Malacca

Malacca

Overview
Malacca dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state
States of Malaysia
Malaysia is a federation which consists of thirteen states and three federal territories . Eleven states and two federal territories are located on the Malay Peninsula while the remaining two states and one federal territory are on the island of Borneo.-The states and federal territories:Malaysia...

, after Perlis
Perlis
Perlis is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and has Satun and Songkhla Provinces of Thailand on its northern border. It is bordered by the state of Kedah to the south...

 and Penang
Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north-south and, at its terminus, is the southern-most point of the Asian mainland...

, on the Straits of Malacca
Strait of Malacca
The Strait of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is named after the Malacca Sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1414 to 1511.-Extent:...

. It borders Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan, one of the 13 states that constitutes Malaysia, lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south....

 to the north and the state of Johor
Johor
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri...

 to the south. The capital is Malacca City, which is 148 km south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, 235 km north west to Johor's largest city Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru is the capital city of Johor in southern Malaysia. Johor Bahru is the southernmost city of the Eurasian mainland...

 and 95 km north west to Johor's second largest city Batu Pahat.
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Encyclopedia
Malacca dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state
States of Malaysia
Malaysia is a federation which consists of thirteen states and three federal territories . Eleven states and two federal territories are located on the Malay Peninsula while the remaining two states and one federal territory are on the island of Borneo.-The states and federal territories:Malaysia...

, after Perlis
Perlis
Perlis is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and has Satun and Songkhla Provinces of Thailand on its northern border. It is bordered by the state of Kedah to the south...

 and Penang
Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north-south and, at its terminus, is the southern-most point of the Asian mainland...

, on the Straits of Malacca
Strait of Malacca
The Strait of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is named after the Malacca Sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1414 to 1511.-Extent:...

. It borders Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan, one of the 13 states that constitutes Malaysia, lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south....

 to the north and the state of Johor
Johor
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri...

 to the south. The capital is Malacca City, which is 148 km south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, 235 km north west to Johor's largest city Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru is the capital city of Johor in southern Malaysia. Johor Bahru is the southernmost city of the Eurasian mainland...

 and 95 km north west to Johor's second largest city Batu Pahat. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 since 7 July 2008.

Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, the monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The Yang di-Pertua Negeri
Yang di-Pertua Negeri
The Yang di-Pertua Negeri is the official title of the ceremonial heads of state of the Malaysian states without hereditary rulers, namely Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak...

or Governor, rather than a Sultan
Sultan
Sultan is a title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", and "dictatorship", derived from the masdar سلطة , meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who...

, acts as the head of state now.

History

> > > > > > > > > > >
Incorporated into Date
Malacca Sultanate ≈1400
Portuguese Empire 1511
Dutch Empire 1641
British Empire 1824
Straits Settlements 1826
Crown Colony 1867
Japanese occupation 15 January 1942
Malayan Union 1 April 1946
Federation of Malaya 31 January 1948
Malaysia 16 September 1963

Sultanate of Malacca


Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a fishing village inhabited by local Malays. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, also called Iskandar Shah or Sri Majara, the last Raja of Singapura (present day Singapore) following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca around 1400 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.

According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on that very spot. He named it 'Melaka' after the tree under which he had taken shelter, the Melaka tree (Phyllanthus emblica). Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name 'Malacca' from the Tamil word 'mallakka' which means upside down or on ones back. Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration.

In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut), the wandering proto-Malay
Proto Malay
The term Proto-Malay which translates to Melayu asli or Melayu purba , are the Mongoloids and Austronesian speakers from mainland Asia who moved to the Malay peninsular and Malay archipelago in a long series of migration between 2500 and 1500 BC.The Proto-Malays are believed to be seafarers...

 privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as a major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade. Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial
Empire
The term empire derives from the Latin imperium . Politically, an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples united and ruled either by a monarch or an oligarchy....

 and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara in the vicinity of Bukit China
Bukit Cina
Bukit Cina is a hillside of historical significance in the capital of Malaysian state of Malacca, Malacca Town. It is located several kilometers to the north from the historical center of Malacca , but these days, it's surrounded by the modern city on all sides.-History:According to the local...

 ("Chinese Hill"), which was perceived as having excellent Feng Shui
Feng shui
Feng shui ' is a Chinese system of geomancy believed to use the laws of both Heaven and Earth to help one improve life by receiving positive qi. The original designation for the discipline is Kan Yu ....

 (geomancy
Geomancy
Geomancy is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand...

). Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424. The prosperity of Malacca attracted the attention of the Siamese
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

. Attempts at invasion made in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak
Tun Perak
Bendahara Paduka Raja Tun Perak was the fifth and most famous bendahara, a Malay rank similar to a prime minister, of the Sultanate of Malacca. He served under four sultans from 1456 to 1498. Early in his life, Perak was a soldier-statesman for Malaccan rulers...

, the then Bendahara
Bendahara
Bendahara is an administrative position within classical Malay kingdoms before the intervention of European powers during the 19th century. A bendahara was appointed by a sultan and was a hereditary post. It was the office that is held by bendahara family...

 (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and China was a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks.
pore) and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah.
Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He
Zheng He
Zheng He , also known as Ma Sanbao and Hajji Mahmud Shamsuddin was a Hui-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa, collectively referred to as the Voyages of Zheng He or Voyages of Cheng Ho from...

's fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po
Hang Li Po
Hang Li Po was the fifth wife of Malaccan Sultan Mansur Shah . It is disputed whether Hang Li Po ever existed since she was never recorded in the Ming Chronicles of the ruling Chinese Ming Dynasty nor in the genealogical record of the imperial house of Zhu, the royal family of the Ming dynasty...

, a princess of the Ming
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah
Mansur Shah of Malacca
Sultan Mansur Shah was the sixth Sultan of Malacca. He ruled Malacca from 1459 to 1477. He ascended the throne after the death of his father, Muzaffar Shah.-Expansions of Malaccan Empire:Mansur Shah implemented a policy of expansionism during his rule...

 who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina
Bukit Cina
Bukit Cina is a hillside of historical significance in the capital of Malaysian state of Malacca, Malacca Town. It is located several kilometers to the north from the historical center of Malacca , but these days, it's surrounded by the modern city on all sides.-History:According to the local...

). (See Zheng He in Malacca).
Scholars have disputed Hang Li Po's status, as the Ming Chronicles in China do not mention her as a princess in the Chinese court of the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

. At the time of the arrival of the Sultan's envoy, the reigning Ming Emperor was Jingtai Emperor
Jingtai Emperor
The Jingtai Emperor was Emperor of China from 1449 to 1457. The second son of the Xuande Emperor, he was selected in 1449 to succeed his older brother, the Zhengtong Emperor, when the latter was captured by Mongols following the Tumu Crisis...

. Since records of his reign were expunged following Tianshun'a ascension to the throne in 1457, it is likely that records of Hang Li Po's status might no longer exist. Other historical texts do mention that she was a princess in the court of the Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
The Yongle Emperor , born Zhu Di , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. His Chinese era name Yongle means "Perpetual Happiness".He was the Prince of Yan , possessing a heavy military base in Beiping...

(1402–1424).

A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan
Peranakan
Peranakan Chinese and Baba-Nyonya are terms used for the descendants of late 15th and 16th-century Chinese immigrants to the Indonesian archipelago of Nusantara during the Colonial era....

 people, who spread to other major settlements in the region.

During its prime, Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north-south and, at its terminus, is the southern-most point of the Asian mainland...

 and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai's southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Java
Java
Java is an island of Indonesia. With a population of 135 million , it is the world's most populous island, and one of the most densely populated regions in the world. It is home to 60% of Indonesia's population. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is in west Java...

 which was in decline as Malacca rose. Malacca was also pivotal in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
The Malay Archipelago refers to the archipelago between mainland Southeastern Asia and Australia. The name was derived from the anachronistic concept of a Malay race....

.

After Vietnam destroyed Champa
Champa
The kingdom of Champa was an Indianized kingdom that controlled what is now southern and central Vietnam from approximately the 7th century through to 1832.The Cham people are remnants...

 in the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa
1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa
1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa under Emperor Lê Thánh Tông was a military expedition that is widely regarded as marking the downfall of Champa. The Vietnamese forces attacked and sacked the capital Vijaya, and decimated the Cham army...

, they proceeded to engage in hostilities with Malacca with the intent of conquest. The Chinese government sent a censor, Ch'en Chun, to Champa in 1474 to install the Champa King, but he discovered Vietnamese soldiers had taken over Champa and were blocking his entry. He proceeded to Malacca instead and its ruler sent back tribute to China. Malacca again sent envoys to China in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while returning to Malacca from China in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked them, castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was not in control of Champa but sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back due to lack of permission from the Chinese to engage in war. The Chinese Emperor scolded them, ordering the Malaccans to strike back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked.

European colonisation


In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque[p][n] was a Portuguese fidalgo, or nobleman, an admiral whose military and administrative activities as second governor of Portuguese India conquered and established the Portuguese colonial empire in the Indian Ocean...

 set sail from Goa
Goa
Goa , a former Portuguese colony, is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its...

 to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. They conquered
Capture of Malacca (1511)
The Capture of Malacca in 1511 occurred when the Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque subdued the city of Malacca in 1511.The port city of Malacca controlled the narrow strategic strait of Malacca, through which all sea-going trade between China and India was concentrated...

 the city on 24 August 1511. It became a strategic base for Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 expansion in the East Indies
East Indies
East Indies is a term used by Europeans from the 16th century onwards to identify what is now known as Indian subcontinent or South Asia, Southeastern Asia, and the islands of Oceania, including the Malay Archipelago and the Philippines...

. Sultan Mahmud Shah
Mahmud Shah (Sultan of Malacca)
Sultan Mahmud Shah ruled Malacca from 1488 to 1528. He was the son of Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah.Upon his father's premature death, he was installed at a very young age. The regent at that time was the prime minister Tun Perak. During his initial years as a young adult, the sultan was known to...

, the last Sultan of Malacca, took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. In the meantime, the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosa
A Famosa
A Famosa is a Portuguese fortress located in Malacca, Malaysia. It is among the oldest surviving European architectural remains in Asia. The Porta de Santiago, a small gate house, is the only remaining part of the fortress still standing....

 to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). "In order to appease the King of Ayudhya (Siam), the Portuguese sent up an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes, who was well received by Ramathibodi." in 1511. Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan
Bintan
Bintan Island or Negeri Segantang Lada is an island in the Riau archipelago of Indonesia. It is part of the Riau Islands province, the capital of which, Tanjung Pinang, lies in the island's south and is the island's main community....

, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straits
Strait of Malacca
The Strait of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is named after the Malacca Sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1414 to 1511.-Extent:...

 to Kampar in Sumatra
Sumatra
Sumatra is an island in western Indonesia, westernmost of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island entirely in Indonesia , and the sixth largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 with a population of 50,365,538...

, where he died five years later.

It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not also mean they controlled Asian trade centred there. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.
The Jesuit
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 missionary
Missionary
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin...

 Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier, born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta was a pioneering Roman Catholic missionary born in the Kingdom of Navarre and co-founder of the Society of Jesus. He was a student of Saint Ignatius of Loyola and one of the first seven Jesuits, dedicated at Montmartre in 1534...

 spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641, the Dutch defeated the Portuguese in an effort to capture Malacca, with the help of the Sultan of Johor
Johor
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri...

e. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

) on Java
Java
Java is an island of Indonesia. With a population of 135 million , it is the world's most populous island, and one of the most densely populated regions in the world. It is home to 60% of Indonesia's population. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is in west Java...

 as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark, better known as the Stadthuys
Stadthuys
The Stadthuys , also known as the Red Square, is a historical structure situated in the heart of Malacca Town, the administrative capital of the state of Malacca, Malaysia...

 or Red Building.

Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London, was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands in London on 17 March 1824. The treaty was to resolve disputes arising from the execution of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814...

 in exchange for Bencoolen
Bengkulu
Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. It is on the southwest coast of the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of West Sumatra, Jambi, South Sumatra and Lampung. The capital and largest city is Bengkulu city. It was formerly the site of a British garrison, which they called Bencoolen...

 on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 and then as a Crown Colony
Crown colony
A Crown colony, also known in the 17th century as royal colony, was a type of colonial administration of the English and later British Empire....

. It formed part of the Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements
The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.Originally established in 1826 as part of the territories controlled by the British East India Company, the Straits Settlements came under direct British control as a crown colony on 1 April 1867...

, together with Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 and Penang
Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
The Malayan Union was a federation of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca. It was the successor to British Malaya and was conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a single government so as to simplify administration. The Malayan Union later became the independent...

, which later became Malaysia.

Geography


The state of Malacca covers an area of 1664 km² (642.5 sq mi). The state is divided into 3 districts: Central Malacca (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Alur Gajah is a town and district in Malacca, Malaysia. Alor Gajah is also a parliamentary constituency of Melaka. It borders Tampin, Negeri Sembilan to the north. This town has a railway station at Pulau Subang about 10 kilometres from the town area...

 (660 km²), and Jasin
Jasin
Jasin District is one of the three districts in the State of Malacca, Malaysia. The other two are the Central Malacca district and the Alor Gajah district. Jasin District is the southernmost of the three districts, and borders the State of Johor. Jasin is also the name of the main town in the...

 (676 km²).

Malacca sits upon the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north-south and, at its terminus, is the southern-most point of the Asian mainland...

 opposite Sumatra
Sumatra
Sumatra is an island in western Indonesia, westernmost of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island entirely in Indonesia , and the sixth largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 with a population of 50,365,538...

, with the state of Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan, one of the 13 states that constitutes Malaysia, lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south....

 to the north and Johor
Johor
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri...

 to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the west coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 and commands a central position on the Straits of Malacca. The state capital, Malacca Town
Malacca Town
Most tourist attractions are concentrated in its small city centre which encompasses Jonker Walk which houses Malacca's traditional Chinatown that exhibits Peranakan architecture. A Famosa Fort, St. Paul Hill are among the tourist attractions located in the Bandar Hilir, old city area. There are...

, is strategically located between the two national capitals of Malaysia and Singapore, and connected with excellent roads and highways.

The offshore Pulau Besar
Pulau Besar (Malacca)
Pulau Besar is an island off the coast of Malacca, Malaysia, and is located approximately 13 km from the mainland.-How to get there:Visitors can board motorboats at Pernu, Umbai for the short trip to the island, or from the Malacca Pier, located at Melaka Raya. There are also ferries going to Pulau...

, Pulau Upeh and the exclave Tanjung Tuan
Tanjung Tuan
Tanjung Tuan or Cape Rachado is an exclave of the state of Malacca, Malaysia. It is a cape with a lighthouse facing the Strait of Malacca...

 are also parts of Malacca.

State government


Malacca is administered by its local State Legislative Assembly and Executive Committee (EXCO). The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertua Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957 when the Federation of Malaya gained independence....

 of Malaysia.

The Chief Minister
Chief Minister
A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national state, provinces of Sri Lanka, Pakistan, notably a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government...

's Department is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest. The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister's office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:
  • Malacca Central District & Land Office
  • Alor Gajah District & Land Office
  • Jasin District & Land Office

.

District and Local Authority


Malacca is divided into 3 districts and 4 local authorities. > > >
Rank District Area (kmsq) Population (2008) District Seat Local Government
Central Malacca 279.85 473,700 Malacca City Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah
Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah
Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah or Historical Malacca City Council is a local authority which administers Malacca City and other areas of Central Melaka district. This agency is under Malacca state government...


Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya or Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council is a local authority which administers Hang Tuah Jaya, the northern of Central Melaka district and the southern of Alor Gajah district, . This agency comes under the Malacca state government...

Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Alur Gajah is a town and district in Malacca, Malaysia. Alor Gajah is also a parliamentary constituency of Melaka. It borders Tampin, Negeri Sembilan to the north. This town has a railway station at Pulau Subang about 10 kilometres from the town area...

660.00 167,600 Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Alur Gajah is a town and district in Malacca, Malaysia. Alor Gajah is also a parliamentary constituency of Melaka. It borders Tampin, Negeri Sembilan to the north. This town has a railway station at Pulau Subang about 10 kilometres from the town area...

Majlis Perbandaran Alor Gajah
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya or Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council is a local authority which administers Hang Tuah Jaya, the northern of Central Melaka district and the southern of Alor Gajah district, . This agency comes under the Malacca state government...

Jasin District 676.07 128,000 Jasin
Jasin
Jasin District is one of the three districts in the State of Malacca, Malaysia. The other two are the Central Malacca district and the Alor Gajah district. Jasin District is the southernmost of the three districts, and borders the State of Johor. Jasin is also the name of the main town in the...

Majlis Perbandaran Jasin
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya or Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council is a local authority which administers Hang Tuah Jaya, the northern of Central Melaka district and the southern of Alor Gajah district, . This agency comes under the Malacca state government...


Economy


The tourism and manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

 sectors are the two most important sectors in the state economy. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, "Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia" ("Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia"). It is rich in cultural heritage and bears several places of historical interest.

Malacca is home to several modern shopping complexes, hypermarts and department stores.

Apart from tourism, Malacca is also a manufacturing centre for products ranging from food and consumer products, through high-tech
High tech
High tech is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology currently available. It is often used in reference to micro-electronics, rather than other technologies. The adjective form is hyphenated: high-tech or high-technology...

 weapon
Weapon
A weapon, arm, or armament is a tool or instrument used with the aim of causing damage or harm to living beings or artificial structures or systems...

ry and automotive
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 components to electronic
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

 and computer parts. Industrial areas are centred along the edges of the city proper in suburbs which include Batu Berendam, Cheng, Ayer Keroh and Tasik Utama, while outside Malacca city industrial areas include Alor Gajah.

Demographics


Malacca has a population of 788,706 as of 2010. In 2007, the racial composition of the area was:
  • Malays: 57%;
  • Chinese
    Malaysian Chinese
    Malaysian Chinese is a Malaysian of Chinese origin. Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the fifteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries. Within Malaysia, they are usually simply referred to as "Chinese" in all languages. The term Chinese Malaysian is also sometimes used to refer to...

    : 32%, including the Peranakan
    Peranakan
    Peranakan Chinese and Baba-Nyonya are terms used for the descendants of late 15th and 16th-century Chinese immigrants to the Indonesian archipelago of Nusantara during the Colonial era....

     community;
  • Indians, including the Chitty
    Chitty
    The Chitty are a distinctive group of Tamil people found mainly in Malacca and Singapore , who are also known as the Indian Peranakans. As of today, their population stands at 2,000.-Language:...

     people: a sizeable minority;
  • Kristang
    Kristang people
    The Kristang are a creole ethnic group of people of mixed Portuguese and Malaccan descent based in Malaysia and Singapore. People of this ethnicity have strong Dutch heritage, some British as well as Chinese and Indian heritage due to intermarriage, which was common among the Kristang...

    , people with partial Portuguese
    Portuguese people
    The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

     ancestry: a small community;
  • Dutch Eurasians, Eurasians with Dutch ancestry: a minority within the Malacca Eurasian community.


Besides Malacca City, other major Malacca townships include Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Alur Gajah is a town and district in Malacca, Malaysia. Alor Gajah is also a parliamentary constituency of Melaka. It borders Tampin, Negeri Sembilan to the north. This town has a railway station at Pulau Subang about 10 kilometres from the town area...

, Masjid Tanah
Masjid Tanah
Masjid Tanah is a major town in district of Alor Gajah, Malacca, Malaysia. The name Masjid Tanah originates from a mosque built from soil . The town has been inhibited since mid 1500 AD starting from a small village...

, Jasin
Jasin
Jasin District is one of the three districts in the State of Malacca, Malaysia. The other two are the Central Malacca district and the Alor Gajah district. Jasin District is the southernmost of the three districts, and borders the State of Johor. Jasin is also the name of the main town in the...

, Merlimau
Merlimau
Merlimau is a town in Malacca, Malaysia. It is situated about 22 kilometers south-east of Melaka Historical City. Until 40 years ago, it used to be the main town travelers passed when traveling south of West Malaysia. Since then it was left out until more shophouses were constructed. Merlimau is...

, Batu Berendam
Batu Berendam
Batu Berendam is a town in Melaka, Malaysia. The Batu Berendam Airport is a domestic airport located here.-References:...

 and Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh
Ayer Keroh is a town situated in the state of Malacca, Malaysia.The town is a major tourist spot of the state, apart from the old Malacca Town, due to its recent hosting of various interesting attractions. The Mini Malaysia and Mini ASEAN Park is situated in the town...

.

Education


The establishment of the Malacca Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru provided quality medical education. It has produced many doctors who are serving the country or working abroad since its inception in 1997.

The state has a number of reputable colleges, universities and other higher learning institutions.

Malacca has a boarding school, Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Selandar (SBPIS). The Ministry of Education of Malaysia enrols students based on their Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) and Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR).

A center for juvenile convicts, Henry Gurney Prisoners School
Henry Gurney Prisoners School
Henry Gurney Prisoners School or Sekolah Tahanan Henry Gurney and Sekolah Henry Gurney is a prisoner school in Telok Mas, Malacca, Malaysia.-History:...

, is also situated in Telok Mas, Malacca. Established in 1949 as High Moral School, it was renamed School of Henry Gurney at 15 May 1950. This center runs rehabilitation programs for male juvenile criminals in which they are exposed to living skills such as sewing and cooking and vocational skills such as mechanical repairing.

Malacca also has one international school called Melaka International School, which caters to the expatriate community in Malacca.

Health care


Hospitals in Malacca state are listed below:
  • Government hospitals
    • Malacca General Hospital
    • Jasin District Hospital
      Hospital Jasin
      Jasin District Hospital is a 76-bed government-funded district hospital situated in the state of Malacca, Malaysia. It is a secondary hospital serving the medical needs of the Jasin district population.-History:...


  • Private Hospitals
    • Putra Hospital (formerly known as Southern Hospital, owned by the state government)
    • Pantai Ayer Keroh
    • Mahkota Medical Centre
      Mahkota Medical Centre
      Mahkota Medical Centre is private hospital located in Malacca, Malaysia. Established in 1994, it is a pioneer and one of the major players in the medical tourism industry in Malaysia...


Culture



The historic centre of Malacca
Malacca Town
Most tourist attractions are concentrated in its small city centre which encompasses Jonker Walk which houses Malacca's traditional Chinatown that exhibits Peranakan architecture. A Famosa Fort, St. Paul Hill are among the tourist attractions located in the Bandar Hilir, old city area. There are...

 was inscribed on the World Heritage List on 7 July 2008 together with George Town
George Town, Penang
George Town was voted as one of the best cities in Asia by Asiaweek, ranked 6th in 1998 and 9th in 2000. More recently, George Town has improved a notch to rank as the 9th most liveable city in Asia in a survey of 254 cities worldwide according to an international location ratings survey by , an...

, the capital of Penang
Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

.

The Malays, settled in Malacca since 1400, form the largest community and have a distinctive culture.

Two of the most important museums in Malacca are the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum
Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum
The Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum is a museum in Malacca, Malaysia. It showcases the local history of ethnic Chinese-Malays called Baba-Nyonya in Malacca.- External links :*...

 and the Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum.

Malacca is well-known for its food; Malay dishes include ikan asam pedas, sambal belacan and cencaluk.

Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh shrimp of a species known as keragu in Malay. .

Malacca is also famous for satay . Raw fish and meat are skewered onto sticks which is then cooked in a peanut sauce; this is often sold in individual sticks.

Nyonya-Baba
Peranakan
Peranakan Chinese and Baba-Nyonya are terms used for the descendants of late 15th and 16th-century Chinese immigrants to the Indonesian archipelago of Nusantara during the Colonial era....

 cuisine
Cuisine
Cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, often associated with a specific culture. Cuisines are often named after the geographic areas or regions that they originate from...

 is a fusion of Chinese (mostly southern Hokkien or Fujian influence), Portuguese, Dutch, Indian, British and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature. Peranakan dishes include Itik Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce usually served with potatoes) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa
Laksa
Laksa is a popular spicy noodle soup from the Peranakan culture, which is a merger of Chinese and Malay elements found in Malaysia and Singapore, and to a lesser extent Indonesia.- Origin :The origin of the name "laksa" is unclear...

. Chicken Rice Ball is another dish popular with domestic Chinese tourists.
Malacca's ethnic Portuguese population are the descendants of Portuguese colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Even to this day, many of the traditions originating with the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" from Portuguese word "Entrudo" (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent
Lent
In the Christian tradition, Lent is the period of the liturgical year from Ash Wednesday to Easter. The traditional purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer – through prayer, repentance, almsgiving and self-denial – for the annual commemoration during Holy Week of the Death and...

, the Catholic fasting period), "branyu" (traditional dance), "Santa Cruz" (a yearly Festival of street celebrations).

The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil's Curry and Portuguese egg tarts to the town's cuisine. Ikan Bakar (roasted fish) restaurants in Umbai, Serkam and Alai are also popular.

There is also a sizeable amount of Sikhs residing in Malacca, and Sikhs from Malacca and abroad congregate in the gurdwara
Gurdwara
A Gurdwara , meaning the Gateway to the Guru, is the place of worship for Sikhs, the followers of Sikhism. A Gurdwara can be identified from a distance by tall flagpoles bearing the Nishan Sahib ....

 (Sikh temple) situated in Jalan Temenggong during the last weekend of May, to commemorate the death of its former priest, Sant Baba Sohan Singh Ji, who was elevated to a saint upon passing away. Visitors are welcome but are advised to follow rules and common practices within the premises. Typical vegetarian punjabi cuisine
Punjabi cuisine
Punjabi cuisine is food from the Punjab region of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian. One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes...

 will be served to everyone visiting the gurdwara.

Transport


Pulau Sebang
Pulau Sebang
Pulau Sebang is a small town in Malacca, Malaysia. This small town is at the Malacca side of Tampin. The Tampin railway station is located at this town....

 in Alor Gajah
Alor Gajah
Alur Gajah is a town and district in Malacca, Malaysia. Alor Gajah is also a parliamentary constituency of Melaka. It borders Tampin, Negeri Sembilan to the north. This town has a railway station at Pulau Subang about 10 kilometres from the town area...

 district, 30 km north of Malacca, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca before World War II but these were dismantled by the Japanese for the construction of the Burmese
Myanmar
Burma , officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar , is a country in Southeast Asia. Burma is bordered by China on the northeast, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, India on the northwest, the Bay of Bengal to the southwest, and the Andaman Sea on the south....

 Death Railway
Death Railway
The Burma Railway, also known as the Death Railway, the Thailand–Burma Railway and similar names, was a railway between Bangkok, Thailand, and Rangoon, Burma , built by the Empire of Japan during World War II, to support its forces in the Burma campaign.Forced labour was used in its construction...

. It was never rebuilt after the war, though traces of the line remain.

Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Sentral
Melaka Sentral
Melaka Sentral is the largest public transportation terminal in Malacca city, Malacca, Malaysia. It is located between Lebuh AMJ and Jalan Panglima Awang.-Transportation terminal:...

 which has inter and intracity bus lines. Batu Berendam Airport
Batu Berendam Airport
Malacca Airport Malacca Airport Malacca Airport (formerly known as Batu Berendam Airport is an airport located in Batu Berendam, Malacca in Malaysia. The Airport serves the city and the state of Melaka, as well as northern Johor....

 in Batu Berendam mainly serves Pekan Baru, Subang, Medan and chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy.

The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South highway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits.

Popular historical attractions


  • Fort A Famosa
    A Famosa
    A Famosa is a Portuguese fortress located in Malacca, Malaysia. It is among the oldest surviving European architectural remains in Asia. The Porta de Santiago, a small gate house, is the only remaining part of the fortress still standing....

    : Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles
    Stamford Raffles
    Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles, FRS was a British statesman, best known for his founding of the city of Singapore . He is often described as the "Father of Singapore"...

     in 1808.
  • St. John's Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannon
    Cannon
    A cannon is any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other usually explosive-based propellents to launch a projectile. Cannon vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees,...

    s in this fort
    Fortification
    Fortifications are military constructions and buildings designed for defence in warfare and military bases. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs...

     point inland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
  • St. Peter's Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its facade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell
    Bell (instrument)
    A bell is a simple sound-making device. The bell is a percussion instrument and an idiophone. Its form is usually a hollow, cup-shaped object, which resonates upon being struck...

     was delivered from Goa
    Goa
    Goa , a former Portuguese colony, is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its...

     in 1608.
  • St. Paul's Church
    St. Paul's Church, Melaka
    St. Paul's Church is a historic church building in Malacca, Malaysia that was originally built in 1521. It is located at the summit of St. Paul's Hill and is today part of the Malacca Museum Complex comprising the A Famosa ruins, the Stadthuys and other historical buildings.-History:In Décadas da...

    : Constructed by the Portuguese captain
    Captain-major
    Captain-major is the English rendering of the Portuguese title Capitão-mor for colonial officers, put in charge of a capitania, Portuguese possession deemed not important enough to have its own colonial Governor.Due to the impossibility of exercising direct control and sovereignty over islands,...

    , Duarte Coelho, this church was named "Our Lady of The Hill", but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed "St. Paul's Church". Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
  • Christ Church
    Christ Church, Melaka
    Christ Church is an 18th century Protestant church in the city of Malacca, Malaysia. It is the oldest functioning Protestant church in Malaysia and is within the jurisdiction of the Lower Central Archdeaconry of the Anglican Diocese of West Malaysia ....

    : Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica
    Replica
    A replica is a copy closely resembling the original concerning its shape and appearance. An inverted replica complements the original by filling its gaps. It can be a copy used for historical purposes, such as being placed in a museum. Sometimes the original never existed. For example, Difference...

     of the Bible, a headstone
    Headstone
    A headstone, tombstone, or gravestone is a marker, usually stone, that is placed over a grave. In most cases they have the deceased's name, date of birth, and date of death inscribed on them, along with a personal message, or prayer.- Use :...

     written in the Armenian language
    Armenian language
    The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora...

    , and a replica of "The Last Supper".
  • Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     church was built by a French priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the "Apostle of the East". St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary
    Missionary
    A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin...

     work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
  • Stadthuys
    Stadthuys
    The Stadthuys , also known as the Red Square, is a historical structure situated in the heart of Malacca Town, the administrative capital of the state of Malacca, Malaysia...

    : Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the "Museum of History and Ethnography
    Ethnography
    Ethnography is a qualitative method aimed to learn and understand cultural phenomena which reflect the knowledge and system of meanings guiding the life of a cultural group...

    ". The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artefact
    Artifact (archaeology)
    An artifact or artefact is "something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, esp an object of archaeological interest"...

    s of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
  • Cheng Hoon Teng
    Cheng Hoon Teng
    The Cheng Hoon Teng temple is a Taoist temple, located at No. 25 Jalan Tokong, Malacca Town, Malaysia. It is the oldest functioning temple in Malaysia.- Overview :...

     Temple: Located along Jalan Tokong (formerly Temple Street) in the core zone of the Malacca Unesco World Heritage Site. It is the oldest functioning temple in Malaysia and grandest temple in Malacca.
  • Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is known for its antique goods
    Antiques
    An antique is an old collectible item. It is collected or desirable because of its age , beauty, rarity, condition, utility, personal emotional connection, and/or other unique features...

    .
  • Portuguese Square: Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.
  • Sri Poyyatha Vinayagar Moorthi Temple: This is the oldest Hindu Temple in Malaysia. It was built in 1781 on land given by the Dutch to the Chitty community.
  • Tranquerah Mosque
    Tranquerah Mosque
    Tranquerah Mosque or Masjid Tengkera, in Malacca Town, is the oldest mosque in the Malaysian state of Malacca....

    : The oldest mosque in Malacca.
  • Kampung Kling Mosque: Kampung Kling Mosque is one of the oldest mosques in Malaysia. It was built around 1784 with the influence of Sumatran architecture. Firstly, there’s no Byzantium dome around. It was replaced by a tiered pyramidal roof. Secondly, just look at the minaret which is structured like a pagoda. There's even Chinese Character carved on the side roof of the mosque.

Notable people

  • Tun Ghafar Baba, Malaysia Deputy Prime Minister (1986–1993), Vice-President of the United Malays National Organisation
    United Malays National Organisation
    The United Malays National Organisation, is Malaysia's largest political party; a founding member of the National Front coalition, which has played a dominant role in Malaysian politics since independence....

     (1962–1987), Malacca Chief Minister (1959–1963).
  • Ibu Zain, was a pioneer for Malay ladies (Srikandi) in education and politics in Malaysia.
  • Shirley Geok-lin Lim
    Shirley Geok-lin Lim
    Shirley Geok-lin Lim was born in Malacca Malaysia. She is an American writer of poetry, fiction, and criticism. Her first collection of poems, Crossing The Peninsula, published in 1980, won her the Commonwealth Poetry Prize, a first both for an Asian and for a woman...

    , award winning novelist, writer and Professor of English at the University of California, Santa Barbara
    University of California, Santa Barbara
    The University of California, Santa Barbara, commonly known as UCSB or UC Santa Barbara, is a public research university and one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system. The main campus is located on a site in Goleta, California, from Santa Barbara and northwest of Los...

    http://www.english.ucsb.edu/people-detail.asp?PersonID=24http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=2734http://voices.cla.umn.edu/vg/Bios/entries/lim_shirley_geoklin.html
  • Maria Jane Dyer (Maria Jane Taylor), born in Malacca in 1837, pioneer missionary to China, daughter of Samuel Dyer
    Samuel Dyer
    Samuel Dyer 台約爾 , was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China in the Congregationalist tradition, who worked among the Chinese in Malaysia. He arrived in Penang in 1827. Dyer, his wife Maria, and their family lived in Malacca and then finally in Singapore...

     and Maria (Tarn) Dyer, she became the wife of James Hudson Taylor, founder of the China Inland Mission
    China Inland Mission
    OMF International is an interdenominational Protestant Christian missionary society, founded in Britain by Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865.-Overview:...

    .

External links