The Lancia Fulvia
is an Italian
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...
introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in 1963 by Lancia
Lancia Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia and which became part of the Fiat Group in 1969. The company has a long history of producing distinctive cars and also has a strong rally heritage. Some modern Lancias are seen as presenting a more...
. It was produced by that company through 1976. Fulvias are notable for their role in automobile racing history, including winning the International Rally Championship
The FIA International Championship for Manufacturers was a rally series culminating in a champion manufacturer. The championship was run from 1970 to 1972 and it was replaced by the FIA World Rally Championship in 1973...
in 1972. On testing it in 1967, Road & Track
Road & Track is an American automotive enthusiast magazine. It is owned by Hearst Magazines, and is published monthly. The editorial offices are located in Newport Beach, California.-History:...
summed up the Fulvia as "a precision motorcar, an engineering tour de force".
The Fulvia was available in three variants:- 'Berlina' (4 door saloon) 'Coupe' and 'Sport' an alternative coupe designed and built by Zagato on the Coupe floorpan.
- Berlina - A compact four-door saloon introduced in 1963 with 1098 cc engine producing 58 bhp at 5800 rpm.
- Berlina 2C - An updated Berlina launched late 1963 with 71 bhp engine fitted with twin Solex carburettors. The body-shell also had revised front subframe mountings.
- Berlina GT - Introduced in 1967 with the 1216 cc or 1231 cc engine producing 80 bhp at 6000 rpm and 1199 cc 79 bhp for Greece.
- Berlina GTE - Introduced in 1968 with a new 1298 cc (818.302) engine with 87 bhp at 6000 rpm. In addition the brakes were uprated with a brake servo.
- Berlina 'S2 - Series 2 introduced for 1969 with the 1298 cc (and 1199 cc engine for Greece) and restyled body with a longer wheelbase.
- Berlina 'S2 - Berlina Series 2 update introduced 1970 with the 1298 cc (818.302) engine and 5-speed gearbox. Larger Girling calipers and pads replaced the Dunlop system fitted to 1st series cars.
- Coupe - A compact two-door introduced in 1965, designed in-house by Piero Castagnero. the coupe uses a 150 mm (5.9 in) shorter wheelbase along with the larger (1216 cc) or 1231 cc engine producing 80 bhp at 6000 rpm.
- Coupe HF - A competition version of the coupe introduced later in 1965, fitted with a tuned version of the 1216 cc engine producing 88 bhp at 6000 rpm, and fitted with aluminium bonnet, doors and bootlid together with plexiglass side and rear windows.
- Rallye 1.3 HF - An updated HF with a new 1298 cc engine with 101 bhp at 6400 rpm..
- Rallye 1.3 - An updated coupe with the 1298 cc (818.302) engine with 87 hp at 6000 rpm.
- Rallye 1.3S - An updated Rallye 1.3 with a new 1298 cc (818.303) engine producing 92 hp at 6000 rpm.
- Rallye 1.6 HF - The evolution of Rallye 1.3 HF with a 1584 cc engine producing 115 hp at 6000 rpm. Other changes included negative camber front suspension geometry, with light alloy 13 inch 6J wheels; and a close ratio 5 speed gearbox and wheel arch extensions.
- Rallye 1.6 HF Variante 1016 - The most-powerful Fulvia with a 1584 cc engine producing up to132 hp depending on tune. This was the version used by the works rally team until 1974, when it was superseded in competition by the Stratos.
- Coupe 1.3s - 2nd Series - Face-lifted body and new 5 speed gearbox with 1298 cc (818.303) engine producing 90 hp at 6000 rpm. Larger Girling calipers and pads replaced the Dunlop system fitted to 1st series cars.
- Coupe 1600HF - 2nd Series - Face-lifted all steel body with 1584 cc engine producing 115 hp at 6000 rpm. The body work was changed from the standard 1.3 Coupe to incorporate 'flared' wheel arches (replacing the extensions used on 1st series HFs). 'Lusso' versions had extra trim and were fitted with bumpers and were mostly produced for export.
- Coupe 1.3s Montecarlo - Replica of 1972 Montecarlo Rally works car livery with 1298 cc producing 90 hp at 6000 rpm. This version used the 1600HF bodyshell and interior fittings (bucket seats etc.), fitted with front fog lamps and no bumbers; but were fitted with the standard 4.5J steel wheels of the standard 1.3 Coupe.
- Coupe 1.3s Safari - A special edition of the standard Coupe with 4.5J light alloy wheels, special trim and exterior badges.
- Coupe Fulvia 3 - Updated Coupe introduced 1974 with a new design of seats incorporating headrests and new white faced instrument dials with an updated range of trim colours, materials and options. Mechanically the same as the earlier 1.3s S2 Coupes except for the addition of emission control on the solex carburettors.
- Sport - a 2-seat Zagato
Zagato is a design consultancy and engineering services company situated just outside Milan, Italy.The company's premises occupy an area of , of which are covered....
rebody of Coupe with aluminium bodyshell and 1216 cc engine.
- Sport 1.3 - An updated Sport with 1298 cc (818.302) engine producing 87 hp at 6000 rpm. Early versions still have all aluminium bodyshells (700 were produced with both 1216 cc & 1298 cc engines), but later ones were fitted with steel bodyshells with an aluminium bonnet and doors.
- Sport 1.3s - An updated Sport 1.3 with 1298 cc (818.303) engine producing 92 hp at 6000 rpm. These Sports were normally fitted with brake servos.
- Sport 1.3s 2nd series - An updated Sport 1.3 with 5 speed gearbox. Very early versions of these Series 2 cars were fitted with Series 1 'type' bodyshells with a separate spare wheel-hatch and smaller rear lights and aluminium bonnet and doors. Later versions have all steel bodyshells and no spare wheel hatch, and larger rear lights.
- Sport 1600 - An updated Sport with 1584 cc engine producing 115 hp. This version had electric front windows and was the fastest production Fulvia produced, with a top speed of 118 mi/h.
The Fulvia saloon was updated for 1969 with a 20 mm (0.78740157480315 in) longer wheelbase, new styling, and an updated interior.
The Fulvia Coupe and Sport were updated in mechanics and styling in 1970.
The Fulvia Berlina was designed by Antonio Fessia, to replace the Lancia Appia
The Lancia Appia was a car introduced in 1953 as a replacement for the Ardea and in production for 10 years. The Appia was the last in a long line of Lancia production cars dating back to the Lancia Lambda to use the famous sliding pillar front suspension...
with which it shared almost no components. The Appia was a rear wheel drive car, however, while the Fulvia moved to front wheel drive like the Flavia
The Lancia Flavia is a medium sized luxury saloon, launched with a 1500 cc engine at the 1960 Turin Motor Show by Lancia and introduced in major European markets during the next twelve months. Coupe and cabriolet versions developed by Pininfarina quickly followed, together with one or two low...
. The general engineering design of the Fulvia was identical to that of the Flavia with the major exception of the engine, the Flavia having a four cylinder horizontally opposed engine and the Fulvia a 'Narrow Angle' vee configuration as featured on most production Lancias from the Lambda
The Lancia Lambda is an innovative automobile produced from 1922 through 1931. It was the first car to feature a load-bearing monocoque-type body, and it also pioneered the use of an independent suspension . Vincenzo Lancia even invented a shock absorber for the car and it had excellent four wheel...
. The Fulvia used a longitudinal engine mounted in front of its transaxle
In the automotive field, a transaxle is a major mechanical component that combines the functionality of the transmission, the differential, and associated components of the driven axle into one integrated assembly....
. An independent suspension
Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically independently of each other. This is contrasted with a beam axle, live axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement on one side affects...
in front used wishbones and a single leaf spring
Originally called laminated or carriage spring, a leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles...
, while a solid axle with a panhard rod
A Panhard rod is a component of a car suspension system that provides lateral location of the axle...
and leaf springs was used in back. Four wheel Dunlop
Dunlop was originally a brand of tyre produced by the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company at the end of the 19th century, taking its name from John Dunlop. The brand is now used for many other products either derived from rubber or with a looser connection to rubber.Ownership of the brand has become...
The disc brake or disk brake is a device for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel while it is in motion.A brake disc is usually made of cast iron, but may in some cases be made of composites such as reinforced carbon–carbon or ceramic matrix composites. This is connected to the wheel and/or...
s were fitted to 1st series Fulvias. With the introduction of the 2nd Series in 1970 the brakes were uprated with larger Girling calipers all round and a brake servo. The handbrake design was also changed - using separate drums and brake-shoes operating on the rear wheels.
One element that was new was the narrow-angle V4
Lancia pioneered the V engine design, producing the first V6 as well as the first V4s. Several different V4 families were produced from the 1920s through 1960s.-Lambda:...
engine. Designed by Zaccone Mina, it used a narrow angle (12°53'28") and was mounted well forward at a 45° angle. The engine is a DOHC design with a one camshaft operating all intake valves and another operating all exhaust valves. The very narrow angle of the cylinders allowed for use of a single cylinder head
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder, forming the combustion chamber. This joint is sealed by a head gasket...
Displacement began at just 1091 cc with 58 bhp (44 kW) with a 72 mm bore and 67 mm stroke. A higher (9.0:1) compression ratio and the fitment of twin Solex carburettors raised power to 71 bhp (53 kW) soon after.
The engine was bored to 6 mm to enlarge displacement to 1216 cc for the HF
model. This, and some tuning, raised output to 80 to 88 bhp (60 to 66 kW).
The engine was re-engineered with a slightly narrower bank angle (12°45'28") and longer (69.7 mm) stroke for 1967. Three displacements were produced: 1199 cc (74 mm bore), 1231 cc (75 mm bore), and 1298 cc (77 mm bore). The new 1298 cc engine was produced in two versions; the type 818.302 produced 87 bhp at 6000 rpm and was fitted to 1st series Coupes, Sports and Berlina GTE and later to the 2nd Series Berlina. The Type 818.303 was first produced with 92 hp and was fitted to the 1st series Coupe Rallye S and Sport S. For the 2nd Series Coupe and Sport power was slightly reduced to 90 hp at 6000 rpm. The 1199 cc engine was only fitted to the Berlina sold in Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....
The engine was completely reworked for the new 1.6 HF
with an even-narrower angle (11°20' now) and longer 75 mm stroke combined with a bore of 82 mm gave it a displacement of 1584 cc, and power ranged from 115 to 132 bhp (85 to 98 kW) depending on tune.