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Osmium dioxide

Osmium dioxide

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Osmium dioxide is an inorganic compound
Inorganic compound
Inorganic compounds have traditionally been considered to be of inanimate, non-biological origin. In contrast, organic compounds have an explicit biological origin. However, over the past century, the classification of inorganic vs organic compounds has become less important to scientists,...

 with the formula
Chemical formula
A chemical formula or molecular formula is a way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound....

 OsO2. It exists as brown to black crystalline powder, but single crystals are golden and exhibit metallic conductivity. The compound crystallizes in the rutile
Rutile
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2.Rutile is the most common natural form of TiO2. Two rarer polymorphs of TiO2 are known:...

 structural motif, i.e. the connectivity is very similar to that in the mineral rutile.

Preparation


OsO2 can be obtained by the reaction of osmium
Osmium
Osmium is a chemical element with the symbol Os and atomic number 76. Osmium is a hard, brittle, blue-gray or blue-blacktransition metal in the platinum family, and is the densest natural element. Osmium is twice as dense as lead. The density of osmium is , slightly greater than that of iridium,...

 with a variety of oxidizing agents, including, sodium chlorate
Sodium chlorate
Sodium chlorate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . When pure, it is a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water. It is hygroscopic. It decomposes above 250 °C to release oxygen and leave sodium chloride...

, osmium tetroxide, and nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide, also known as nitrogen monoxide, is a diatomic molecule with chemical formula NO. It is a free radical and is an important intermediate in the chemical industry...

 at about 600 °C. Using chemical transport
Chemical transport reaction
In chemistry, a chemical transport reaction describes a process for purification and crystallization of non-volatile solids. The process is also responsible for certain aspects of mineral growth from the effluent of volcanoes. The technique is distinct from chemical vapor deposition, which...

, one can obtain large crystals of OsO2, sized up to 7x5x3 mm3. Single crystals show metallic resistivity of ~15 μΩ cm. Typical transport agent is via the reversibly formation of volatile OsO4:
OsO2 + O2 OsO4

Reactions


OsO2 does not dissolve in water but is attacked by dilute hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrochloric acid is a solution of hydrogen chloride in water, that is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. It is found naturally in gastric acid....

. The crystals have rutile
Rutile
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide, TiO2.Rutile is the most common natural form of TiO2. Two rarer polymorphs of TiO2 are known:...

 structure. Unlike osmium tetroxide, OsO2 is not toxic.