Menander

Menander

Overview
Menander Greek dramatist, the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy, was the son of well-to-do parents; his father Diopeithes
Diopeithes
Diopeithes was an Athenian general, probably father of the poet Menander, who was sent out to the Thracian Chersonese about 343 BC, at the head of a body of Athenian settlers or κληρoυχoι...

 is identified by some with the Athenian general and governor of the Thracian Chersonese
Thracian Chersonese
The Thracian Chersonese was the ancient name of the Gallipoli peninsula, in the part of historic Thrace that is now part of modern Turkey.The peninsula runs in a south-westerly direction into the Aegean Sea, between the Hellespont and the bay of Melas . Near Agora it was protected by a wall...

 known from the speech of Demosthenes
Demosthenes
Demosthenes was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by...

 De Chersoneso. He presumably derived his taste for comic drama from his uncle Alexis
Alexis
Alexis was a Greek comic poet of the Middle Comedy period, born at Thurii in Magna Graeca and taken early to Athens, where he became a citizen, being enrolled in the deme Oion and the tribe Leontides. It is thought he lived to the age of 106 and died on the stage while being crowned...

.

Menander was the friend, associate, and perhaps pupil of Theophrastus
Theophrastus
Theophrastus , a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos, was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. He came to Athens at a young age, and initially studied in Plato's school. After Plato's death he attached himself to Aristotle. Aristotle bequeathed to Theophrastus his writings, and...

, and was on intimate terms with the Athenian dictator Demetrius of Phalerum
Demetrius Phalereus
Demetrius of Phalerum was an Athenian orator originally from Phalerum, a student of Theophrastus and one of the first Peripatetics...

.
Discussion
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Unanswered Questions
Quotations

We live, not as we wish to, but as we can.

Lady of Andros, fragment 50

Riches cover a multitude of woes.

The Boeotian Girl, fragment 90

Whom the gods love dies young.

The Double Deceiver, fragment 125

At times discretion should be thrown aside, and with the foolish we should play the fool.

Those Offered for Sale, fragment 421

The truth sometimes not sought for comes forth to the light.

The Girl Who Gets Flogged, fragment 422

Deus ex machina.

Translation: A god from the machine.

I call a fig a fig, a spade a spade.

Unidentified fragment 545

Marriage, if one will face the truth, is an evil, but a necessary evil.

Unidentified fragment 651

It is not white hair that engenders wisdom.

Unidentified fragment 639

Health and intellect are the two blessings of life.

Monostikoi (Single Lines)
Encyclopedia
Menander Greek dramatist, the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy, was the son of well-to-do parents; his father Diopeithes
Diopeithes
Diopeithes was an Athenian general, probably father of the poet Menander, who was sent out to the Thracian Chersonese about 343 BC, at the head of a body of Athenian settlers or κληρoυχoι...

 is identified by some with the Athenian general and governor of the Thracian Chersonese
Thracian Chersonese
The Thracian Chersonese was the ancient name of the Gallipoli peninsula, in the part of historic Thrace that is now part of modern Turkey.The peninsula runs in a south-westerly direction into the Aegean Sea, between the Hellespont and the bay of Melas . Near Agora it was protected by a wall...

 known from the speech of Demosthenes
Demosthenes
Demosthenes was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by...

 De Chersoneso. He presumably derived his taste for comic drama from his uncle Alexis
Alexis
Alexis was a Greek comic poet of the Middle Comedy period, born at Thurii in Magna Graeca and taken early to Athens, where he became a citizen, being enrolled in the deme Oion and the tribe Leontides. It is thought he lived to the age of 106 and died on the stage while being crowned...

.

Life and work


Menander was the friend, associate, and perhaps pupil of Theophrastus
Theophrastus
Theophrastus , a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos, was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. He came to Athens at a young age, and initially studied in Plato's school. After Plato's death he attached himself to Aristotle. Aristotle bequeathed to Theophrastus his writings, and...

, and was on intimate terms with the Athenian dictator Demetrius of Phalerum
Demetrius Phalereus
Demetrius of Phalerum was an Athenian orator originally from Phalerum, a student of Theophrastus and one of the first Peripatetics...

. He also enjoyed the patronage of Ptolemy Soter, the son of Lagus
Lagus
Lagus from Eordaea was the father, or reputed father, of Ptolemy, the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. He married Arsinoe, a concubine of Philip II, king of Macedon, who was said to have been pregnant at the time of their marriage, on which account it is told that the Macedonians generally looked...

, who invited him to his court. But Menander, preferring the independence of his villa in the Peiraeus and the company of his mistress Glycera
Glycera (courtesan)
Glycera was a popular name often used for Hellenistic hetaerae, held by:#The daughter of Thalassis and the mistress of Harpalus and Menander. #The mistress of Pausias, born in Sicyon....

, refused. According to the note of a scholiast on the Ibis of Ovid
Ovid
Publius Ovidius Naso , known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who is best known as the author of the three major collections of erotic poetry: Heroides, Amores, and Ars Amatoria...

, he drowned while bathing, and his countrymen honored him with a tomb on the road leading to Athens, where it was seen by Pausanias
Pausanias (geographer)
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece , a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from firsthand observations, and is a crucial link between classical...

. Numerous supposed busts of him survive, including a well-known statue in the Vatican
Vatican City
Vatican City , or Vatican City State, in Italian officially Stato della Città del Vaticano , which translates literally as State of the City of the Vatican, is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy. It has an area of...

, formerly thought to represent Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman. He was elected consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his dramatic reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, and reorganizing the...

.

Menander was the author of more than a hundred comedies, and took the prize at the Lenaia
Lenaia
The Lenaia was an annual festival with a dramatic competition. It was one of the lesser festivals of Athens and Ionia in ancient Greece. The Lenaia took place in Athens in the month of Gamelion, roughly corresponding to January. The festival was in honour of Dionysos Lenaios...

 festival eight times. His record at the City Dionysia is unknown but may well have been similarly spectacular. His rival in dramatic art (and supposedly in the affections of Glycera) was Philemon
Philemon (poet)
Philemon ; was an Athenian poet and playwright of the New Comedy. He was born either at Soli in Cilicia or at Syracuse in Sicily but moved to Athens some time before 330 BC, when he is known to have been producing plays....

, who appears to have been more popular. Menander, however, believed himself to be the better dramatist, and, according to Aulus Gellius
Aulus Gellius
Aulus Gellius , was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome. He was educated in Athens, after which he returned to Rome, where he held a judicial office...

, used to ask Philemon: "Don't you feel ashamed whenever you gain a victory over me?" According to Caecilius of Calacte
Caecilius of Calacte
For others of this name see Archagathus Caecilius, of Calacte in Sicily, Greek rhetorician, flourished at Rome during the reign of Augustus....

 (Porphyry
Porphyry (philosopher)
Porphyry of Tyre , Porphyrios, AD 234–c. 305) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre. He edited and published the Enneads, the only collection of the work of his teacher Plotinus. He also wrote many works himself on a wide variety of topics...

 in Eusebius
Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea also called Eusebius Pamphili, was a Roman historian, exegete and Christian polemicist. He became the Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine about the year 314. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon...

, Praeparatio evangelica ) Menander was guilty of plagiarism
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as the "wrongful appropriation," "close imitation," or "purloining and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions," and the representation of them as one's own original work, but the notion remains problematic with nebulous...

, his The Superstitious Man being taken from The Augur of Antiphanes. But reworkings and variations on a theme of this sort were commonplace, and the charge is a foolish one. Menander subsequently became one of the favorite writers of antiquity. How long complete copies of his plays survived is unclear, although twenty-three of them, with commentary by Michael Psellus, were said to still have been available in Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

 in the 11th century. He is praised by Plutarch
Plutarch
Plutarch then named, on his becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus , c. 46 – 120 AD, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia...

 (Comparison of Menander and Aristophanes) and Quintilian
Quintilian
Marcus Fabius Quintilianus was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing...

 (Institutio Oratoria), who accepted the tradition that he was the author of the speeches published under the name of the Attic orator Charisius
Charisius
Flavius Sosipater Charisius was a Latin grammarian.He was probably an African by birth, summoned to Constantinople to take the place of Euanthius, a learned commentator on Terence...

.

An admirer and imitator of Euripides
Euripides
Euripides was one of the three great tragedians of classical Athens, the other two being Aeschylus and Sophocles. Some ancient scholars attributed ninety-five plays to him but according to the Suda it was ninety-two at most...

, Menander resembles him in his keen observation of practical life, his analysis of the emotions, and his fondness for moral maxims, many of which became proverbial: "The property of friends is common," "Whom the gods love die young," "Evil communications corrupt good manners" (from the Thaïs, quoted in 1 Corinthians
First Epistle to the Corinthians
The first epistle of Paul the apostle to the Corinthians, often referred to as First Corinthians , is the seventh book of the New Testament of the Bible...

 15:33). These maxims (chiefly monostichs) were afterwards collected, and, with additions from other sources, were edited as Menander's One-Verse Maxims, a kind of moral textbook for the use of schools.

The single surviving speech from his early play Drunkenness is an attack on the politician Callimedon, in the manner of Aristophanes
Aristophanes
Aristophanes , son of Philippus, of the deme Cydathenaus, was a comic playwright of ancient Athens. Eleven of his forty plays survive virtually complete...

, whose bawdy style was adopted in many of his plays.

Menander found many Roman imitators. Eunuchus
Eunuchus
Eunuchus is a comedy written by the Roman playwright Terence featuring a complex plot of familial misunderstanding.-Prologue:...

, Andria
Andria (comedy)
Andria is a comedy by Terence, a Roman playwright. It was Terence's first play, and he wrote it when he was approximately 19 years old. Terence adapted through translation from Menander's play, although as he is at pains to point out in his prologue he goes beyond mere translation. It was first...

, Heauton Timorumenos
Heauton Timorumenos
Heauton Timorumenos is a play written by Publius Terentius Afer, known in English as Terence, a dramatist of the Roman Republic. The play has presented academics with some problems. Firstly it is not entirely clear whether Heauton Timorumenos is Terence's second or third play...

and Adelphi
Adelphoe
Adelphoe is a play by Roman playwright Terence, adopted partly from plays by Menander and Diphilus. It explores the best form of child-rearing...

of Terence
Terence
Publius Terentius Afer , better known in English as Terence, was a playwright of the Roman Republic, of North African descent. His comedies were performed for the first time around 170–160 BC. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator, brought Terence to Rome as a slave, educated him and later on,...

 (called by Caesar
Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

 "dimidiatus Menander") were avowedly taken from Menander, but some of them appear to be adaptations and combinations of more than one play. Thus in the Andria were combined Menander's The Woman from Andros and The Woman from Perinthos, in the Eunuchus, The Eunuch and The Flatterer, while the Adelphi was compiled partly from Menander and partly from Diphilus
Diphilus
Diphilus, of Sinope, was a poet of the new Attic comedy and contemporary of Menander . Most of his plays were written and acted at Athens, but he led a wandering life, and died at Smyrna....

. The original of Terence's Hecyra (as of the Phormio) is generally supposed to be, not by Menander, but Apollodorus of Carystus
Apollodorus of Carystus
Apollodorus of Carystus in Euboea, was one of the most important writers of the Attic New Comedy, who flourished in Athens between 300 and 260 B.C. He is to be distinguished from the older Apollodorus of Gela , also a writer of comedy, a contemporary of Menander. He wrote 47 comedies and obtained...

. The Bacchides and Stichus of Plautus
Plautus
Titus Maccius Plautus , commonly known as "Plautus", was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period. His comedies are the earliest surviving intact works in Latin literature. He wrote Palliata comoedia, the genre devised by the innovator of Latin literature, Livius Andronicus...

 were probably based upon Menander's The Double Deceiver and Brotherly-Loving Men, but the Poenulus, does not seem to be from The Carthaginian, nor the Mostellaria from The Apparition, in spite of the similarity of titles. Caecilius Statius
Caecilius Statius
Statius Caecilius, also known as Caecilius Statius was a Roman comic poet.A contemporary and intimate friend of Ennius, he was born in the territory of the Insubrian Gauls, probably in Mediolanum, and was probably taken as a prisoner to Rome , during the great Gallic war...

, Luscius Lavinius, Turpilius and Atilius also imitated Menander. He was further credited with the authorship of some epigrams of doubtful authenticity; the letters addressed to Ptolemy Soter and the discourses in prose on various subjects mentioned by the Suda are probably spurious.

Loss of his work


The works of Menander did not survive the middle ages. Michael Psellus is the last writer who may have known more than we have today.

Until the end of the 19th century, all that was known of Menander were fragments quoted by other authors and collected by Augustus Meineke
Augustus Meineke
Johann Albrecht Friedrich August Meineke , German classical scholar, was born at Soest in Westphalia.After holding educational posts at Jenkau and Danzig , he was director of the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Berlin from 1826 to 1856. He died at Berlin on 12 December 1870...

 (1855) and Theodor Kock, Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta (1888). These consist of some 1650 verses or parts of verses, in addition to a considerable number of words quoted from Menander by ancient lexicographers.

Twentieth century discoveries



This situation changed abruptly in 1907, with the discovery of the Cairo Codex
Cairo Codex
The Cairo Codex is a manuscript discovered in 1907 that contained the first significant fragments of plays by the ancient Greek playwright Menander....

, which contained large parts of the Samia; the Perikeiromene; the Epitrepontes; a section of the Heros; and another fragment from an unidentified play. A fragment of 115 lines of the Sikyonioi had been found in the papier mache of a mummy case in 1906.

In 1959, the Bodmer papyrus was published containing Dyskolos, more of the Samia, and half the Aspis. In the late 1960s, more of the Sikyonioi was found as filling for two more mummy cases; this proved to be drawn from the same manuscript as the discovery in 1906, which had clearly been thoroughly recycled.

Other papyrus fragments continue to be discovered and published.

In 2003, a palimpsest
Palimpsest
A palimpsest is a manuscript page from a scroll or book from which the text has been scraped off and which can be used again. The word "palimpsest" comes through Latin palimpsēstus from Ancient Greek παλίμψηστος originally compounded from πάλιν and ψάω literally meaning “scraped...

 manuscript, in Syriac writing of the 9th century, was found where the reused parchment comes from a very expensive 4th century Greek manuscript of works by Menander. The surviving leaves contain parts of the Dyskolos and 200 lines of another, so far unidentified, piece by Menander.

Famous quotations


The apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:33 quotes Menander in the text "Bad company corrupts good character" (NIV) who probably derived this from Euripides
Euripides
Euripides was one of the three great tragedians of classical Athens, the other two being Aeschylus and Sophocles. Some ancient scholars attributed ninety-five plays to him but according to the Suda it was ninety-two at most...

 (Socrates, Ecclesiastical History, 3.16).

"He who labors diligently need never despair, for all things are accomplished by diligence and labor." -Menander

"The die has been cast," in Latin "Alea iacta est", famously quoted by Julius Caesar upon deciding to engage in civil war

More complete plays

  • Aspis
    Aspis (Menander)
    Aspis that is only partially preserved on papyrus. Of a total of ca. 870 lines, about 420 lines survive, including almost all of the first and second act and the beginning of the third act...

    ("The Shield"; about half)
  • Dyskolos
    Dyskolos
    Dyskolos is an Ancient Greek comedy by Menander, the only one of his plays, or of the whole New Comedy, that has survived in all but complete form. It was first presented at the Lenaian festival in 317-16 BC, where it won Menander first prize...

    ("Old Cantankerous" or "The Grouch") the only play that survives in its entirety
  • Epitrepontes ("Men at Arbitration"; most)
  • Perikeiromene
    Perikeiromene
    Perikeiromene that is only partially preserved on papyrus. Of an estimated total of between 1030 and 1091 lines, about 450 lines survive. Most acts lack their beginning and end, except that the transition between act I and II is still extant. The play may have been first performed in 314/13 B.C...

    ("Girl who has her hair cropped"; George Bernard Shaw
    George Bernard Shaw
    George Bernard Shaw was an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate pieces of journalism, his main talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60...

     suggested Rape of the Locks, after Alexander Pope
    Alexander Pope
    Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet, best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer. He is the third-most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, after Shakespeare and Tennyson...

    ; about half)
  • Samia
    Samia (play)
    Samia, translated as The Girl From Samos, or The Marriage Connection, is an Ancient Greek comedy by Menander, it is the second most extant play with up to 116 lines missing compared to Dyskolos’s 39. The date of its first performance is unknown, with 315 B.C. and 309 B.C. being two suggested dates...

    ("Girl from Samos
    Samos Island
    Samos is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait. It is also a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional...

    "; four out of five sections)
  • Sikyonioi or Sikyonios ("Sicyon
    Sicyon
    Sikyon was an ancient Greek city situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea on the territory of the present-day prefecture of Corinthia...

    ian(s)"; about half)

Only fragments available

  • Adelphoi ("The Brothers")
  • Anatithemene, or Messenia
  • Andria ("The Woman From Andros
    Andros
    Andros, or Andro is the northernmost island of the Greek Cyclades archipelago, approximately south east of Euboea, and about north of Tinos. It is nearly long, and its greatest breadth is . Its surface is for the most part mountainous, with many fruitful and well-watered valleys. The area is...

    ")
  • Androgynos ("Hermaphrodite"), or Kres ("The Cretan")
  • Anepsioi ("Cousins")
  • Aphrodisia ("The Erotic Arts"), or Aphrodisios
  • Apistos ("Unfaithful", or "Unbelieving")
  • Arrhephoros, or Auletris ("The Female Flute-Player")
  • Auton Penthon ("Grieving For Him")
  • Boiotis ("Woman From Boeotia
    Boeotia
    Boeotia, also spelled Beotia and Bœotia , is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece. It was also a region of ancient Greece. Its capital is Livadeia, the second largest city being Thebes.-Geography:...

    ")
  • Chalkeia (or Chalkis)
  • Chera ("The Widow")
  • Georgos ("The Farmer")
  • Daktylios ("The Ring")
  • Dardanos ("Dardanus
    Dardanus
    In Greek mythology, Dardanus was a son of Zeus and Electra, daughter of Atlas, and founder of the city of Dardania on Mount Ida in the Troad....

    ")
  • Deisidaimon ("The Superstitious Man")
  • Demiourgos ("The Demiurge")
  • Didymai ("Twin Sisters")
  • Dis Exapaton ("Double Deceiver")
  • Empimpramene ("Woman On Fire")
  • Encheiridion ("Handbook")
  • Epangellomenos ("The Summoned Man")
  • Ephesios ("Man From Ephesus")
  • Epikleros ("The Heiress")
  • Eunouchos ("The Eunuch")
  • Halieis ("The Fishermen")
  • Heauton Timoroumenos ("Torturing Himself")
  • Heniochos ("The Charioteer")
  • Heros ("The Hero
    Hero (mythology)
    In Greek mythology, Hero was one of the sons of king Priam mentioned in Hyginus Fabulae. His mothers name is unknown. Possibly he was killed by Achilles or Neoptolemus....

    ")
  • Hiereia ("The Priestess")
  • Hippokomos
  • Homopatrioi ("People Having The Same Father")
  • Hydria ("The Water-Pot")
  • Hymnis ("Hymnis")
  • Hypobolimaios ("The Changeling"), or Agroikos ("The Country-Dweller")
  • Imbrioi ("People From Imbros
    Imbros
    Imbros or Imroz, officially referred to as Gökçeada since July 29, 1970 , is an island in the Aegean Sea and the largest island of Turkey, part of Çanakkale Province. It is located at the entrance of Saros Bay and is also the westernmost point of Turkey...

    ")
  • Kanephoros
  • Karchedonios ("The Carthaginian
    Carthage
    Carthage , implying it was a 'new Tyre') is a major urban centre that has existed for nearly 3,000 years on the Gulf of Tunis, developing from a Phoenician colony of the 1st millennium BC...

     Man")
  • Karine ("The Carian
    Caria
    Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there...

     Woman")
  • Katapseudomenos
  • Kekryphalos ("The Hair-Net")
  • Kitharistes ("The Harp-Player")
  • Knidia ("The Woman From Cnidos")
  • Kolax ("Flatterer" or "The Toady")
  • Koneiazomenai ("Drugged Women")
  • Kybernetai ("The Helmsmen")
  • Leukadia ("The Girl from Leukas
    Lefkada
    Lefkada, or Leucas or Leucadia , is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Lefkada . It is situated on the northern part of the island,...

    ")
  • Lokroi ("Men From Locrus")
  • Menagyrtes ("Beggar-Priest of Rhea
    Rhea (mythology)
    Rhea was the Titaness daughter of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth, in Greek mythology. She was known as "the mother of gods". In earlier traditions, she was strongly associated with Gaia and Cybele, the Great Goddess, and was later seen by the classical Greeks as the mother of the Olympian...

    ")
  • Methe ("Drunkenness")
  • Misogynes ("The Woman-Hater")
  • Misoumenos ("The Man She Hated")
  • Naukleros ("The Ship's Captain")
  • Nomothetes ("The Lawgiver" or "Legislator")
  • Olynthia ("Woman From Olynthos")
  • Orge ("Anger")
  • Paidion ("Little Child")
  • Pallake ("The Concubine")
  • Parakatatheke ("The Deposit")
  • Perinthia ("Woman from Perinthos")
  • Phanion ("Phanion")
  • Phasma ("The Phantom, or Apparition")
  • Philadelphoi ("Brotherly-Loving Men")
  • Plokion ("The Necklace")
  • Poloumenoi ("Men Being Sold", or "Men For Sale")
  • Proenkalon
  • Progamoi
  • Pseudherakles ("The Fake Hercules
    Hercules
    Hercules is the Roman name for Greek demigod Heracles, son of Zeus , and the mortal Alcmene...

    ")
  • Psophodees ("Frightened By Noise")
  • Rhapizomene
  • Stratiotai ("The Soldiers")
  • Synaristosai ("Women Who Eat Together At Noon"; "The Ladies Who Lunch")
  • Synepheboi
  • Synerosa ("Woman In Love")
  • Thais ("Thais")
  • Theophoroumene ("The Possessed Girl")
  • Thesaurus ("The Treasure")
  • Thettale
  • Thrasyleon
  • Titthe ("The Wet-Nurse")
  • Trophonios ("Trophonius
    Trophonius
    Trophonius or Trophonios was a Greek hero or daimon or god - it was never certain which one - with a rich mythological tradition and an oracular cult at Lebadaea in Boeotia....

    ")
  • Xenologos ("Enlisting Foreign Mercenaries")

  • Standard editions


    The standard edition of the least-well-preserved plays of Menander is Kassel-Austin, Poetarum Comicorum Graecorum vol. VI.2. For the better-preserved plays, the standard edition is now Arnott's 3-volume Loeb; a complete text of these plays is now being prepared by Colin Austin of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, for the Oxford Classical Texts
    Oxford Classical Texts
    Oxford Classical Texts , or Scriptorum Classicorum Bibliotheca Oxoniensis, is a series of books published by Oxford University Press. It contains texts of ancient Greek and Latin literature, such as Homer's Odyssey and Virgil's Aeneid, in the original language with a critical apparatus...

     series.

    See also

    • Poseidippus of Cassandreia
      Poseidippus of Cassandreia
      Posidippus of Cassandreia , Poseidippos, 316 BC – ca. 250 BC) son of Cyniscus, a Macedonian who lived in Athens, was a celebrated comic poet of the New Comedy. He produced his first play in the third year after Menander had died, . Cooks held an important position in his list of characters...

    • Apollodorus of Carystus
      Apollodorus of Carystus
      Apollodorus of Carystus in Euboea, was one of the most important writers of the Attic New Comedy, who flourished in Athens between 300 and 260 B.C. He is to be distinguished from the older Apollodorus of Gela , also a writer of comedy, a contemporary of Menander. He wrote 47 comedies and obtained...

    • Diphilus of Sinope
      Diphilus
      Diphilus, of Sinope, was a poet of the new Attic comedy and contemporary of Menander . Most of his plays were written and acted at Athens, but he led a wandering life, and died at Smyrna....

    • Philemon (poet)
      Philemon (poet)
      Philemon ; was an Athenian poet and playwright of the New Comedy. He was born either at Soli in Cilicia or at Syracuse in Sicily but moved to Athens some time before 330 BC, when he is known to have been producing plays....

    • Rhinthon
      Rhinthon
      Rhinthon was a Hellenistic dramatist.The son of a potter, he was probably a native of Syracuse and afterwards settled at Tarentum....

    • Oxyrhynchus
      Oxyrhynchus
      Oxyrhynchus is a city in Upper Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya. It is also an archaeological site, considered one of the most important ever discovered...

    • Theatre of ancient Greece
      Theatre of Ancient Greece
      The theatre of Ancient Greece, or ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece between c. 550 and c. 220 BC. The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural, political and military power during this period, was its centre, where it was...


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