Guadalajara, Jalisco

Guadalajara, Jalisco

Overview
Guadalajara is the capital of the Mexican state
States of Mexico
The United Mexican States is a federal republic formed by 32 federal entities .According to the Constitution of 1917, the states of the federation are free and sovereign. Each state has their own congress and constitution, while the Federal District has only limited autonomy with a local Congress...

 of Jalisco
Jalisco
Jalisco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided in 125 municipalities and its capital city is Guadalajara.It is one of the more important states...

, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is located in the central region of Jalisco in the western-pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,564,514 it is Mexico's second most populous municipality. The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area
Guadalajara Metropolitan Area
The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area is the most populous metropolitan area of the Mexican state of Jalisco and the second largest in the country after Greater Mexico City...

 includes seven adjacent municipalities with a reported population of 4,328,584 in 2009, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Mexico
Metropolitan areas of Mexico
Metropolitan areas in Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city...

, behind Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

.
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Encyclopedia
Guadalajara is the capital of the Mexican state
States of Mexico
The United Mexican States is a federal republic formed by 32 federal entities .According to the Constitution of 1917, the states of the federation are free and sovereign. Each state has their own congress and constitution, while the Federal District has only limited autonomy with a local Congress...

 of Jalisco
Jalisco
Jalisco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided in 125 municipalities and its capital city is Guadalajara.It is one of the more important states...

, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is located in the central region of Jalisco in the western-pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,564,514 it is Mexico's second most populous municipality. The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area
Guadalajara Metropolitan Area
The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area is the most populous metropolitan area of the Mexican state of Jalisco and the second largest in the country after Greater Mexico City...

 includes seven adjacent municipalities with a reported population of 4,328,584 in 2009, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Mexico
Metropolitan areas of Mexico
Metropolitan areas in Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city...

, behind Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

. The municipality is the second most densely populated area in Mexico; the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl
Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl
Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, or more commonly Ciudad Neza, is a city and municipality of Mexico State adjacent to the northeast corner of Mexico's Federal District: it is thus part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. It was named after Nezahualcoyotl, the Acolhua poet and king of nearby Texcoco, and...

 in Estado de México.

The city's economy is based on industry, especially information technology with a large number of international firms having manufacturing facilities in the Guadalajara Metro Area. Other, more traditional industries, such as shoes, textiles and food processing are also important contributing factors. Guadalajara is the cultural center of Mexico, considered by most to be the home of Mariachi
Mariachi
Mariachi is a genre of music that originated in the State of Jalisco, in Mexico. It is an integration of stringed instruments highly influenced by the cultural impacts of the historical development of Western Mexico. Throughout the history of mariachi, musicians have experimented with brass, wind,...

 music and host to a number of large-scale cultural events such as the International Film Festival of Guadalajara
Guadalajara International Film Festival
The Guadalajara International Film Festival is a week-long film festival held each March in the Mexican city of Guadalajara. The festival is considered the most prestigious film festival in Latin America and among the most important Spanish language film festivals in the world...

 and the Guadalajara International Book Fair
Guadalajara International Book Fair
The Guadalajara International Book Fair, better known as the FIL is the most important annual event of its kind in the Spanish-speaking world, and the second largest book fair in the world after Frankfurt's. Created in 1987, the FIL is put on by the University of Guadalajara...

 and a number of globally renowned cultural events which draw international crowds. It is also home to the Chivas
C.D. Guadalajara
Club Deportivo Guadalajara , is a Mexican professional football club based in Guadalajara, Jalisco. Guadalajara plays in the Primera División de México and is the most successful club in Mexican football, having won 11 First Division titles, 7 Campeón de Campeones and 2 Copa México...

 football/soccer team, one of the two most popular in Mexico. This city was named American Capital of Culture
American Capital of Culture
The non-governmental organization American Capital of Culture Organization selects one city in the Americas annually to serve as the American Capital of Culture for a period of one year...

 in 2005 and hosted the 2011 Pan American Games
2011 Pan American Games
The 2011 Pan American Games, officially the XVI Pan American Games, was an international multi-sport event that was held from October 14–30, 2011 in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Some events were held in the nearby cities of Ciudad Guzmán, Puerto Vallarta, Lagos de Moreno and Tapalpa...

.

Guadalajara is the 10th largest city in Latin America in terms of population, urban area and Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

.
The city is named after the Spanish city of Guadalajara
Guadalajara, Spain
Guadalajara is a city and municipality in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha, Spain, and in the natural region of La Alcarria. It is the capital of the province of Guadalajara. It is located roughly 60 km northeast of Madrid on the Henares River, and has a population of 83,789...

, with the name originating from the Arabic word wādi l-ḥijāra (واد الحجارة or وادي الحجارة) the literal translation of the Iberian name Arriaca, meaning "Valley of stones".

In a 2007 research of the fDi magazine
FDi magazine
fDi Magazine is an English-language bi-monthly news and foreign direct investment publication owned by The Financial Times Ltd and edited in London. The A4 glossy pages reach a circulation of 14, 768 ABC “senior decision-makers involved in overseas investment” across the world...

 Guadalajara was the highest ranking major Mexican city having the second strongest economic potential of any major North American city and only Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

 scored more highly for sheer economic potential, in the same research was considered the "city of the future" due to its youthful population, low unemployment and large number of recent foreign investment deals, it was also found the third most business friendly city in North America.

History


The city was established in three other places before where it is now. The first settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as San Juan. This site was settled by Juan de Oñate
Juan de Oñate
Don Juan de Oñate y Salazar was a Spanish explorer, colonial governor of the New Spain province of New Mexico, and founder of various settlements in the present day Southwest of the United States.-Biography:...

 as commissioned by Nuño de Guzmán. The purpose of the city was to secure the recent conquests made and to provide defense against still-hostile natives. This site did not last long due to the lack of water, so in 1533, it was moved to a location near Tonalá
Tonalá, Jalisco
Tonalá is a city and its surrounding municipality within the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area in the state of Jalisco in Mexico.The city had a 2005 census population of 374,258 and the municipality had a population of 408,729 and an area of 119.58 km² . The municipality lies adjacent to the east...

. Two years later, Guzmán ordered that the village be moved to Tlacotán. While the settlement was here, Spanish king Charles V
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556.As...

 granted the coat of arms the city has today.

This settlement was ferociously attacked during the Mixtón War in 1541, by Caxcan
Caxcan
The Caxcan were a partly nomadic indigenous people of Mexico. Under their leader, Francisco Tenamaztle, the Caxcan were allied with the Zacatecos against the Spaniards during the Mixtón Rebellion. During the rebellion, they were described as "the heart and the center of the Indian Rebellion". They...

, Portecuex and Zacateco
Zacateco
The Zacatecos were an indigenous people inhabiting part of northern Mexico, one of the peoples called Chichimecas by the Aztecs. They lived in most of what is now the state of Zacatecas and the northeastern part of Durango. They have many direct descendants, but most of their culture and...

 peoples under the command of Tenamaxtli
Tenamaxtli
Francisco Tenamaztle was a leader of the Caxcan Indians in Mexico during the Mixton War of 1540-1542. He was later put on trial in Spain...

. This war was initiated by the Indians due to the cruel treatment of Indians by Nuño de Guzmán, especially the enslavement of captured natives. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza
Antonio de Mendoza
Antonio de Mendoza y Pacheco, Marquis of Mondéjar, Count of Tendilla , was the first viceroy of New Spain, serving from April 17, 1535 to November 25, 1550, and the second viceroy of Peru, from September 23, 1551 to July 21, 1552...

 had to take control of the campaign to suppress the revolt after the Spanish were defeated in several engagements. The conflict ended after Mendoza made some concessions to the Indians, including the freeing of Indian slaves and amnesty.
The village of Guadalajara barely survived, and credit was given to the aid requested from the Archangel Michael, who remains as patron of the city. It was then decided to move the city once again, this time to Atemajac, as it was more defensible. The city has remained here to this day. In 1542, records indicate that 126 people were living in Guadalajara, and in the same year, the status of city was conferred by the Spanish king. The settlement's name came from the Spanish hometown of Nuño de Guzmán.

In 1560, royal offices for the province of Nueva Galicia
Nueva Galicia
El Nuevo Reino de Galicia or Nueva Galicia was an autonomous kingdom of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was named after Galicia in Spain...

 were moved from Compostela
Compostela, Nayarit
Compostela is the name of both a municipality and the town within that municipality that serves as the seat. They are in the Mexican state of Nayarit. The population of the municipality was 62,925 in a total area of 1,848 km²...

 to Guadalajara, as well as the bishopric. Construction of the cathedral was begun in 1561. In 1570, religious orders such as the Augustinians
Augustinians
The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo , applies to two separate and unrelated types of Catholic religious orders:...

 and the Dominicans arrived, which would make the city a center for evangelization efforts.
The historic city center encompasses what was four centers of population, as the villages of Mezquitán, Analco and Mexicaltzingo were annexed to the Atemajac site in 1667.

In 1791, the University
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 of Guadalajara was established in the city, which was then the capital of Nueva Galicia. The inauguration was held in 1792 at the site of the old Santo Tomas College. While the institution was founded during the 18th century, it would not be fully developed until the 20th, starting in 1925. In 1794, the Hospital Real de San Miguel de Belén, now simply known as the Hospital de Belen, was opened.

Guadajara's economy during the 18th century was based on agriculture and the production of non-durable goods such as textiles, shoes and food products.

Guadalajara remained the capital of Nueva Galicia with some modifications until the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

. After Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla decided not to attack Mexico City, despite early successes, he decided to retreat to Guadalajara in late 1810. Initially, he and his army were welcome in the city, as living conditions had become difficult for workers and Hidalgo promised to lower taxes and put an end to slavery. However, violence by the rebel army to city residents, especially royalists, soured the welcome. Hidalgo did sign a proclamation ending slavery, which was honored in the country since after the war. During this time, he also founded the newspaper El Despertador Americano, dedicated to the insurgent cause.


During this time, royalist forces marched to Guadalajara, arriving in January 1811 with nearly 6,000 men. Insurgents Ignacio Allende
Ignacio Allende
Ignacio José de Allende y Unzaga , born Ignacio Allende y Unzaga, was a captain of the Spanish Army in Mexico who came to sympathize with the Mexican independence movement. He attended the secret meetings organized by Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, where the possibility of an independent New Spain was...

 and Mariano Abasolo
Mariano Abasolo
Mariano Abasolo was a Mexican revolutionist, born at Dolores, Guanajuato. He participated in the revolution started by Hidalgo in 1810 and rose to be a major-general. He fought at Puente de Calderón, was taken prisoner by the Spaniards, was tried at Chihuahua, and was sentenced to ten years'...

 wanted to concentrate their forces in the city and plan an escape route should they be defeated, but Hidalgo rejected this. Their second choice then was to make a stand at the Puente de Calderon just outside the city. Hidalgo had between 80,000 and 100,000 men and 95 cannons, but the better trained royalists won, decimating the insurgent army, forcing Hidalgo to flee towards Aguascalientes. Guadalajara would remain in royalist hands until nearly the end of the war.
After the state of Jalisco was erected in 1823, the city became its capital. In 1844, General Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga
Mariano Paredes
Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga was a conservative Mexican general and president. He took power in a coup d'etat in 1846. He was the president at the start of the Mexican-American War.-Early career:...

 initiated a revolt against the government of President Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón , often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government...

, which the president managed to quell personally. However, while Santa Anna was in Guadalajara, a revolt called the Revolution of the Three Hours brought José Joaquín Herrera to the presidency and put Santa Anna into exile. During the Reform War
Reform War
The Reform War in Mexico is one of the episodes of the long struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces that dominated the country’s history in the 19th century. The Liberals wanted a federalist government, limiting traditional Catholic Church and military influence in the country...

, President Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez born Benito Pablo Juárez García, was a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served five terms as president of Mexico: 1858–1861 as interim, 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872...

 had his government here for a time in 1856. French troops entered the city during the French Intervention
French intervention in Mexico
The French intervention in Mexico , also known as The Maximilian Affair, War of the French Intervention, and The Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico by an expeditionary force sent by the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Spain...

 in 1864, and the city was retaken by Mexican troops in 1866.

Despite the violence, the 19th century was a period of economic, technological and social growth for the city. After Independence, small-scale industries developed, many of them owned by immigrants from Europe. Rail lines connecting the city to the Pacific coast and north to the United States intensified trade and allowed products from rural areas of Jalisco state to be shipped. The ranch culture became a very important aspect of Jalisco's and Guadalajara's identity since this time. From 1884 to 1890, electrical service, railroad service and the Observatory were established.

Guadalajara again experienced substantial growth after the 1930s, and the first industrial park was established in 1947. The city's population surpassed one million in 1964, and by the 1970s it was Mexico's second largest city, and the largest in western Mexico. Most of the modern city's urbanization took place between the 1940s and the 1980s, with the population doubling every ten years until it stood at 2.5 million in 1980. The population of the municipality has stagnated, and even declined, slowly but steadily since the early 1990s.
The increase of population brought with it the increase in the size of what is now called Greater Guadalajara, rather than an increase in the population density of the city. Migrants coming into Guadalajara from the 1940s to the 1980s were mostly from rural areas, who lived in the city center until they had enough money to buy property. This property was generally bought in the edges of the city, which were urbanizing into "fraccionamientos", or subdivisions. In the 1980s, the city was described as a "divided city" east to west based on socioeconomic class. Since then, the city has evolved into four sectors, which are still more-or-less class centered. The upper classes tend to live in Hidalgo and Juárez in the northwest and southwest, while lower classes tend to live in the city center, Libertad in the north east and southeast in Reforma. However, lower class development has developed on the city's periphery and upper and middle classes are migrating toward Zapopan, making the situation less neatly divided.(napolitano21-22) .
Since 1996, activity by multinational corporations has had a significant effect on the economic and social development of the city. The presence of companies such as Kodak, Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, USA that provides products, technologies, softwares, solutions and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including...

, Motorola
Motorola
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, which was eventually divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011, after losing $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009...

 and IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

 has been based on production facilities built just outside the city proper, bringing in foreign labor and capital. This was made possible in the 1980s by surplus labor, infrastructure improvements and government incentives. These companies focus on electrical and electronic items, which is now one of Guadalajara's two main products (the other being beer). This has internationalized the economy, steering it away from manufacturing and toward services, dependent on technology and foreign investment. This has not been favorable for the unskilled working class and traditional labor sectors.

On April 22, 1992, numerous gasoline explosions in the sewer
Sanitary sewer
A sanitary sewer is a separate underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings to treatment or disposal. Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas also carry industrial wastewater...

 system over four hours destroyed 8 kilometers of streets in the downtown district of Analco. Gante Street was the most damaged. Officially, 206 people were killed, nearly 500 injured and 15,000 were left homeless. The estimated monetary damage ranges between $300 million and $1 billion. The affected areas can be recognized by the more modern architecture
Modern architecture
Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely...

 in the areas that were destroyed.

Three days before the explosion, residents started complaining of a strong gasoline-like smell coming from the sewers. City workers were dispatched to check the sewers and found dangerously high levels of gasoline fumes. However, no evacuations were ordered. An investigation into the disaster found that there were two precipitating causes. The first was new water pipes that were built too close to an existing gasoline pipeline. Chemical reactions between the pipes caused erosion. The second was a flaw in the sewer design that did not allow accumulated gases to escape.

Numerous arrests were made in an attempt to indict those responsible for the blasts. Four PEMEX
Pemex
Petróleos Mexicanos or Pemex is a Mexican state-owned petroleum company. As of 2010, with a total asset worth of $415.75 billion, it is the second non-publicly listed largest company in the world by total market value, and Latin America's second largest enterprise by annual revenue as of 2009...

 (the state oil company) officials were indicted and charged, on the basis of negligence. Ultimately, however, these people were cleared of all charges. Calls for the restructuring of PEMEX were made but they were successfully resisted.

On May 24, 1993, Archbishop Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo, along with six other people, was assassinated on the parking lot of Guadalajara International Airport
Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport
Guadalajara International Airport , also known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport . It opened in 1966 and is located 16 km south of the city centre of Guadalajara. In 2010, the airport handled 6,953,900 passengers, representing a 7.8% increase from 2009...

. He was inside his car and received 14 gunshot
Gunshot
A gunshot is the discharge of a firearm, producing a mechanical sound effect and a chemical gunshot residue. The term can also refer to a gunshot wound caused by such a discharge. Multiple discharges of a firearm or firearms are referred to as gunfire. The word can connotate either the sound of a...

 wounds. A government inquiry concluded he was caught in a shootout between rival cocaine cartels and was mistakenly identified as a drug lord, but no one was ever imprisoned for the slaying. Juan Francisco Murillo Díaz
Juan Francisco Murillo Díaz
Juan Francisco Murillo Díaz, also known as "El Güero Jaibo" , was a member of the Tijuana Cartel , believed to be one of the masterminds and shooters behind the assassination of Cardinal Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo in Guadalajara, Jalisco, in May 1993...

 "El Güero Jaibo" and Édgar Nicolás Villegas "El Negro", members of the Tijuana Cartel
Tijuana Cartel
The Tijuana Cartel is a Mexican drug cartel based in Tijuana. The cartel has been described as "one of the biggest and most violent criminal groups in Mexico"...

, were identified as the masterminds of the homicide.

The city has hosted several important international events, such as the first Cumbre Iberoamericana in 1991, the Third Summit of Heads of State and Governments from Latin America, the Caribbean and the European Union in 2004, the Encuentro Internacional de Promotores y Gestores Culturales in 2005, and will be the host city of the 2011 Pan American Games
Pan American Games
The Pan-American or Pan American Games are a major event in the Americas featuring summer and formerly winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Pan American Games are the second largest multi-sport event after the Summer Olympics...

. It was also named the American Capital of Culture
American Capital of Culture
The non-governmental organization American Capital of Culture Organization selects one city in the Americas annually to serve as the American Capital of Culture for a period of one year...

 in 2005, Ciudad Educadora (Educator City) in 2006 and the first Smart City in Mexico due to its use of technology in development.
In its 2007 survey entitled "Cities of the Future", FDI magazine
FDi magazine
fDi Magazine is an English-language bi-monthly news and foreign direct investment publication owned by The Financial Times Ltd and edited in London. The A4 glossy pages reach a circulation of 14, 768 ABC “senior decision-makers involved in overseas investment” across the world...

 ranked Guadalajara highest among major Mexican cities, and designated Guadalajara as having the second strongest economic potential of any major North American city, behind Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

. FDI Magazine also ranked the city as the most business-friendly Latin American city in 2007.

Historic downtown


The historic downtown of Guadalajara is the oldest section of the city, where it was founded and where the oldest buildings are located. It centers on Paseo Morelos/Paseo Hospicio from the Plaza de Armas, where the seats of ecclesiastical and secular power are, east toward the Plaza de Mariachis and the Hospicio Cabañas. The Plaza de Armas is a rectangular plaza with gardens, ironwork benches and an ironwork kiosk
Kiosk
Kiosk is a small, separated garden pavilion open on some or all sides. Kiosks were common in Persia, India, Pakistan, and in the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century onward...

 which was made in Paris in the 19th century.

Within Guadalajara's historic downtown, there is a large number of beautiful Squares and Public Parks that are worth the visit. Here is a complete list: Parque Morelos, Plaza de Armas, Plaza de la Liberacion, Plaza de los Mariachis, Plaza Fundadores, Plaza Guadalajara, Plaza Tapatia, Rotonda de los Jalicienses Ilustres, Plaza del Agave, Parque Revolucion, Jardin del Santuario.

The Metropolitan Cathedral
Guadalajara Cathedral
The Guadalajara Cathedral or Cathedral of the Assumption of Our Lady , located in Guadalajara, Jalisco, is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the Archdiocese of Guadalajara and a minor basilica. It is built in the Renaissance style, with neo-gothic towers....

began construction in 1558 and was consecrated in 1616. Its two towers were built in the 19th century after an earthquake destroyed the originals. They are considered one of the city's symbols. The architecture is a mix of Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

, Baroque
Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and...

, Moorish
Moorish architecture
Moorish architecture is the western term used to describe the articulated Berber-Islamic architecture of North Africa and Al-Andalus.-Characteristic elements:...

 and Neoclassical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

. The interior has three naves and eleven side altars, covered by a roof supported by thirty Doric columns.
The Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres (Rotunda of Illustrious Men) is a circular monument made of quarried stone, built to honor the memory of distinguished people from Jalisco. It was built in 1952, and it contains seventeen columns which mark off a circular space, containing ninety-eight urns with the remains of the figures honored here. Across the street is the municipal palace, which was constructed in 1952. It has four façades of quarried stone, and it mostly of Neoclassical design with elements such as courtyards, entrances and columns that imitate the older structures of the city.
The Palace of the State Government is in Churrigueresque and Neoclassical styles, and was begun in the 17th century and finished in 1774. The interior was completely remodeled after an explosion here in 1859. This building contains a number of murals done by José Clemente Orozco, a native of Jalisco, and includes "Lucha Social," "Circo Político" and "Las Fuerzas Ocultas." The last one depicts Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla with his arm raised above his head in anger against the government and the church.

The Plaza de la Liberación is on the east side of the Cathedral. It is nicknamed the Plaza de las Dos Copas, referring to the two fountains on the east and west sides. Facing this plaza is the Teatro Degollado
Teatro Degollado
Teatro Degollado is a neoclassical Mexican theater known for its diverse performances and artistic design. It is located on a downtown plaza on the street Belen between Hidalgo Avenue and Morelos Avenue in the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco. Many performances take place at this building...

(Degollado Theater). It was built in the mid nineteenth century in Neoclassical design. The main portal has a pediment
Pediment
A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of the triangular section found above the horizontal structure , typically supported by columns. The gable end of the pediment is surrounded by the cornice moulding...

 with a scene in relief called "Apollo and the Muses" sculpted in marble by Benito Castañeda. Inside the vaulted ceiling contains a fresco which depicts a scene from the Divine Comedy painted by Jacobo Gálvez and Gerardo Suárez. Behind the theater is another plaza with a fountain called the Fuente de los Fundadores (Fountain of the Founders). The plaza is located in the exact spot where the city was founded and contains a sculpture depicting Cristobal de Oñate
Cristóbal de Oñate
Cristóbal de Oñate was a Spanish Basque explorer, conquistador and colonial official in New Spain. He is considered the founder of the contemporary city of Guadalajara in 1531, as well as other places in Nueva Galicia .-Background:Oñate was born in 1552 in Vitoria or Oñate, in the Basque country...

 at the event.(finsemana) .


The Jalisco Regional Museum (Ex seminary de San José) was constructed at the beginning of the 18th century to be the Seminario Conciliar de San José. From 1861 to 1914, it housed a school called Liceo de Varones. In 1918, it became the Museum of Fine Artes. In 1976, it was completely remodeled for its present use. The Museum contains sixteen halls displaying its permanent collection. Fourteen of the halls are divided into zones named Paleontology, Pre-History, and Archeology. One of the prize exhibits is a complete skeleton of a mammoth. The other two halls are dedicated to painting and History. Some of the paintings in the collection were done by Juan Correa, Cristóbal de Villalpando and José de Ibarra.

Between the Cathedral and the Hospicio is a large plaza called Plaza Tapatía. It is an important cultural and commercial area which covers an area of 70,000 m2. Its centerpiece if the large Quetzalcoátl sculpture/fountain.(encmuc) Southeast of this plaza is the Mercado Libertad, also called the Mercado de San Juan de Dios. It is one of the largest traditional markets in Mexico. Next to it is the Temple of San Juan de Dios constructed in the 17th century of Baroque style.


At the far east end is the Plaza de los Mariachis and the Ex-Hospicio Cabañas. The Plaza de los Mariachis is faced by a number of restaurants in which one can hear live mariachis play, especially at night. The Ex-Hospicio Cabañas extends along the entire east side of the Plaza. This building was constructed by Manuel Tolsá beginning in 1805 under orders of Carlos III.(encmuc)(hospiciodes) It was inaugurated and began its function as an orphanage in 1810, in spite of the fact that it would not be finished until 1845. It was named after Bishop Ruiz de Cabañas y Crespo. The façade of the building is Neoclassical and its main entrance is topped by a triangular pediment. Today, it is the home of the Instituto Cultural Cabañas (Cabañas Cultural Institute) and its main attraction is the murals by José Clemente Orozco, which covers the main entrance hall. Among these murals is "Hombre del Fuego" (Man of Fire) considered to be one of Orozco's finest works.

Off this east-west axis are a number of other significant constructions. The Legislative Palace is Neoclassical which was originally built in the 18th century. It was reconstructed in 1982. The Palace of Justice was finished in 1897. The Old University Building was a Jesuit College named Santo Tomás de Aquino. It was founded in 1591. Later, it became the second Mexican University in 1792. Its main portal is of yellow stone. The Casa de los Perros (House of the Dogs) was constructed in 1896 in Neoclassical design. On Avenida Juarez is the Sanctuary of Nuestra Señora del Carmen which was founded between 1687 and 1690 and remodeled completely in 1830. It retains its original coat of arms of the Carmelite Order as well as sculptures of the prophets Elijah and Elisha
Elisha
Elisha is a prophet mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an. His name is commonly transliterated into English as Elisha via Hebrew, Eliseus via Greek and Latin, or Alyasa via Arabic.-Biblical biography:...

. Adjoining it is what is left of the Carmelite monastery, which was one of the richest in New Spain.

Economy


Guadalajara has the third largest economy and industrial infrastructure in Mexico, and contributes 37% to the state of Jalisco's total gross production. Its economic base is strong and well diversified, mainly based on commerce and services, although the manufacturing sector plays a defining role. It is also ranked in the top ten in Latin America in terms of gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 and the highest ranking in Mexico. In its 2007 survey entitled "Cities of the Future", FDi magazine
FDi magazine
fDi Magazine is an English-language bi-monthly news and foreign direct investment publication owned by The Financial Times Ltd and edited in London. The A4 glossy pages reach a circulation of 14, 768 ABC “senior decision-makers involved in overseas investment” across the world...

 ranked Guadalajara highest among major Mexican cities, and designated Guadalajara as having the second strongest economic potential of any major North American city behind Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

. FDI Magazine also ranked the city as the most business-friendly Latin American city in 2007.

Most of Guadalajara's economic growth since 1990 has been tied with foreign investment. International firms have invested here to take advantage of the relatively cheap but educated and highly productive labor, establishing manufacturing plants which re-export their products to the United States, as well as provide goods for the internal Mexican market. Exports from the city went from 3.92 billion USD in 1995 to 14.3 billion in 2003. From 1990 to 2000, socio-economic indicators show that quality of life improved overall; however, there is still a large gap between the rich and the poor, and the rich have benefited from the globalization and privatization of the economy more than the poor. International investment has not only affected the labor market in the Guadalajara metro area but also that of the rural towns and villages that surround it. Guadalajara is the distribution center for the region and its demands as such have led to a shifting of employment from traditional agriculture and crafts to manufacturing and commerce in urban centers. This has led to mass migration from the rural areas to the metropolitan area.
As for the municipality's finances, in 2009, Moody's Investors Service assigned ratings of Ba1 (Global scale, local currency) and A1.mx (Mexican national scale). During the prior five years, the municipality's financial performance had been mixed, but has begun to stabilize in the last two years. Guadalajara manages one of the largest budgets among Mexican municipalities and its revenue per capita indicator (Ps. $2,265) places it above the average for Moody's-rated municipalities in Mexico.

The city's economy has two main sectors. Commerce and tourism employ most: about 60% of the population. The other is industry, which has been the engine of economic growth and the basis of Guadalajara's economic importance nationally even though it employs only about a third of the population. Industries here produce products such as food and beverages, toys, textiles, auto parts, electronic equipment, pharmaceuticals, footwear, furniture and steel products. Two of the major industries here have been textiles and shoes, which are still dynamic and growing. Sixty percent of manufactured products are sold domestically, while forty percent are exported, mostly to the United States. This makes Guadalajara's economic fortunes dependent upon those of the U.S., both as a source of investment money and as a market for its goods.

However, it is the electronics and information technology sectors here that have given the city the nickname of the "Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley is a term which refers to the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The region is home to many of the world's largest technology corporations...

 of Mexico." Guadalajara is the main producer of software, electronic and digital components in Mexico. Telecom and computer equipment from Guadalajara accounts for about a quarter of Mexico's electronics exports. Companies such as General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

, IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

, Intel Corporation
Intel Corporation
Intel Corporation is an American multinational semiconductor chip maker corporation headquartered in Santa Clara, California, United States and the world's largest semiconductor chip maker, based on revenue. It is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most...

, Freescale Semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. is a producer and designer of embedded hardware, with 17 billion semiconductor chips in use around the world. The company focuses on the automotive, consumer, industrial and networking markets with its product portfolio including microprocessors, microcontrollers,...

, Hitachi Ltd., Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, USA that provides products, technologies, softwares, solutions and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including...

, Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

, Flextronics
Flextronics
Flextronics International Ltd. is an electronics manufacturing services provider that offers services to original equipment manufacturers . It also provides supporting supply chain services, including packaging and transportation throughout the world, as well as design and after-sales...

, Oracle
Oracle Corporation
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation that specializes in developing and marketing hardware systems and enterprise software products – particularly database management systems...

, TCS
Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services Limited is a global IT services, business solutions and outsourcing company headquartered in Mumbai, India. It is the largest provider of information technology in Asia and second largest provider of business process outsourcing services in India...

 and Jabil Circuit
Jabil Circuit
Jabil Circuit, Inc. is a provider of electronics manufacturing services. Jabil designs and manufactures electronic circuit boards for major OEMs in a diverse group of industries including automotive, computing and storage, consumer products, medical, networking, peripherals and telecommunications....

 have facilities in the city or its suburbs. This phenomenon began after the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
The North American Free Trade Agreement or NAFTA is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It superseded the Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement...

 (NAFTA). International firms started building facilities in Mexico, especially Guadalajara, displacing Mexican firms, especially in information technology. One of the problems this has created is that when there are economic downturns, these international firms scale back.
The city also has to compete with China, especially for electronics industries which rely on high-volume and low wages. This has caused the city to move toward high-mix, mid-volume and value-added services, such as automotives. However, its traditional advantage of proximity to the U.S. market is one reason Guadalajara stays competitive. Mexico ranked third in 2009 in Latin America for the export of information technology services, behind Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 and Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

. This kind of service is mostly related to online and telephone technical support. The major challenge this sector has is the lack of university graduates who can speak English.
Most of the economy revolves around commerce, employing 60% of the population. This activity has mainly focused on the purchase and sale of the following products: food and beverages, textiles, electronic appliances, tobacco, cosmetics, sport articles, construction materials and others. Guadalajara's commercial activity is second only to Mexico City.
Globalization
Globalization
Globalization refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people and economic activity. Most often, it refers to economics: the global distribution of the production of goods and services, through reduction of barriers to international trade such as tariffs, export fees, and import...

 and neoliberal
Neoliberalism
Neoliberalism is a market-driven approach to economic and social policy based on neoclassical theories of economics that emphasizes the efficiency of private enterprise, liberalized trade and relatively open markets, and therefore seeks to maximize the role of the private sector in determining the...

 reforms have affected the form and distribution of commerce in Guadalajara since the early 1990s. This has led to tensions between traditional markets, such as the Mercardo Libertad, and retailers such as department stores and supermarkets. Local governments in the metropolitan area used to invest in and heavily regulate traditional markets but this is no longer the case. To attract private corporate investment, regulatory control eased and most commercial developments now are controlled by private concerns. The city is the national leader in the development and investment of shopping malls. Many shopping centers have been built, such as Plaza Galerias, one of the largest shopping centers in Latin America, and also Andares
Andares
Andares is a shopping mall located in Zapopan, Mexico in the Guadalajara metropolitan area. This outdoor and indoor shopping center is set in Puerta de Hierro...

. Galerías Guadalajara Website covers 160000 m² (191,358.41 sq yd) and has 220 stores. It contains the two largest movie theaters in Latin American, both with IMAX
IMAX
IMAX is a motion picture film format and a set of proprietary cinema projection standards created by the Canadian company IMAX Corporation. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film systems...

 screens. It hosts art exhibits and fashion shows, and has an area for cultural workshops. Anchor stores includes Liverpool and Sears and specialty stores such as Hugo Boss
Hugo Boss
Hugo Ferdinand Boss was the founder of clothing company Hugo Boss.-Early life:Boss was born in Metzingen, Germany. After completing his apprenticeship and one year of employment, he founded his own company in Metzingen in 1923.-Support of Nazism:Boss joined the Nazi Party in 1931, two years before...

, Max Mara
Max Mara
MaxMara, or The House of MaxMara, is a luxury Italian fashion house known for its ready-to-wear clothing. Established in 1951 in Reggio Emilia by Achille Maramotti...

 and Lacoste. Also Best Buy opened its first Guadalajara store here. It's on the third floor and has its own additional private entrance on the top floor of the adjacent parking lot. Another Best Buy will open shortly in Ciudadela Lifestyle Center (Moctezuma and Patria), which will be the chain's third largest in the world, according to company publicity.

Also there is Andares
Andares
Andares is a shopping mall located in Zapopan, Mexico in the Guadalajara metropolitan area. This outdoor and indoor shopping center is set in Puerta de Hierro...

 which is a shopping mall located in Zapopan. This outdoor and indoor shopping center is Guadalajara's most exclusive shopping mall and is set in Puerta de hierro which is the most exclusive neighborhood in the city. It was opened on November 19, 2008 in a blaze of consumer frenzy that has affected the city in recent years. The $530 million dollar complex features luxurious world class residencies designed by famous Mexican architect Sordo Madaleno, a luxury Ritz-Carlton hotel and the shopping center complex which features elegant corridors, outdoor restaurants and cafes, anchored by upscale department stores as Liverpool (store) and El Palacio de Hierro. In addition, the corridors and indoor mall features dozens of upmarket clothing stores.

A large segment of the commercial sector caters to tourists and other visitors. Recreational tourism is concentrated in the historic center of the city. In addition to being a cultural and recreational attraction in its own right, the city also serves as an axis to other nearby attractions such the seaside cities Puerto Vallarta
Puerto Vallarta
Puerto Vallarta is a Mexican balneario resort city situated on the Pacific Ocean's Bahía de Banderas.The 2010 census reported Puerto Vallarta's population as 255,725 making it the sixth-largest city in the state of Jalisco...

, Manzanillo and Mazatlán
Mazatlán
Mazatlán is a city in the Mexican state of Sinaloa; the surrounding municipio for which the city serves as the municipal seat is Mazatlán Municipality. It is located at on the Pacific coast, across from the southernmost tip of the Baja California peninsula.Mazatlán is a Nahuatl word meaning...

. Other types of visitors include those who come here to attend seminars, conventions, expositions and other events in fields such as academia, entertainment, sports and business. The city has a number of venues and luxury hotels for this purpose, The best-known venue is the Expo-Guadalajara, a large scale convention center situated among luxury hotels. This venue was constructed in 1987 and is considered the most important venue of its kind in Mexico. Despite the impact of the international economic crisis in 2008 and 2009, tourism and hotel occupancy rates have remained strong.

Politics



Like other municipalities in Mexico, Guadalajara is governed by a municipal president, who exercises executive power for three consecutive years, this office is currently occupied by Jorge Aristóteles Sandoval Díaz candidate for the PRI. The legislature has the cabildo, formed by the form chosen by the candidate for mayor, made ​​up of aldermen, who are not elected by the people by direct or indirect voting, but the return happens automatically if the mayor wins.

The municipality is divided into five electoral districts
Federal Electoral Districts of Mexico
The Federal Electoral Districts of Mexico are the 300 constituencies or electoral districts into which Mexico is divided for the purpose of federal elections. Each district returns one Federal Deputy, who sits in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Federal Congress...

 for the purpose of election of representatives of the city in the federal legislature. These districts are the VIII, IX, XI, XIII and XIV of the state of Jalisco.

Municipality and the metropolitan area



The city of Guadalajara and the municipality of Guadalajara are essentially co extensive with over 99% of the municipality living within the city limits, and nearly all of the municipality urbanized. Urbanization centered on the city spreads out over seven other municipalities; of Zapopan
Zapopan
Zapopan is a city and municipality located in the Mexican state of Jalisco, which is part of the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area. It is best known as being the home of the Virgin of Zapopan, an image of the Virgin Mary which was made in the 16th century. This image has been credited with a number of...

, Tlaquepaque
Tlaquepaque
Tlaquepaque , historically San Pedro or Georgetown, is a city and the surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Jalisco. During the 20th century it was absorbed by the outward spread of the state capital and is now a neighbourhood of the Guadalajara conurbation, lying only a few kilometres...

, Tonalá
Tonalá, Jalisco
Tonalá is a city and its surrounding municipality within the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area in the state of Jalisco in Mexico.The city had a 2005 census population of 374,258 and the municipality had a population of 408,729 and an area of 119.58 km² . The municipality lies adjacent to the east...

, Tlajomulco de Zuñiga
Tlajomulco de Zuñiga
Tlajomulco de Zúñiga is a town and municipality, in Jalisco in central-western Mexico in the state of Jalisco. It forms part of the Guadalajara metropolitan area and lies to the southeast of it...

, El Salto
El Salto, Jalisco
El Salto is a city, and the surrounding municipality of the same name, in the central region of the Mexican state of Jalisco.The municipality covers a surface of area of 41.50 km² with a population of 111,436...

, Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos
Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos
Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos is a town and municipality, in Jalisco in central-western Mexico. The municipality covers an area of 184.25 km².As of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 25,000....

 and Juanacatlán. These areas form the "Guadalajara Metropolitan Area
Guadalajara Metropolitan Area
The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area is the most populous metropolitan area of the Mexican state of Jalisco and the second largest in the country after Greater Mexico City...

" (Zona Metropolitana de Guadalajara in Spanish), which is the most populous in the state of Jalisco and the second most populous in the country after the Mexico City Metropolitan area
Greater Mexico City
Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Mexico City Metropolitan Area , constituted by the Federal District—itself composed of 16 boroughs—and 41 adjacent municipalities of the states of Mexico and Hidalgo...

. This metropolitan area had a population of 4,298,715 in 2008.

Education


Guadalajara is an important nucleus of universities and educational centers with national prestige. The most important is the Universidad de Guadalajara, which was established on October 12, 1791 by royal decree. The entity underwent a number of reorganizations since then, but the modern university as it exists today was established in 1925, when the governor of Jalisco convened professors, students and others to re-establish the university. These precepts were organized into a law called the "Ley Organica."

Guadalajara is also home to ITESO
Iteso
The Teso are an ethnic group in eastern Uganda and western Kenya. Teso refers to the traditional homeland of the Iteso, and Ateso is their language.-Uganda:...

, a Jesuit university, and has campuses of several private schools such as a campus of the Universidad del Valle de México
Universidad del Valle de México
The Universidad del Valle de México or UVM is a private Mexican university founded in Mexico City in the year 1960. UVM enrolls students at several campuses throughout Mexico, and it holds accreditations from the Mexican Department of Education, COPAES accrediting board, and FIMPES...

, Tec de Monterrey
Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education
The Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education commonly shortened as Monterrey Institute of Technology or Monterrey Tech is one of the largest private, nonsectarian and coeducational multi-campus universities in...

, Universidad Panamericana Sede Guadalajara, Universidad Marista de Guadalajara,Universidad Guadalajara LAMAR, as well as the Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara
Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara
The Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara A.C. is a private university in Mexico, the first of its kind.The campuses are located in Zapopan, Jalisco. The university has become one of the most important educational institutions in Latin America, attracting students from Mexico, Europe, South...

 (UAG), which was founded in 1935 and is the oldest private university in Mexico., and Universidad del Valle de Atemajac (UNIVA) which is a young private university committed to building a strong international student educational program that supports its mission of providing an alternative to state-sponsored higher education. In addition, the city hosts The American School Foundation of Guadalajara
The American School Foundation of Guadalajara
The American School Foundation of Guadalajara is a school of 1426 students in pre-school through twelfth grade. It is the only US accredited school in Guadalajara. The school was founded in 1908, and has been a non-profit organization since 1956...

 (ASFG). ASFG has 1420 students in pre-school through twelfth grade; it is the only US-accredited school in Guadalajara.

Climate


Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, Guadalajara has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Cwa), featuring dry, mild winters and warm, wet summers. Guadalajara's climate is influenced by its high altitude and the general seasonality of precipitation patterns in western North America. Although the temperature is warm year-round, Guadalajara has very strong seasonal variation in precipitation. The northward movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone brings a great deal of rain, whereas for the rest of the year, the climate is very arid
Arid
A region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life...

. The extra moisture in the wet months moderates the temperatures, resulting in cooler days and warmer nights during this period. The highest temperatures are usually reached in May averaging 33 °C (91 °F), before the onset of the wet season. March tends to be the driest month and July the wettest, with an average of 249 millimetres (9.8 in) of rain, over a quarter of the annual average of about 921 millimetres (36.3 in) Winters are relatively warm despite the city's altitude, with January daytime temperatures reaching about 19 °C (66 °F) and nighttime temperatures about 3 °C (37 °F). Temperatures rarely fall below -5 °C, but is possible. Snow is extremely rare, but flurries have been known to occur.

Transportation



Guadalajara is well connected by modern highways to Mexico City, to the Northwest and to the major beach resorts of Manzanillo, Mazatlán and Puerto Vallarta. The main highways are Highway 15, which connects the city northwest to Nogales, Sonora
Nogales, Sonora
Heroica Nogales , more commonly known as Nogales, is a city and its surrounding municipality on the northern border of the Mexican State of Sonora. The municipality covers an area of 1,675 km², and borders to the north the city of Nogales, Arizona, United States, across the U.S.-Mexico border...

, via Tepic, Nayarit and east to Mexico City via Morelia
Morelia
Morelia is a city and municipality in the north central part of the state of Michoacán in central Mexico. The city is in the Guayangareo Valley and is the capital of the state. The main pre-Hispanic cultures here were the P'urhépecha and the Matlatzinca, but no major cities were founded in the...

. Highway 80D leads northwest towards Aguascalientes
Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes
The city of Aguascalientes is the capital of the state of Aguascalientes in western central Mexico. It stands on the banks of the Río Aguascalientes, 1880 meters above sea level, at...

, and Highway 54D leads south to the coast via Colima
Colima, Colima
Colima is capital of the state of the same name, a city and municipality located in the center west of Mexico. It is located near the Colima Volcano, which divides the small state from that of Jalisco. Despite being the capital, the city is not the state’s main tourist attraction, eclipsed by...

.
The city is served by the Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport
Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport
Guadalajara International Airport , also known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport . It opened in 1966 and is located 16 km south of the city centre of Guadalajara. In 2010, the airport handled 6,953,900 passengers, representing a 7.8% increase from 2009...

, also known as Guadalajara International Airport (ICAO code: MMGL) opened in 1966. It is located 16 kilometers south of downtown Guadalajara, and it was built on the Tlajomulco de Zuñiga
Tlajomulco de Zuñiga
Tlajomulco de Zúñiga is a town and municipality, in Jalisco in central-western Mexico in the state of Jalisco. It forms part of the Guadalajara metropolitan area and lies to the southeast of it...

 city, way down to Chapala
Chapala
Chapala is a city and municipality in the central Mexican state of Jalisco, located on the north shore of Lake Chapala, Mexico's largest freshwater lake. According to the 2005 census, its population is 43,345 for the municipality.-Geography:...

. This airport is the third most active of the country (after Mexico City and Cancún
Cancún
Cancún is a city of international tourism development certified by the UNWTO . Located on the northeast coast of Quintana Roo in southern Mexico, more than 1,700 km from Mexico City, the Project began operations in 1974 as Integrally Planned Center, a pioneer of FONATUR Cancún is a city of...

) with direct flights to many Mexican and American cities. It also has a lively and distinctive network of car-free streets.

Within the city itself, there are various forms of public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

ation. The Guadalajara rail system, named SITEUR (Sistema de Tren Eléctrico Urbano), Spanish for Urban Electrical Train System, provides light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 service within Guadalajara and the neighboring municipalities of Zapopan and Tlaquepaque. It consists of two lines: line 1, running from north to south, with 19 stations, and line 2, running from downtown to the east, with 10 stations. The trains are electric and have a top speed of 70 km/h (43 mph). Currently there are 48 articulated cars in service, built in Mexico by Concarril/Bombardier
Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation is the rail equipment division of the Canadian firm, Bombardier Inc. Bombardier Transportation is one of the world's largest companies in the rail-equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Its headquarters are in Berlin, Germany....

. There is a plan for Line 3 going from north-central Ávila Camacho station to Tesistán as well as plans to extend Line 2 from Tetlán to Tonalá
Tonalá
-Places:*Santo Domingo Tonalá, a municipality in the Mexican state of Oaxaca*Tonalá, Jalisco, a municipality in the Mexican state of Jalisco*Tonalá, Chiapas, a municipality in the Mexican state of Chiapas...

. The Guadalajara Macrobus
Guadalajara Macrobus
The Guadalajara Macrobus is a bus rapid transit system in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The initiation of work on the system was announced by Jalisco Governor Emilio González Márquez on February 29, 2008...

 is a public transportation system based on the concept of Bus Rapid Transit
Bus rapid transit
Bus rapid transit is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line. Often this is achieved by making improvements to existing infrastructure, vehicles and scheduling...

, where buses run in lanes specifically for them and have stations for boarding. Phase I of the Macrobús project opened in 2009 as a line 16-km line following Calzada Independencia and serving 27 stations. The city also has the Guadalajara trolleybus system
Trolleybuses in Guadalajara
The Guadalajara trolleybus system serves Guadalajara, the capital city of the state of Jalisco in Mexico.Opened on 20 November 1976, the system is owned and operated by Sistema de Transporte Colectivo de la Zona Metropolitana . , it had two lines, each of which connected the area west of the city...

, which has been operating since the 1970s, and there are several private companies operating regular city buses.

Culture



Guadalajara is the cultural center of western Mexico and the second most important cultural center in the country. It is nicknamed the "Pearl of the West." While it is a modern city, it has kept many of the rural traditions of Jalisco, such as mariachi
Mariachi
Mariachi is a genre of music that originated in the State of Jalisco, in Mexico. It is an integration of stringed instruments highly influenced by the cultural impacts of the historical development of Western Mexico. Throughout the history of mariachi, musicians have experimented with brass, wind,...

 and a strong sense of catholicism
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

. Cultural tourism is one of the most important economic activities, especially in the historic center. Guadalajara is a center of learning with six universities, two culinary institutes and a thriving art scene. Guadalajara has twenty two museums, which include the Regional Museum of Jalisco, the Wax Museum, the Trompo Mágico children's museum and the Museum of Anthropology. The Hospicio Cabañas
Hospicio Cabañas
The Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, a World Heritage Site, is one of the oldest and largest hospital complexes in Spanish America....

 in the historic center is a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

. For these attributes and others, the city was named an American Capital of Culture
American Capital of Culture
The non-governmental organization American Capital of Culture Organization selects one city in the Americas annually to serve as the American Capital of Culture for a period of one year...

 in 2005.

This city has been the cradle and dwelling of distinguished poets, writers, painters, actors, film directors and representatives of the arts, etc., such as : José Clemente Orozco
José Clemente Orozco
José Clemente Orozco was a Mexican social realist painter, who specialized in bold murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others...

, Dr. Atl
Dr. Atl
Gerardo Murillo was a Mexican painter and writer who signed his works "Dr. Atl". He was born in Guadalajara, Jalisco, where he began the study of painting at an early age, under Felipe Castro...

, Roberto Montenegro
Roberto Montenegro
Roberto Montenegro Nervo was a Mexican painter, illustrator, and stage designer....

, Alejandro Zohn
Alejandro Zohn
Alejandro Zohn was a Mexican architect. He was a Holocaust survivor who grew up in Western Mexico....

, Luis Barragán
Luis Barragán
Luis Barragán Morfin was a Mexican architect. He was self-trained.-Early life:Educated as an engineer, he graduated from the Escuela Libre de Ingenieros in Guadalajara in 1923 and was self-trained as an architect.After graduation, he travelled through Spain, France , and...

, Carlos Orozco Romero
Carlos Orozco Romero
Carlos Orozco Romero was a Mexican artist.Orozco was self-trained, and was awarded a scholarship for a study trip to Europe in 1921. In 1939 he achieved a Guggenheim Fellowship and travelled to New York City in 1941...

, Federico Fabregat
Federico Fabregat
Federico Fabregat is a Mexican artist and poet born in Guadalajara, Jalisco.-Overview:Fabregat is co-author of the book of poems entitled "SIES", published by Editorial Agata , which he wrote with five other poets, among them Asdrúbal Eriko Sainz and Daniel Gómez Moreno...

, Raul Anguiano, Juan Soriano
Juan Soriano
Juan Soriano was a Mexican painter and sculptor.Soriano, son of Rafael Rodríguez Soriano and Amalia Montoya Navarro, was born in Guadalajara and displayed his first painting at age 14...

, Javier Campos Cabello, Martha Pacheco, Alejandro Colunga
Alejandro Colunga
- Early Life :He was born in Guadalajara on 1948-12-11 and studied architecture between 1967 and 1971 and music and hospitality in 1971–1973 at Conservatorio del Estado de Jalisco...

, José Fors
José Fors
Fors Ferro, José Alberto is a Mexican singer and artist best known as the leading member of the bands Cuca and Forseps.-Biography:...

, Juan Kraeppellin, Davis Birks, Carlos Vargas Pons, Jis, Trino, Erandini, Enrique Oroz, Rubén Méndez, Mauricio Toussaint
Mauricio Toussaint
Mauricio Toussaint is a contemporary artist of French and Mexican descent. Toussaint entered the Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara to obtain a degree in architecture . During this time, he was encouraged by a professor from the nearby Visual Arts Department to make art on his own...

, Scott Neri
Scott Neri
Scott Neri is a Mexican painter, illustrator, graphic designer and short fiction writer. He is a founding member and current director of the Guadalajara-based online community for artists , and art director of ....

, Paula Santiago
Paula Santiago
Paula Santiago is a Mexican mixed media artist whose works have been displayed at the Monterrey Museum of Modern Art and several galleries in Europe and North America...

, Edgar Cobian, L.Felipe Manzano, and (the artist formerly known as Mevna); The freeplay guitarist and music composer for the movies El Mariachi and The Legend of Zorro, Paco Renteria; important exponents of Literature such as: Juan Rulfo
Juan Rulfo
Juan Rulfo was a Mexican author and photographer. One of Latin America's most esteemed authors, Rulfo's reputation rests on two slim books, the novel Pedro Páramo , and El Llano en llamas...

, Francisco Rojas, Agustín Yáñez
Agustín Yáñez
Agustín Yáñez Delgadillo was a notable Mexican writer and politician who served as Governor of Jalisco and Secretary of Public Education during Gustavo Díaz Ordaz's presidency...

, Elías Nandino, Idella Purnell
Idella Purnell
Idella Purnell was an academic, librarian, teacher, and children's book author.-Biography:...

, Jorge Souza, among others; classic repertoire composers like Gonzalo Curiel, José Pablo Moncayo
José Pablo Moncayo
José Pablo Moncayo García was a Mexican pianist, percussionist, music teacher, composer and conductor. "As composer, José Pablo Moncayo represents one of the most important legacies of the Mexican nationalism in art music, after Silvestre Revueltas and Carlos Chávez." He produced some of the...

, Antonio Navarro, Ricardo Zohn, Carlos Sánchez-Gutiérrez and Gabriel Pareyon
Gabriel Pareyon
Gabriel Pareyon is a polymathic Mexican composer and musicologist, who has published literature on topics of philosophy and linguistics....

; film directors like Felipe Cazals
Felipe Cazals
Felipe Cazals is a Mexican film director, screenwriter and producer born in Guethary, France, but registered as born in Zapopan, Jalisco, where he lived his childhood, before being established with his family in Mexico City...

, Jaime Humberto Hermosillo, Erik Stahl, Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro is a Mexican director, producer, screenwriter, novelist and designer. He is mostly known for his acclaimed films, Blade II, Pan's Labyrinth and the Hellboy film franchise. He is a frequent collaborator with Ron Perlman, Federico Luppi and Doug Jones...

 and actors like Katy Jurado
Katy Jurado
Katy Jurado , born María Cristina Estela Marcela Jurado García in Mexico, D.F., was a Mexican actress who had a successful film career both in Mexico and in Hollywood....

, Enrique Alvarez Felix, and Gael García Bernal
Gael García Bernal
Gael García Bernal is a Mexican film actor and director.-Early life:García Bernal was born in Guadalajara, Mexico, the son of Patricia Bernal, an actress and former model, and José Ángel García, an actor and director. His stepfather is Sergio Yazbek, whom his mother married when García Bernal was...

.
The cuisine is a mix of pre-Hispanic and Spanish influences, like the rest of Mexico, but dishes here have their own flavors and are made with their own techniques. One of the main distinguishing dishes is birria
Birria
Birria is a spicy Mexican meat stew usually made with pork, goat, lamb, or mutton, often served during festive periods, such as Christmas, New Year's Eve, Mother's Day, and weddings. Originally from Jalisco, it is a common dish in some Mexican food establishments...

. This is goat or lamb meat cooked in a spicy sauce seasoned with chili peppers, ginger, cumin, black pepper, oregano and cloves. The traditional way of preparing birria is to pit roast the meat and spices wrapped in maguey leaves. It is served in bowls along with minced onion, limes and tortillas.


Another dish that is strongly associated with Guadalajara is tortas ahogadas, literally "drowned tortas (sub sandwiches)." This sandwich is an oblong "bolillo" bun (made denser in Guadalajara than in the rest of the country) filled with pork and other ingredients. Then the sandwich is covered in a red tomato/chili pepper sauce. Other dishes that are popular here include pozole
Pozole
Pozole is a ritually significant, traditional pre-Columbian soup or stew from Mexico. Pozole was mentioned in Fray Bernardino de Sahagún's "General History of the Things of New Spain" circa 1500 CE. It is made from nixtamalized cacahuazintle corn, with meat, usually pork, chicken, turkey, pork...

, a soup prepared with hominy, chicken or pork and various condiments and pipián
Mole (sauce)
Mole is the generic name for a number of sauces used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces...

, which is a sauce prepared with peanuts, squash and sesame seed. The city hosts the Feria Internacional Gastronomía (International Gastronomy Fair) each year in September showcasing both Mexican and international cuisines. A large number of restaurants, bars, bakeries and cafés participate as well as producers of beer
Beer in Mexico
"Beer In Mexico" is the title of a song written and recorded by American country music singer Kenny Chesney. It was released in January 2007 as the fifth and final single from Chesney's 2005 album The Road and the Radio...

, wine
Mexican wine
Mexican wine and wine making began with the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, when they brought vines from Europe to modern day Mexico, the oldest wine-growing region in the Americas...

 and tequila
Tequila
Tequila is a spirit made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, northwest of Guadalajara, and in the highlands of the western Mexican state of Jalisco....

.

Mariachi
Mariachi
Mariachi is a genre of music that originated in the State of Jalisco, in Mexico. It is an integration of stringed instruments highly influenced by the cultural impacts of the historical development of Western Mexico. Throughout the history of mariachi, musicians have experimented with brass, wind,...

 music is strongly associated with Guadalajara both in Mexico and abroad even though the musical style originated in the nearby town of Cocula, Jalisco. The connection between the city and mariachi began in 1907 when an eight-piece mariachi band and four dancers from the city performed on stage at the president's residence for both Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican-American War volunteer and French intervention hero, an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N...

 and the secretary of State of the United States. This made the music a symbol of west Mexico, and after the migration of many people from the Guadalajara area to Mexico City (mostly settling near Plaza Garibaldi), it then became a symbol of Mexican identity as well Guadalajara hosts the Festival of Mariachi and Charreria
Charreada
The charreada or charrería is a competitive event similar to rodeo and was developed from animal husbandry practices used on the haciendas of Old Mexico. The sport has been described as "living history," or as an art form drawn the demands of working life...

, which began in 1994. It attracts personages in the fields of art, culture and politics from both Mexico and abroad. Regularly the best mariachis in Mexico participate, such as Mariachi Vargas, Mariachi de América and Mariachi los Camperos de Naty Cano. Mariachi bands from all over the world participate, coming from countries such as Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

, Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

, Belgium, Chile
Chile
Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

, France, Australia, Slovak Republic, Canada and the United States.


The events of this festival take place in a number of venues all over the metropolitan area. and includes a parade with floats. In August 2009, 542 mariachi musicians played together for a little over ten minutes to break the world's record for largest mariachi group. The musicians played various songs ending with two classic Mexican songs "Cielito Lindo
Cielito Lindo
"Cielito lindo" is a popular Ranchera song from Mexico, written in 1882 by Quirino Mendoza y Cortés . It is roughly translated as "Lovely Sweet One". Although the word "cielo" means sky or heaven, it is also a term of endearment comparable to sweetheart or honey. "Cielito" can thus be translated as...

" and "Guadalajara
Guadalajara (song)
Guadalajara is a well-known mariachi song composed by Pepe Guizar in 1937. It is probably the most famous mariachi song of all time. "Guadalajara Guadalajara" is considered both within Mexico and abroad as a synonym of the symbols of Mexico: Mariachi, tequila and the charro, to such degree that...

." The feat was performed during the XVI Encuentro Internacional del Mariachi y la Charreria. The prior record was 520 musicians in 2007 in San Antonio, Texas
San Antonio, Texas
San Antonio is the seventh-largest city in the United States of America and the second-largest city within the state of Texas, with a population of 1.33 million. Located in the American Southwest and the south–central part of Texas, the city serves as the seat of Bexar County. In 2011,...

.
In the historic center of the city is the Plaza de los Mariachis, named such as many groups play here. The plaza is being renovated for the 2011 Pan American Games
2011 Pan American Games
The 2011 Pan American Games, officially the XVI Pan American Games, was an international multi-sport event that was held from October 14–30, 2011 in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Some events were held in the nearby cities of Ciudad Guzmán, Puerto Vallarta, Lagos de Moreno and Tapalpa...

 in anticipation of the crowds that will visit the city. Over 750 mariachi musicians play traditional melodies on the plaza, and along with the restaurants and other businesses, the plaza supports more than 830 families. A recent innovation has been the fusion of mariachi melodies and instruments with rock and roll performed by rock musicians in the Guadalajara area. An album collecting a number of these melodies was produced called "Mariachi Rock-O." There are plans to take these bands on tour in Mexico, the United States and Europe.
In addition to mariachi, the city is home to a renowned symphony orchestra. The Orquesta Filarmónica de Jalisco (Philharmonic Orchestra of Jalisco) was founded by José Rolón in 1915. It held concerts from that time until 1924, when state funding was lost. However, the musicians kept playing to keep the orchestra alive. This eventually caught the attention of authorities and funding was restated in 1939. Private funding started in the 1940s and in 1950, an organization called Conciertos Guadalajara A. C. was formed to continue fundraising for the orchestra. In 1971, the orchestra became affiliated with the Department of Fine Arts of the State of Jalisco. The current name was adopted in 1988, as it became the orchestra for the state, not just the city of Guadalajara although it remains based here. International soloists such as Paul Badura-Skoda, Claudio Arrau, Jörg Demus, Henryck Szeryng, Nicanor Zabaleta, Plácido Domingo, Kurt Rydl and Alfred Brendel have performed with the organization. Today the orchestra is under the direction of Héctor Guzmán.

The city is also host to several dance and ballet companies such as the Chamber Ballet of Jalisco, the Folkloric Ballet of the University of Guadalajara, and University of Guadalajara Contemporary Ballet.

Guadalajara is also known for several large cultural festivals. The International Film Festival of Guadalajara
Guadalajara International Film Festival
The Guadalajara International Film Festival is a week-long film festival held each March in the Mexican city of Guadalajara. The festival is considered the most prestigious film festival in Latin America and among the most important Spanish language film festivals in the world...

  is a yearly event which happens in March. It mostly focuses on Mexican and Latin American films; however films from all over the world are shown. The event is sponsored by the Universidad de Guadalajara, CONACULTA, the Instituto Mexicano de Cinematographía as well as the governments of the cities of Guadalajara and Zapopan. The 2009 festival had over 200 films shown in more than 16 theatres and open-air forums, such as the inflatable screens set up in places such as Chapultepec, La Rambla Cataluña and La Minerva. In that year, the event gave out awards totaling 500,000 USD. The event attracts names such as Mexican actor Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro is a Mexican director, producer, screenwriter, novelist and designer. He is mostly known for his acclaimed films, Blade II, Pan's Labyrinth and the Hellboy film franchise. He is a frequent collaborator with Ron Perlman, Federico Luppi and Doug Jones...

, Greek director Constantin Costa-Gavras, Spanish actor Antonio Banderas
Antonio Banderas
José Antonio Domínguez Banderas , better known as Antonio Banderas, is a Spanish film actor, film director, film producer and singer...

 and U.S. actor Edward James Olmos
Edward James Olmos
Edward James Olmos is an American actor and director. Among his most memorable roles are William Adama in the re-imagined Battlestar Galactica, Lt...

.

The Guadalajara International Book Fair
Guadalajara International Book Fair
The Guadalajara International Book Fair, better known as the FIL is the most important annual event of its kind in the Spanish-speaking world, and the second largest book fair in the world after Frankfurt's. Created in 1987, the FIL is put on by the University of Guadalajara...

 is the largest Spanish language book fair in the world held each year over nine days at the Expo Guadalajara. Over 300 publishing firms from 35 different countries regularly attend, demonstrating the most recent productions in books, videos and new communications technologies. The event awards prizes such as the Premio FIL for literature, the Premio de Literatura Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, also for literature, and the Reconocimento al Mérito Editorial for publishing houses. There is an extensive exposition of books and other materials in Spanish, Portuguese and English, covering academia, culture, the arts and more for sale. More than 350,000 people attend from Mexico and abroad. In 2009, Nobel prize winner Orhan Pamuk
Orhan Pamuk
Ferit Orhan Pamuk , generally known simply as Orhan Pamuk, is a Turkish novelist. He is also the Robert Yik-Fong Tam Professor in the Humanities at Columbia University, where he teaches comparative literature and writing....

, German children's author Cornelia Funke
Cornelia Funke
Cornelia Funke is a multiple award-winning German author of children's fiction. She was born on 10 December 1958, in Dorsten, North Rhine-Westphalia. Funke is best known for her Inkworld trilogy, with the English translation of the third book, Inkdeath, released on 6 October 2008. Many of her...

 and Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa
Mario Vargas Llosa
Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquis of Vargas Llosa is a Peruvian-Spanish writer, politician, journalist, essayist, and Nobel Prize laureate. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America's most significant novelists and essayists, and one of the leading authors of his generation...

 participated along with about 500 other authors present. Activities include book presentations, academic talks, forums, and events for children.

The Festival Cultural de Mayo (May Cultural Festival) began in 1988. In 2009, the event celebrated the 400th anniversary of relations between Mexico and Japan, with many performances and exhibitions relation to Japanese culture. The 2009 festival featured 358 artists in 118 activities. Each year a different country is "invited". Past guests have been Germany (2008), Mexico (2007), Spain (2006) and Austria (2005).

Architecture


The architectural style of the colony is the result of Spanish architectural trends that, during the founding of Guadalajara, showed up on the European continent leaving a parallel influence in this city. In the historical center the purest example of neoclassical architecture can be appreciated, at the Metropolitan Cathedral, Teatro Degollado and nearby buildings, in the French colony "Lafayette" this architectural style is in some residential houses that were converted into boutiques and restaurants. The historical center hosts religious and civil colonial buildings, which are noted for their architectural and historical significance and are a rich mix of styles which are rooted in indigenous cultural contributions (mainly from Ute origin), incorporated in the Mozarabic and castizo, and later in modern European influences (mainly French and Italian) and American (specifically, from the United States).

Also, the historical center has an excellent assortment of museums, theaters, galleries, libraries, auditoriums and concert halls, particular mention may be made to Hospicio Cabañas (which dates from the 18th century), the Teatro Degollado
Teatro Degollado
Teatro Degollado is a neoclassical Mexican theater known for its diverse performances and artistic design. It is located on a downtown plaza on the street Belen between Hidalgo Avenue and Morelos Avenue in the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco. Many performances take place at this building...

 (considered the oldest Opera House in Mexico), the Teatro Galerías and the Teatro Diana. Currently there are projects under construction that include cultural spaces like the Guggenheim Museum
Guggenheim Guadalajara
The Guggenheim Guadalajara was an art museum proposed by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. If constructed, the 24-story tower designed by architect Enrique Norten would have been scheduled to be completed in 2011, however it was canceled in October 2009.The...

 and the University Cultural Center. The Hospicio Cabañas
Hospicio Cabañas
The Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, a World Heritage Site, is one of the oldest and largest hospital complexes in Spanish America....

, which is home to some of the paintings (murals and easel) by José Clemente Orozco
José Clemente Orozco
José Clemente Orozco was a Mexican social realist painter, who specialized in bold murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others...

, was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 in 1997. Among the many structures of beauty is the International Headquarters Temple of La Luz del Mundo
La Luz del Mundo
La Luz del Mundo is a Christian denomination with international headquarters in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The church is based on a Christian doctrine centered around two charismatic leaders, Eusebio Joaquin Gonzalez, known as "Aaron the Apostle" to his followers, and since 1964, his son Samuel...

 in Colonia Hermosa Provincia, which is the largest in Latin America.

During the Porfiriato the French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 style invaded the city because of the passion of former president Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican-American War volunteer and French intervention hero, an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N...

 in the trends of French style, also Italian architects were responsible for shaping the Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 structures that were built in the city. The passage of time reflected different trends from the baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 to churrigueresque
Churrigueresque
Churrigueresque refers to a Spanish Baroque style of elaborate sculptural architectural ornament which emerged as a manner of stucco decoration in Spain in the late 17th century and was used up to about 1750, marked by extreme, expressive and florid decorative detailing, normally found above the...

, Gothic and neoclassical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 pure. Even the architectural lines typical of the decades of the 40's, 50's and 60's the Art Deco and bold lines of postmodern architects of the time. Some architectural styles found in the city are:
  • Incipient Baroque
  • Baroque
  • Viceregal
  • Neoclassical
  • Modern
  • Eclectic
  • Art Deco
  • Neo-Gothic


The modern architecture of Guadalajara has a numerous figures of different architectural production from the neo-regionalism to the primitiveness of the 60's. Some of these architects are: Rafael Urzua, Luis Barragán
Luis Barragán
Luis Barragán Morfin was a Mexican architect. He was self-trained.-Early life:Educated as an engineer, he graduated from the Escuela Libre de Ingenieros in Guadalajara in 1923 and was self-trained as an architect.After graduation, he travelled through Spain, France , and...

, Ignacio Díaz Morales, Pedro Castellano
Pedro Castellano
Pedro Orlando Castellano Arrieta , is a former Major League Baseball third baseman/first baseman and right-handed batter who played for the Colorado Rockies...

, Eric Coufal, Julio de la Peña, Eduardo Ibáñez Valencia.

Sports




Guadalajara is home to three professional football teams; Guadalajara also known as Chivas, Atlas
CF Atlas
Club Social y Deportivo Atlas de Guadalajara is a Mexican football club. Atlas is one of three teams that play in Guadalajara, Mexico, along with Club Deportivo Guadalajara and Estudiantes Tecos in the Primera División de México...

 and Estudiantes. Chivas de Guadalajara is the most successful and the most followed team in the country. Atlas
F.C. Atlas
Club Social y Deportivo Atlas de Guadalajara is a Mexican football club. Atlas is one of three teams that play in Guadalajara, Mexico, along with Club Deportivo Guadalajara and Estudiantes Tecos in the Primera División de México...

 also plays in the Primera División de México
Primera División de México
The Primera División Profesional , known simply as the Primera División, is the top level of the Mexican football league system and is administered by the Mexican Football Federation. It was established in 1943 and as of 2011 has 18 clubs. Up to June 2011, it was divided into three groups competing...

, due to their fine football game style of playing, they are known in the country as 'The Academy', hence they have provided Mexico's Finest Football Players, among them: Rafael Márquez
Rafael Márquez
Rafael Márquez Álvarez is a Mexican footballer who plays for New York Red Bulls in Major League Soccer and the Mexico national team. He plays as a centre back or defensive midfielder....

, Oswaldo Sánchez
Oswaldo Sánchez
Oswaldo Javier Sánchez Ibarra is a Mexican footballer. He plays as a goalkeeper for Santos Laguna in the Mexican Primera Division, where he is also the team captain. He has 99 caps for Mexico.-Early career:...

, Pavel Pardo
Pavel Pardo
Pável Pardo Segura , is a Mexican international footballer, who currently plays for the Chicago Fire in Major League Soccer.- Biography :...

, Andrés Guardado
Andrés Guardado
José Andrés Guardado Hernández is a Mexican footballer who plays for Deportivo de La Coruña in Spain and the Mexican national football team, as a left winger.-Atlas:...

, and Mexico national Team's Top Scorer Jared Borgetti
Jared Borgetti
Jared Francisco Borgetti Echavarría is a retired Mexican footballer. Borgetti is the all-time leading goal scorer for the Mexican national team, with 46 goals. A prolific goal scorer at both club and national level, Borgetti was renowned for his heading ability...

. Atlas, also won several Championships on Amateur Tournaments, and first Football Championship of a Guadalajara Team back in 1951. Atlas fans are collectively called (the faithful)by themselves; younger followers are gathered as "Barra 51" ; La Barra 51 is a strong organized supporter group. His name recalls Atlas' the year of first championship in the Primera División de México in 1951. Estudiantes is associated with the Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara AC
Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara
The Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara A.C. is a private university in Mexico, the first of its kind.The campuses are located in Zapopan, Jalisco. The university has become one of the most important educational institutions in Latin America, attracting students from Mexico, Europe, South...

. It currently plays in the Primera División
Primera División de México
The Primera División Profesional , known simply as the Primera División, is the top level of the Mexican football league system and is administered by the Mexican Football Federation. It was established in 1943 and as of 2011 has 18 clubs. Up to June 2011, it was divided into three groups competing...

, with home games in the Estadio 3 de Marzo (March 3 Stadium, for the University's 1935 date of founding). They've won also a single Championship back in 1994 as they defeated Santos.

Charreada
Charreada
The charreada or charrería is a competitive event similar to rodeo and was developed from animal husbandry practices used on the haciendas of Old Mexico. The sport has been described as "living history," or as an art form drawn the demands of working life...

, the Mexican form of rodeo and closely tied to mariachi music, is popular here.

Guadalajara hosted the 2011 Pan American Games
2011 Pan American Games
The 2011 Pan American Games, officially the XVI Pan American Games, was an international multi-sport event that was held from October 14–30, 2011 in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Some events were held in the nearby cities of Ciudad Guzmán, Puerto Vallarta, Lagos de Moreno and Tapalpa...

. Since winning the bid to host the Games, the city had been undergoing extensive renovations. The games brought in more than 5,000 athletes from approximately 42 countries from the Americas and the Caribbean. Sports included aquatics, football, racquetball and 27 more, with six others being considered. COPAG (the Organizing Committee for the Pan American Games Guadalajara 2011) had a total budget of $250 million USD with the aim of updating the city's sports and general infrastructure. The center of the city was repaved and new hotels were constructed for the approximately 22,000 rooms that were needed in 2011. The new bus rapid transit (BRT) system, Macrobús, was launched in March and runs along Avenida Independencia. The Pan-American village was built around Morelos Park, consisting of twelve new buildings. After the Games, the buildings will be used for housing. There are already 13 existing venues in Guadalajara that the games will use, including the Jalisco Stadium, UAG 3 de Marzo Stadium, and the UAG Gymnasium. Eleven new sporting facilities were created for the event. Other works included a second terminal in the airport, a highway to Puerto Vallarta and a bypass for the southern part of the city.

Lorena Ochoa
Lorena Ochoa
Lorena Ochoa Reyes is a Mexican professional golfer who played on the U.S.-based LPGA Tour from 2003 to 2010, and was the top-ranked female golfer in the world for over three years, from April 2007 to her retirement in May 2010...

, a retired and former #1 female golf player and Javier Hernández Balcázar, a forward who currently plays for Manchester United and the Mexico national team were also born in the city.

Sister cities

Sister cities
Flag City Country Year
  Alajuela
Alajuela
Alajuela is the second largest city in Costa Rica after the capital, San José. It is also the capital of the namesake province. Because of its location in the Costa Rican Central Valley, Alajuela is nowadays englobed in the conurbation of Great Metropolitan Area...

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica , officially the Republic of Costa Rica is a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east....

1983
Albuquerque
Albuquerque, New Mexico
Albuquerque is the largest city in the state of New Mexico, United States. It is the county seat of Bernalillo County and is situated in the central part of the state, straddling the Rio Grande. The city population was 545,852 as of the 2010 Census and ranks as the 32nd-largest city in the U.S. As...

United States 1985
  Arequipa
Arequipa
Arequipa is the capital city of the Arequipa Region in southern Peru. With a population of 836,859 it is the second most populous city of the country...

Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

Atlanta United States 2009
  Batangas
Batangas
Batangas is a first class province of the Philippines located on the southwestern part of Luzon in the CALABARZON region. Its capital is Batangas City and it is bordered by the provinces of Cavite and Laguna to the north and Quezon to the east. Across the Verde Island Passages to the south is the...

Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

  Caracas
Caracas
Caracas , officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela; natives or residents are known as Caraquenians in English . It is located in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range...

Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

1976
  Cebu
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

1976
  Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

Spain
  Cigales
Cigales
Cigales is a Spanish Denominación de Origen for wines located to the north of Valladolid along both banks of the River Pisuerga....

Spain 1992
Cleveland
Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The city is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately west of the Pennsylvania border...

United States 1976
Compton
Compton, California
Compton is a city in southern Los Angeles County, California, United States, southeast of downtown Los Angeles. The city of Compton is one of the oldest cities in the county and on May 11, 1888, was the eighth city to incorporate. The city is considered part of the South side by residents of Los...

United States
  Curitiba
Curitiba
Curitiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Paraná. It is the largest city with the biggest economy of both Paraná and southern Brazil. The population of Curitiba numbers approximately 1.75 million people and the latest GDP figures for the city surpass US$61 billion according to...

Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

1995
  Daejeon
Daejeon
Daejeon is South Korea's fifth largest metropolis and the provincial capital of Chungnam. Located in the center of the country, Daejeon had a population of over 1.5 million in 2010. It is at the crossroads of Gyeongbu railway, Honam railway, Gyeongbu Expressway, and Honam Expressway. Within the...

South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

1997
  Dagupan
Dagupan
The City of Dagupan is a 1st class city in the Philippines. It is an independent component city of the province of Pangasinan. According to the latest census, Dagupan City has a population of 149,554 people in 25,921 households. Located on Lingayen Gulf on the island of Luzon, Dagupan is the...

Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

Downey
Downey, California
Downey is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, California, United States, southeast of downtown Los Angeles. The city is best known as the birthplace of the Apollo space program, and is the city where folk singer Karen Carpenter lived and died...

United States 1960
Duarte
Duarte, California
Duarte is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 21,321, down from 21,486 at the 2000 census....

United States 1972
  Frankfurt Germany 2011
  Guadalajara
Guadalajara, Spain
Guadalajara is a city and municipality in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha, Spain, and in the natural region of La Alcarria. It is the capital of the province of Guadalajara. It is located roughly 60 km northeast of Madrid on the Henares River, and has a population of 83,789...

Spain 1982
  Hagåtña
Hagåtña, Guam
Hagåtña , formerly English Agana and in Spanish Agaña, is the capital of the United States island territory of Guam. It is the island's second smallest village in both area and population. From the 18th through mid 20th century, it was Guam's population center...

Guam
Guam
Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is one of five U.S. territories with an established civilian government. Guam is listed as one of 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories by the Special Committee on Decolonization of the United...

1976
Kansas City
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

United States 1993
  Kingston
Kingston, Jamaica
Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica, located on the southeastern coast of the island. It faces a natural harbour protected by the Palisadoes, a long sand spit which connects the town of Port Royal and the Norman Manley International Airport to the rest of the island...

Jamaica
Jamaica
Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length, up to in width and 10,990 square kilometres in area. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola, the island harbouring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic...

1976
  Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

Poland 1978
  Kyoto
Kyoto
is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the imperial capital of Japan, it is now the capital of Kyoto Prefecture, as well as a major part of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area.-History:...

Japan 1978
Lansing
Lansing, Michigan
Lansing is the capital of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is located mostly in Ingham County, although small portions of the city extend into Eaton County. The 2010 Census places the city's population at 114,297, making it the fifth largest city in Michigan...

United States 1990
  Lima
Lima
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central part of the country, on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima...

Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

1976
  Magdalena de Kino
Magdalena de Kino
Magdalena de Kino is a city and surrounding municipality located in the Mexican state of Sonora covering approximately 560 square miles . According to the 2005 census, the city's population was 23,101, and the municipality's population was 25,500. Magdalena de Kino is in the northern section of...

Mexico 1984
  Malabo
Malabo
Malabo is the capital of Equatorial Guinea, located on the northern coast of Bioko Island on the rim of a sunken volcano....

Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea where the capital Malabo is situated.Annobón is the southernmost island of Equatorial Guinea and is situated just south of the equator. Bioko island is the northernmost point of Equatorial Guinea. Between the two islands and to the...

1976
  Málaga
Málaga
Málaga is a city and a municipality in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain. With a population of 568,507 in 2010, it is the second most populous city of Andalusia and the sixth largest in Spain. This is the southernmost large city in Europe...

Spain
  Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

Italy 1976
  Nochistlán
Nochistlan
Nochistlán is a town in the Mexican state of Zacatecas. Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, on December 3, 1531, hired Juan de Oñate to establish a village in Nochistlán; the village would be named Guadalajara to honor Guzmán for having been born in Guadalajara....

Mexico 1997
  Oñati
Oñati
Oñati is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, in the north of Spain. It has a population of approximately 10,500 and lies in a valley in the center of the Basque country. It lies about 40 km south of the Bay of Biscay and is about 236 m...

Spain 2002
  Panama City
Panama City
Panama is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Panama. It has a population of 880,691, with a total metro population of 1,272,672, and it is located at the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal, in the province of the same name. The city is the political and administrative center of the...

Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

1976
Portland, Oregon
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

United States 1983
St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

United States 1993
  Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

Russia
San Antonio United States 1974
  San José
San José, Costa Rica
San José is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica. Located in the Central Valley, San José is the seat of national government, the focal point of political and economic activity, and the major transportation hub of this Central American nation.Founded in 1738 by order of Cabildo de León, San...

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica , officially the Republic of Costa Rica is a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east....

  San Salvador
San Salvador
The city of San Salvador the capital and largest city of El Salvador, which has been designated a Gamma World City. Its complete name is La Ciudad de Gran San Salvador...

El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador or simply Salvador is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. The country's capital city and largest city is San Salvador; Santa Ana and San Miguel are also important cultural and commercial centers in the country and in all of Central America...

1976
  Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo, known officially as Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic. Its metropolitan population was 2,084,852 in 2003, and estimated at 3,294,385 in 2010. The city is located on the Caribbean Sea, at the mouth of the Ozama River...

Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
The Dominican Republic is a nation on the island of La Hispaniola, part of the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands that are shared by two countries...

  Seville
Seville
Seville is the artistic, historic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain. It is the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia and of the province of Seville. It is situated on the plain of the River Guadalquivir, with an average elevation of above sea level...

Spain 1977
  Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa , and commonly referred as Tegus , is the capital of Honduras and seat of government of the Republic, along with its twin sister Comayagüela. Founded on September 29, 1578 by the Spanish, it became the country's capital on October 30, 1880 under President Marco Aurelio Soto...

Honduras
Honduras
Honduras is a republic in Central America. It was previously known as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became the modern-day state of Belize...

1976
  Wrocław Poland 1995
  Xiamen
Xiamen
Xiamen , also known as Amoy , is a major city on the southeast coast of the People's Republic of China. It is administered as a sub-provincial city of Fujian province with an area of and population of 3.53 million...

China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...


See also



  • EU-Latin America summit of 2004 protest activity
    EU-Latin America summit of 2004 protest activity
    The 2004 EU-Latin America summit protest activity, also known as the Guadalajara Riots were a series of public protests in Guadalajara's city centre that involved Mexican and foreign activists just a short distance from the meeting of the 58 leaders which included a group of representants of...

  • Hospicio Cabañas
    Hospicio Cabañas
    The Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, a World Heritage Site, is one of the oldest and largest hospital complexes in Spanish America....

     – an UNESCO
    UNESCO
    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

     World Heritage Site
    World Heritage Site
    A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

     in Guadalajara
  • Panteón de Belén
    Panteón de Belén
    Panteón de Belén is a historical cemetery located in Guadalajara, Mexico. The cemetery is site of legends and night tours. It opened in 1848 and it was formally closed in 1896.- History :...

  • Puerta de Hierro
    Puerta de Hierro
    Puerta de Hierro is one of the wealthiest districts in Zapopan, Mexico as part of the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara...

     – exclusive zone in Guadalajara
  • Jorge Matute Remus
    Jorge Matute Remus
    Jorge Matute was a Mexican engineer.His movement of the 1700-ton building of Telefonos de Mexico in 1950 to widen a main street in Guadalajara gained him a place in the city's history. The building was moved 17 meters away from its original position with all the communication operators working...

    – built Guadalajara's water system

External links