircraft display a serial number to identify individual aircraft. Because these numbers are located on the aircraft tail, they are sometimes referred to unofficially as "tail numbers"...

     122071) is the only surviving Mariner. It is on loan from the National Air & Space Museum at Washington D.C., and is on display at the Pima Air & Space Museum
    Pima Air & Space Museum
    The Pima Air & Space Museum features a display of nearly 300 aircraft spread out over 80 acres on a campus occupying 127 acres . Located in Tucson, Arizona, it is one of the world's largest, non-government funded aerospace museums...

     in Tucson, Arizona. Operated by the USN between 1948 and 1956, it is painted in the marking of Transport Squadron 21 (VR-21) and coded RZ 051 of the early 1950s.
  • Although only one complete Mariner aircraft exists another aircraft (PBM-5 59172) lies upside down under Lake Washington. It crashed on 6 May 1949 and after a number unsuccessful attempts to recover the wreck over the following decades it is now used as a training site for divers.
  • The Model 162A (registered
    Aircraft registration
    An aircraft registration is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies a civil aircraft, in similar fashion to a licence plate on an automobile...

     NX19168), the piloted quarter scale test aircraft, is on display at the Baltimore Museum of Industry
    Baltimore Museum of Industry
    Baltimore Museum of Industry is a museum at Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Located in an old cannery, the museum has exhibits on various types of manufacturing and industry from the early 20th century...

    .

Accidents and incidents

  • On 30 November 1944, a US Navy PBM-5 crashed into Mount Tamalpais
    Mount Tamalpais
    Mount Tamalpais is a peak in Marin County, California, United States, often considered symbolic of Marin County. Much of Mount Tamalpais is protected within public lands such as Mount Tamalpais State Park and the Mount Tamalpais Watershed.-Geography:...

     in Northern California killing eight Naval Aviators and Naval Aircrewmen. The aircraft had taken off from Naval Air Station Alameda
    Naval Air Station Alameda
    Naval Air Station Alameda was a United States Navy Naval Air Station in Alameda, California, on San Francisco Bay.NAS Alameda had two runways: 07-25 and 13-31...

     and was part of a larger flight headed for Hawaii when it developed engine trouble shortly after takeoff.
  • United States Navy PBM-5 (BuNo 59225) based at Naval Air Station Banana River
    Naval Air Station Banana River
    Naval Air Station Banana River was a U.S. Navy airfield and seaplane base located just north of Satellite Beach, Florida along the Banana River prior to and during World War II...

    , Florida is believed to have been destroyed in a mid-air explosion in December 1945 off the coast of Florida near the Bahamas while searching for the missing TBF Avenger
    TBF Avenger
    The Grumman TBF Avenger was a torpedo bomber developed initially for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, and eventually used by several air or naval arms around the world....

    s of Flight 19
    Flight 19
    Flight 19 was the designation of five TBM Avenger torpedo bombers that disappeared on December 5, 1945 during a United States Navy-authorized overwater navigation training flight from Naval Air Station Fort Lauderdale, Florida. All 14 airmen on the flight were lost, as were all 13 crew members of a...

     from Naval Air Station Fort Lauderdale
    Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport
    Fort Lauderdale – Hollywood International Airport is an international commercial airport located in unincorporated Broward County, Florida, three miles southwest of the central business district of Fort Lauderdale...

    , Florida.
  • A US Navy PBM-5 crashed
    1946 Antarctica PBM Mariner crash
    The 1946 Antarctica PBM Mariner crash occurred on December 30, 1946 on Thurston Island, Antarctica when a United States Navy PBM Mariner crashed during a blizzard. The aircraft, designated George 1, was supporting Operation Highjump....

     on Thurston Island
    Thurston Island
    Thurston Island is an ice-covered, glacially dissected island, long, wide and in area, lying a short way off the NW end of Ellsworth Land, Antarctica. It is the third largest island of Antarctica, after Alexander Island and Berkner Island...

    , Antarctica on 30 December 1946 while supporting Operation Highjump
    Operation Highjump
    Operation Highjump , officially titled The United States Navy Antarctic Developments Program, 1946-1947, was a United States Navy operation organized by RADM Richard E. Byrd Jr. USN, , Officer in Charge, Task Force 68, and led by RADM Richard H. Cruzen, USN, Commanding Officer, Task Force 68....

    .
  • On 9 November 1958, an Aero-Topográfica PBM-5 (registration CS-THB) disappeared on a scheduled passenger flight from Cabo Ruivo, Lisbon
    Lisbon
    Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

    , Portugal
    Portugal
    Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

     to Funchal Airport
    Madeira Airport
    -Incidents and accidents:*On 5 March 1973, an Aviaco Sud Caravelle 10R crashed into the sea during approach, losing the aircraft and three crew....

    , Funchal
    Funchal
    Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira. The city has a population of 112,015 and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries.-Etymology:...

    , Madeira
    Madeira
    Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago that lies between and , just under 400 km north of Tenerife, Canary Islands, in the north Atlantic Ocean and an outermost region of the European Union...

    . The last radio transmission from the aircraft (when it was about 13°W) was: "I am forced to land immediately." No trace has ever been found of the aircraft, its six crew or 30 passengers.

Specifications (PBM-1)





See also

  • Flight 19
    Flight 19
    Flight 19 was the designation of five TBM Avenger torpedo bombers that disappeared on December 5, 1945 during a United States Navy-authorized overwater navigation training flight from Naval Air Station Fort Lauderdale, Florida. All 14 airmen on the flight were lost, as were all 13 crew members of a...



External links