(Urdu:مظفر اقبال), is a Pakistani-Canadian chemist
A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties such as density and acidity. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms...
by training and an Islamic scholar by vocation.
Iqbal is the founding president of the Center for Islam and Science, Alberta
Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...
. He has written twenty-three books. Iqbal is editor of a journal of Islamic perspectives on science and civilization, Islam and science
Islam and science describes the relationship between Muslim communities and science in general. From an Islamic standpoint, science, the study of nature, is considered to be linked to the concept of Tawhid , as are all other branches of knowledge...
Iqbal's published works are on Islam
Islam . The most common are and . : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...
Sufism or ' is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a '...
, and their relationship with Western thought.
Iqbal appeared on PBS's Ask the Experts
in 2003, discussing science and Islam.
In an article on Islamic Science, the New York Times quoted Iqbal as a chemist and founder of the Center for Islam and Science as explaining that modern science did not claim to address the purpose of life, whereas in the Islamic world, purpose was integral.
Iqbal was one of the experts called on by the Physics and Cosmology Group of the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, alongside scientists including Andrei Linde
Andrei Dmitriyevich Linde is a Russian-American theoretical physicist and professor of Physics at Stanford University. Dr. Linde is best known for his work on the concept of the inflationary universe. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from Moscow State University. In 1975, Linde was...
of Stanford University, John Polkinghorne
John Charlton Polkinghorne KBE FRS is an English theoretical physicist, theologian, writer, and Anglican priest. He was professor of Mathematical physics at the University of Cambridge from 1968 to 1979, when he resigned his chair to study for the priesthood, becoming an ordained Anglican priest...
of Cambridge University, Paul Davies
Paul Charles William Davies, AM is an English physicist, writer and broadcaster, currently a professor at Arizona State University as well as the Director of BEYOND: Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science...
of Macquarie University and Charles Townes of the University of California, Berkeley. Between 1996 and 2003, the group conducted an intensive public dialogue on science and spirituality.
Roxanne D. Marcotte, reviewing Iqbal's Islam and Science
, published in 2002, wrote that it "presents an articulate and concise historical introduction to intellectual developments that have shaped Islamic civilization, both religious
and scientific." According to Marcotte, the book's main thesis is that traditions of science came from learning grounded in the Qur'an and the Hadith, in other words from the primary sources of Islam itself. Marcotte is critical of this basic thesis, agreeing with Iqbal's modest caution that his conclusions "might not be shared by certain historians of science", and observing somewhat acerbically that he is a chemist, not a philosopher, historian or sociologist of science. She finds Iqbal confused over exactly what the Islamic scientific tradition is, since he includes "religious sciences". She also finds Iqbal's presentation of evidence not fully convincing, disagreeing for example about 'al-Khwarazmi'
'There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ' or '. Ibn Khaldun notes in his encyclopedic work: "The first who wrote upon this branch was Abu ʿAbdallah al-Khowarizmi, after whom came Abu Kamil Shojaʿ ibn Aslam." . 'There is some confusion in the literature on...
, and pointing out that he was certainly influenced by non Islamic thought from Greece, Egypt, India, Persia and Babylon - a pointedly long list of civilizations. Marcotte suggests that the source of Iqbal's trouble may be the holistic approach he takes, placing revelation "at the heart of the religion/science nexus" so as to allow himself to argue that all levels of being owe their existence to God; she calls such claims controversial. Marcotte grants that Iqbal's book provides a useful overview of intellectual debates within Islam, but not that it discusses the philosophical implications of contemporary issues adequately.
A far gentler review of Iqbal's Islam and Science
was published by Muhammad Suheyl Umar. His review, after describing the book's contents at length, and agreeing with Iqbal that Western accounts of science from Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, KC was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, author and pioneer of the scientific method. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England...
onwards have been disrespectful of Islamic science, concludes that the book is stimulating, and a welcome corrective to much muddle around the discourse of Islam and science.
Accused of Islamism
Iqbal's confrontation with the 'Ugly Face of America' was described in the Washington Post in 2003. Blogger Daniel Pipes responded angrily to the Washington Post article, arguing that Iqbal appeared to be a member of Pakistan Islamist organization Jamaat-e-Islami
This article is about Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan. For other organizations of similar name see Jamaat-e-Islami The Jamaat-e-Islami , is a Pro-Muslim political party in Pakistan...
, a person who promoted "Islamism", citing his Center for Islam and Science as evidence, as well as the journal Islam & Science, and referring obliquely to Iqbal as one of "the enemy in the war on terror", and claiming that Iqbal "Expresses venomous hatred for the United States" and "Espouses a shockingly explicit antisemitism". A month later (December 10, 2003) Iqbal replied directly to Pipes, stating categorically that he was not a member of Jamaat-e Islami; that he did not write for their website; and that the article about Jews to which Pipes had referred was not by Iqbal but by a namesake unknown to him.
- J. Chem. Soc. Pak, Vol.3, No.3, 1981
- J. Organomet. Chem., 231 (1982) 151
- J. Organomet. Chem., 288 (1985) 89
- J. Organomet. Chem., 302 (1986) 307
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Jang-e Azadi Sey Hasooley Azadi Tak. Lahore: Sang-e Meel Publishers, 1977. A book on the history of the Pakistan Movement. In Urdu.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Inkhila (Uprooting). Book I of the fiction trilogy Hijratayn (Exiles). Lahore: The Circle, 1988. In Urdu.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Abdullah Hussein: From Sad Generations to a Lonely Tiger. South Asian Centre, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1985. Repr. as Abdullah Hussein: The Chronicler of Sad Generations. Islamabad: Leo Books, 1993.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Inqta (Severance). Book II of the fiction trilogy Hijratayn (Exiles). Islamabad: Leo Books, 1994. In Urdu.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Herman Melville: Life and Works. Serialized in Savera (1995-1998).
- Muzaffar Iqbal and Zafar Ishaq Ansari (Translators). Towards Understanding the Qur’an. Vol. VII. Islamic Foundation, 2001. English translation of Syed Abul Ala Mawdudi’s Tafhim al-Qur’an.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Islam and Science. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002. Repr. as Islam and Science: Explorations in the Fundamental Questions of the Islam and Science Discourse. Lahore: Suheyl Academy, 2004.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Science and Islam. Greenwood Press, 2007. Repr. with Afterword as The Making of Islamic Science. Islamic Book Trust, 2009.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Islam, Science, Muslims, and Technology: Seyyed Hossein Nasr in Conversation with Muzaffar Iqbal. Islamic Book Trust, 2007. Repr. Sherwood Park: al-Qalam Publishing, 2007; Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, 2008; Islamabad: Dost Publications, 2009.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Dew on Sunburnt Roses and other Quantum Notes. Dost Publications, 2008.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Dawn in Madinah: A Pilgrim’s Passage. Islamic Book Trust, 2008. Repr. Dost Publications, 2009.
- Muzaffar Iqbal. Definitive Encounters: Islam, Muslims, and the West. Islamic Book Trust, 2008.
Books edited by Iqbal (Literature, English)
- Colours of Loneliness: An anthology of Pakistani Literature, Oxford University Press, 1999.
- Pakistani Literature (ed.) vol. 1, 2 and 4, Pakistan Academy of Letters, Islamabad 1992-93.
- Islam and Science: Historic and Contemporary Perspectives, 4 vols., Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011.