Hybrid name
In botanical nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy. Plant taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants; botanical nomenclature then provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for modern botanical...

, a hybrid may be given a hybrid name, which is a special kind of botanical name
Botanical name
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar and/or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants...

. The ICBN provides the following options in dealing with a hybrid:
  • A hybrid may get a normal botanical name; this will usually be the option of choice for naturally occurring hybrids.
  • A hybrid may also be indicated by a formula listing the parents. Such a formula uses the multiplication sign "×" to link the parents.
  • A hybrid name is usually reserved for horticulturally
    Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation including the process of preparing soil for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic...

     arising hybrids and artificial and/or forced hybrids
    Plant breeding
    Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the genetics of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular...

    . A hybrid name is indicated by a multiplication sign "×" placed before the name or epithet, as the case may be.

A hybrid name is a botanical name, and is treated like other botanical names, for most purposes. The multiplication sign is not part of the actual name and is to be disregarded for nomenclatural purposes such as synonymy, homonymy, etc. This means that, say, Drosera ×anglica for nomenclatural purposes is to be treated as Drosera anglica. A taxonomist could decide to use either form of this name, if he wants to emphasize that it is a hybrid he will use Drosera ×anglica, if he wants to emphasize that it is a species he will use Drosera anglica.

A hybrid name is unlike other botanical names in that it does not necessarily refer to a cohesive unit but applies to all progeny of the parents, no matter how much the variation. So, Magnolia ×soulangeana applies to all progeny from the cross Magnolia denudata × Magnolia liliiflora, and from the crosses of all their progeny, as well as from crosses of any of the progeny back to the parents. This covers quite a range in flower colour.

The multiplication sign should be put before the name in case of intergeneric hybrid and otherwise before the relevant epithet. Only when a multiplication sign is not available (e.g., on some typewriters), a small letter "x" may be used as a replacement. Examples:
  • Dianthus ×allwoodii (the equivalent formula is Dianthus caryophyllus × Dianthus plumarius). This is an "interspecific hybrid" (a hybrid between two species
    In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

     in the same genus
    In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

    ): the multiplication sign goes before the epithet.
  • ×Heucherella tiarelloides (the equivalent formula is Heuchera sanguinea × Tiarella cordifolia). This is an "intergeneric hybrid" (a hybrid between two different genera): the multiplication sign is placed before the generic name. This generic name is a so-named "nothogeneric name" and is a condensed formula, formed from the generic names of the parents: eg., ×Heucherella combines Heuchera and Tiarella).

Note that the name for a graft-chimaera
In horticulture, a graft-chimaera may arise in grafting at the point of contact between rootstock and scion and will have properties intermediate to those of its "parents". A graft-chimaera is not a true hybrid but a mixture of cells, each with the genotype of one of its "parents": it is a chimaera...

 uses an addition sign "+".

The provisions in the ICBN that deal with hybrid names are Art H.1 to H.12.

External links

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