Nathan Rosen

Nathan Rosen

Overview
Nathan Rosen (March 22, 1909 – December 18, 1995) was an American-Israeli physicist noted for his study on the structure of the hydrogen molecule and his work with Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

 and Boris Podolsky
Boris Podolsky
Boris Yakovlevich Podolsky , was an American physicist of Russian Jewish descent.-Education:In 1896, Boris Podolsky was born into a poor Jewish family in Taganrog, in what was then the Russian Empire, and he moved to the United States in 1913...

 on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox
EPR paradox
The EPR paradox is a topic in quantum physics and the philosophy of science concerning the measurement and description of microscopic systems by the methods of quantum physics...

.

Nathan Rosen was born into a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York. He attended MIT during the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 where he received a bachelor’s degree in electromechanical engineering and later a masters and a doctorate in physics.
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Encyclopedia
Nathan Rosen (March 22, 1909 – December 18, 1995) was an American-Israeli physicist noted for his study on the structure of the hydrogen molecule and his work with Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

 and Boris Podolsky
Boris Podolsky
Boris Yakovlevich Podolsky , was an American physicist of Russian Jewish descent.-Education:In 1896, Boris Podolsky was born into a poor Jewish family in Taganrog, in what was then the Russian Empire, and he moved to the United States in 1913...

 on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox
EPR paradox
The EPR paradox is a topic in quantum physics and the philosophy of science concerning the measurement and description of microscopic systems by the methods of quantum physics...

.

Background


Nathan Rosen was born into a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York. He attended MIT during the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 where he received a bachelor’s degree in electromechanical engineering and later a masters and a doctorate in physics. As a student he published several papers of note, one being “The Neutron,” which attempted to explain the structure of the atomic nucleus a year before their discovery by James Chadwick
James Chadwick
Sir James Chadwick CH FRS was an English Nobel laureate in physics awarded for his discovery of the neutron....

. He also developed an interest in wave functions, and later, gravitation, when he worked as a fellow at the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan in the United States. It is the state's oldest university and the flagship campus of the University of Michigan...

 and Princeton University
Princeton University
Princeton University is a private research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The school is one of the eight universities of the Ivy League, and is one of the nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution....

.

State of science


The beginning of the 20th century science was progressing quickly, and the inner workings of the atom were just beginning to be discovered. In 1900, Max Planck
Max Planck
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS, was a German physicist who actualized the quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.-Life and career:Planck came...

 proposed the quantum theory
Quantum theory
Quantum theory may mean:In science:*Quantum mechanics: a subset of quantum physics explaining the physical behaviours at atomic and sub-atomic levels*Old quantum theory under the Bohr model...

, the idea that all energy
Energy
In physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

 moves in discrete amounts called quanta
Quantum
In physics, a quantum is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction. Behind this, one finds the fundamental notion that a physical property may be "quantized," referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization". This means that the magnitude can take on only certain discrete...

. In 1905, Albert Einstein published his theory of special relativity
Special relativity
Special relativity is the physical theory of measurement in an inertial frame of reference proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein in the paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies".It generalizes Galileo's...

, which would be instrumental in the progression of physics and the understanding of the universe. Around 1927, Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr mentored and collaborated with many of the top physicists of the century at his institute in...

 and Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory...

, collaborating with many other physicists, developed the Copenhagen interpretation
Copenhagen interpretation
The Copenhagen interpretation is one of the earliest and most commonly taught interpretations of quantum mechanics. It holds that quantum mechanics does not yield a description of an objective reality but deals only with probabilities of observing, or measuring, various aspects of energy quanta,...

 of quantum theory, determining the probabilities of the movement of particles. These breakthroughs provided the model for the structure and workings of the atom and drove the revolution that would sweep up Nathan Rosen.

Work with Einstein


In 1935 he became Albert Einstein's assistant at The Institute for Advanced Study
Institute for Advanced Study
The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is an independent postgraduate center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. It was founded in 1930 by Abraham Flexner...

 in Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton is a community located in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. It is best known as the location of Princeton University, which has been sited in the community since 1756...

 and continued in that position until 1945. While working with Einstein, Rosen pointed out the peculiarities of Einstein’s studies involving entangled wave functions, and, in coordination with Boris Podolsky
Boris Podolsky
Boris Yakovlevich Podolsky , was an American physicist of Russian Jewish descent.-Education:In 1896, Boris Podolsky was born into a poor Jewish family in Taganrog, in what was then the Russian Empire, and he moved to the United States in 1913...

, a paper was drafted. The paper, entitled “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?" labeled these effects the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox or EPR paradox
EPR paradox
The EPR paradox is a topic in quantum physics and the philosophy of science concerning the measurement and description of microscopic systems by the methods of quantum physics...

. Einstein encouraged Rosen to continue his career in physics in Israel thereafter. Einstein and Rosen discovered the mathematical solution for a type of wormhole connecting distant areas in space. Dubbed an Einstein-Rosen bridge, or Schwarzschild Wormhole, the solution was found by merging the mathematical models of a black hole and a white hole (a theoretical black hole moving backward in time), using Einstein’s field equations. Einstein-Rosen Bridges are purely theoretical. It was shown in a 1962 paper by theoretical physicists John A. Wheeler and Robert W. Fuller
Robert W. Fuller
Robert W. Fuller earned his Ph.D. in physics at Princeton University in 1961, and taught at Columbia University where he co-authored the book Mathematics of Classical and Quantum Physics...

  that these types of wormholes are unstable.

Later years


Later in his life, Nathan Rosen turned his attentions to teaching and the establishment of new universities. After briefly working for two years in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 at the University of Kiev starting in 1936, he returned to the United States, where he taught at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1941 to 1952. In 1953, after permanently moving to Israel, he joined the Technion
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology is a research-intensive institute of technology in Haifa, Israel. Originally called the Technikum, it was founded in 1912...

 in Haifa
Haifa
Haifa is the largest city in northern Israel, and the third-largest city in the country, with a population of over 268,000. Another 300,000 people live in towns directly adjacent to the city including the cities of the Krayot, as well as, Tirat Carmel, Daliyat al-Karmel and Nesher...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

. During this time Rosen was advisor to Asher Peres
Asher Peres
Asher Peres was an Israeli physicist, considered a pioneer in quantum information theory. According to his autobiography, he was born in Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne in France, where his father, a Polish electrical engineer, had found work laying down power lines...

. Technion now has a lecture series named for him. He was President of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev   is a university in Beersheba, Israel, established in 1969. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev has a current enrollment of 17,400 students, and is one of Israel's fastest growing universities....

 in the 1970s and commuted between the two institutions from his home in Haifa. Additionally, Nathan Rosen helped found the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities
The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, based in Jerusalem, was set up in 1961 by the State of Israel to foster contact between scholars from the sciences and humanities in Israel, to advise the government on research projects of national importance, and to promote excellence. It comprises...

, the Physical Society of Israel (serving as president from 1955–57), and the International Society for General Relativity and Gravitation (president 1974-77). He was very active in encouraging the founding of higher educational institutions in Israel.

Contributions to physics


Rosen made a number of contributions to modern physics. One of the most lasting discoveries Rosen brought to physics was his formulation of the structure of the hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. With an average atomic weight of , hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's chemical elemental mass. Stars in the main sequence are mainly...

 molecule, a molecule where none of the electron
Electron
The electron is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge. It has no known components or substructure; in other words, it is generally thought to be an elementary particle. An electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton...

s have a definite quantum number
Quantum number
Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of the quantum system. Perhaps the most peculiar aspect of quantum mechanics is the quantization of observable quantities. This is distinguished from classical mechanics where the values can range continuously...

, but the pair of electrons has a pure state. Rosen used what he called "entangled" wave functions to represent the molecule's structure.

See also

  • Sticky bead argument
    Sticky bead argument
    In general relativity, the sticky bead argument is a simple thought experiment designed to show that gravitational radiation is indeed predicted by general relativity, and can have physical effects...

    , for an account of the strange episode of Einstein and Rosen 1937.
  • EPR Paradox
    EPR paradox
    The EPR paradox is a topic in quantum physics and the philosophy of science concerning the measurement and description of microscopic systems by the methods of quantum physics...


Top cited publications on SPIRESS


Click on http://www.slac.stanford.edu/spires/find/hep/wwwcitesummary?rawcmd=FIND+AUTHOR+N+ROSEN&FORMAT=www&SEQUENCE=citecount(d).

1)Can quantum mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?

Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, Nathan Rosen (Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study) . 1935. 4pp.
Published in Phys.Rev.47:777-780,1935. (In *Wheeler, J.A., Zurek, W.H. (eds.): Quantum theory and measurement, Princeton U. Press, 1983* pp. 138–141)

TOPCITE = 500+
2) The Particle Problem in the General Theory of Relativity.

Albert Einstein, N. Rosen (Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study) . 1935.
Published in Phys.Rev.48:73-77,1935.

TOPCITE = 100+
3) Energy and momentum of cylindrical gravitational waves.

N. Rosen (Technion), K.S. Virbhadra (Ahmedabad, Phys. Res. Lab) . 1993.
Published in Gen.Rel.Grav.25:429-433,1993.

TOPCITE = 100+


4) On Gravitational waves.

Albert Einstein, N. Rosen . 1937. 12pp.
Published in J.Franklin Inst.223:43-54,1937.

TOPCITE = 100+

5) General Relativity and Flat Space. I.

N. Rosen (MIT) . Jan 15, 1940. 3pp.
Published in Phys.Rev.57:147-150,1940.

TOPCITE = 50+