Groningen (city)

Groningen (city)

Overview
Groningen (Gronings
Gronings
Gronings, in the dialect itself called Grunnegs or Grönnegs, is a collective name for some Friso-Saxon dialects spoken in the province of Groningen and around the Groningen border in Drenthe and Friesland. Gronings and the strongly related varieties in East-Frisia have a strong Frisian influence...

: Grunnen, West Frisian
West Frisian language
West Frisian is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland in the north of the Netherlands. West Frisian is the name by which this language is usually known outside the Netherlands, to distinguish it from the closely related Frisian languages of Saterland Frisian and North Frisian,...

: Grins) is a municipality and the capital city of the province of Groningen
Groningen (province)
Groningen [] is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands. In the east it borders the German state of Niedersachsen , in the south Drenthe, in the west Friesland and in the north the Wadden Sea...

 in the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

. With a population of around 190,000, it is by far the largest city in the north of the Netherlands. Groningen is a university city, inhabited on average by about 50,000 students.


The city was founded on the northernmost point of the Hondsrug
Hondsrug
thumb|300px|The Hoogstraatje in [[Groningen |Groningen]], the northernmost [[hill]] of the HondsrugThe Hondsrug is a Dutch ridge of sand that is mainly located in the province Drenthe and partly in the province Groningen...

 area. The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from 1040.
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Groningen (Gronings
Gronings
Gronings, in the dialect itself called Grunnegs or Grönnegs, is a collective name for some Friso-Saxon dialects spoken in the province of Groningen and around the Groningen border in Drenthe and Friesland. Gronings and the strongly related varieties in East-Frisia have a strong Frisian influence...

: Grunnen, West Frisian
West Frisian language
West Frisian is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland in the north of the Netherlands. West Frisian is the name by which this language is usually known outside the Netherlands, to distinguish it from the closely related Frisian languages of Saterland Frisian and North Frisian,...

: Grins) is a municipality and the capital city of the province of Groningen
Groningen (province)
Groningen [] is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands. In the east it borders the German state of Niedersachsen , in the south Drenthe, in the west Friesland and in the north the Wadden Sea...

 in the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

. With a population of around 190,000, it is by far the largest city in the north of the Netherlands. Groningen is a university city, inhabited on average by about 50,000 students.

History



The city was founded on the northernmost point of the Hondsrug
Hondsrug
thumb|300px|The Hoogstraatje in [[Groningen |Groningen]], the northernmost [[hill]] of the HondsrugThe Hondsrug is a Dutch ridge of sand that is mainly located in the province Drenthe and partly in the province Groningen...

 area. The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from 1040. However, the city already existed long before then: the oldest archaeological traces found are believed to stem from the years 3950 BCE–3720 BCE, although the first major settlement in Groningen has been traced back to the 3rd century CE.

In the 13th century, when Groningen was an important trade centre, its inhabitants built a city wall to underline its authority. The city had a strong influence on the surrounding lands and made its dialect
Dialect
The term dialect is used in two distinct ways, even by linguists. One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors,...

 a common tongue. The most influential period of the city was the end of the 15th century, when the nearby province of Friesland
Friesland
Friesland is a province in the north of the Netherlands and part of the ancient region of Frisia.Until the end of 1996, the province bore Friesland as its official name. In 1997 this Dutch name lost its official status to the Frisian Fryslân...

 was administered from Groningen. During these years, the Martini Tower
Martinitoren
The Martinitoren is the highest church tower in the city of Groningen, The Netherlands.The tower is located at the north-eastern corner of the Grote Markt , is part of the Martinikerk . The tower contains a brick spiral staircase consisting of 260 steps, and the carillon within the tower contains...

 was built, which loomed over the city at (then) 127 metres tall, making it the highest building in Europe at the time. The city's independence came to an end when it chose to join forces with the Spanish
Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire comprised territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, in America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. It originated during the Age of Exploration and was therefore one of the first global empires. At the time of Habsburgs, Spain reached the peak of its world power....

 during the Eighty Years' War in 1594. It later switched sides, joining the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

In 1614, the University of Groningen
University of Groningen
The University of Groningen , located in the city of Groningen, was founded in 1614. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands as well as one of its largest. Since its inception more than 100,000 students have graduated...

 was founded, initially only for religious education. In the same period the city expanded rapidly and a new city wall was built. That same city wall was tested during the Third Anglo-Dutch War
Third Anglo-Dutch War
The Third Anglo–Dutch War or Third Dutch War was a military conflict between England and the Dutch Republic lasting from 1672 to 1674. It was part of the larger Franco-Dutch War...

 in 1672, when the city was attacked fiercely by the bishop of Münster, Bernhard von Galen
Bernhard von Galen
Christoph Bernhard Freiherr von Galen was prince-bishop of Münster. He was born into a noble Westphalian family....

. The city walls resisted, an event which is celebrated with music and fireworks
Fireworks
Fireworks are a class of explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display. A fireworks event is a display of the effects produced by firework devices...

 on 28 August (as "Gronings Ontzet" or "Bommen Berend").

The city did not escape the devastation of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. In particular, the main square, Grote Markt, was largely destroyed in April 1945, at the Battle of Groningen
Battle of Groningen
The Battle of Groningen took place during the final month of the Second World War, from April 13 to 16, 1945, in the city of Groningen between a mixture of German soldiers, Dutch and Belgian SS troops numbering 7,000 against the entire 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, though the whole division was...

. However, the Martinitoren, its church, the Goudkantoor
Goudkantoor
The Goudkantoor is a building built in 1635 and located on Waagststraat near the Grote Markt in Groningen, Netherlands. Originally it was built as an office for the receiver of taxes of the province of Groningen when it was called Collectehuis.The text on the building, Date Caesari quae sunt...

, and the city hall were not damaged. The battle there lasted several days.

University of Groningen


The University of Groningen (in Dutch: Rijksuniversiteit Groningen) has a rich academic tradition which dates back to 1614. After the University of Leiden, it is the oldest university located in the Netherlands. The university educated the first female student
Aletta Jacobs
Aletta Henriëtte Jacobs, better known as Aletta Jacobs was the first woman to complete a university course in the Netherlands and the first female physician. She was born to a Jewish doctor's family in Sappemeer...

 and the first Dutch national astronaut
Wubbo Ockels
Prof. Dr. Wubbo Johannes Ockels is a Dutch physicist and a former ESA astronaut. In 1985 he participated in a flight on a space shuttle , making him the first Dutch citizen in space. He was not the first Dutch-born astronaut, as he is preceded by the naturalized American Lodewijk van den Berg, who...

 in the history of the country, the first president of the European Central Bank
European Central Bank
The European Central Bank is the institution of the European Union that administers the monetary policy of the 17 EU Eurozone member states. It is thus one of the world's most important central banks. The bank was established by the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1998, and is headquartered in Frankfurt,...

 and a Nobel prize
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

 winner. They share their academic roots with around 200,000 people, who were either students, teachers or researchers at the university. Groningen has the highest percentage of students by total population, approximately 25%.

Art, culture and nightlife


The city is nationally known as the "Metropolis of the North" and as "Martinistad" referring to the Martini Tower
Martinitoren
The Martinitoren is the highest church tower in the city of Groningen, The Netherlands.The tower is located at the north-eastern corner of the Grote Markt , is part of the Martinikerk . The tower contains a brick spiral staircase consisting of 260 steps, and the carillon within the tower contains...

.

Although Groningen is not a very large city, it does have an important role as the main urban centre of this part of the country, particularly in the fields of music and other arts, education, and business. The large number of students living in Groningen also contributes to a diverse cultural scene for a city of its size.

Museums


The most important and most famous museum in Groningen is the Groninger Museum
Groninger Museum
The Groninger Museum is a museum of modern and contemporary art in Groningen, Netherlands.-Background:Although not as well known as other Dutch institutions of fine art, the Groninger Museum was founded in 1894...

. With the construction of its current building, designed by Alessandro Mendini
Alessandro Mendini
Alessandro Mendini is an Italian designer and architect. He played an important part in the development of Italian design. He also worked, aside from his artistic career, for Casabella, Modo and Domus magazines....

, the museum has been transformed into one of the most modern and innovative of its kind in the Netherlands. In addition, the city also has a maritime museum
Maritime museum
A maritime museum is a museum specializing in the display of objects relating to ships and travel on large bodies of water...

, a university museum
University museum
A university museum is a museum or collection run by a university, typically founded to aid teaching and research within the university. The Ashmolean Museum at the University of Oxford in England is an early example, originally housed in the building that is now the Museum of the History of Science...

, a comics museum, a graphical museum and a tobacco
Tobacco
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines...

 museum.

Theatre and music


Groningen has its own city theatre (Stadsschouwburg), located on the Turfsingel; a big theatre and concert venue called Martini Plaza; and another major cultural venue on the Trompsingel, called the Oosterpoort. Vera is located on the Oosterstraat, Grand Theatre on the Grote Markt, and Simplon on the Boterdiep. Several cafes feature live music, a few of which specialize in jazz music, including Jazzcafe De Spiegel on the Peperstraat. The jazz music students from the Prins Claus Conservatorium
Prins Claus Conservatorium
The Prins Claus Conservatorium is one of the nine conservatoires in the Netherlands. It is one of the schools of the Hanze University Groningen located in the city of Groningen....

 have been known to hold regular jam sessions in cafes such as Peter Pan on the Voor Het Voormalige Klein Poortje and café De Smederij on the Tuinstraat 2–4. Groningen is also the host city for the Eurosonic Festival
Eurosonic Festival
Eurosonic is Europe’s largest showcase festival and takes place on a yearly basis on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday previous to Noorderslag festival in the dutch city Groningen. Eurosonic is part of The European Music Conference and Showcase Festival Eurosonic Noorderslag. During the festival 250...

, an annual music showcase event for over a hundred bands from all over Europe.

Nightlife


Groningen's nightlife depends largely on its student population. Its cultural scene is vibrant and remarkable for a city of its size. In particular, the Grote Markt, the Vismarkt, and the Poelestraat and Peperstraat are crowded every night of the week, and most bars do not close until 7 in the morning. Between 2006 and the present, Groningen was elected "de beste binnenstad" (the best city centre) of the Netherlands. There are also two red-light district
Red-light district
A red-light district is a part of an urban area where there is a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, adult theaters, etc...

s, one in Nieuwstad (a street) and one in the A-kwartier (an area). Both of them are in or near the city centre.

Twin towns – Sister cities


Groningen is twinned with the following cities:
Graz
Graz
The more recent population figures do not give the whole picture as only people with principal residence status are counted and people with secondary residence status are not. Most of the people with secondary residence status in Graz are students...

, Austria
Jabalia
Jabalia
Jabalia also Jabalya is a Palestinian city located north of Gaza City. It is under the jurisdiction of the North Gaza Governorate, in the Gaza Strip. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Jabalia had a population of 82,877 in mid-year 2006...

, Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
thumb|Gaza city skylineThe Gaza Strip lies on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Strip borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the south, east and north. It is about long, and between 6 and 12 kilometres wide, with a total area of...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia Katowice
Katowice
Katowice is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, on the Kłodnica and Rawa rivers . Katowice is located in the Silesian Highlands, about north of the Silesian Beskids and about southeast of the Sudetes Mountains.It is the central district of the Upper Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2...

, Poland Murmansk
Murmansk
Murmansk is a city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It serves as a seaport and is located in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia's borders with Norway and Finland...

, Russia Newcastle, United Kingdom Holland
Holland, Michigan
Holland is a city in the western region of the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is situated near the eastern shore of Lake Michigan on Lake Macatawa, which is fed by the Macatawa River ....

, United States
Odense
Odense
The city of Odense is the third largest city in Denmark.Odense City has a population of 167,615 and is the main city of the island of Funen...

, Denmark Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Oldenburg is an independent city in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated in the western part of the state between the cities of Bremen and Groningen, Netherlands, at the Hunte river. It has a population of 160,279 which makes it the fourth biggest city in Lower Saxony after Hanover, Braunschweig...

, Germany San Carlos
San Carlos, Río San Juan
San Carlos is the capital city of the municipality of San Carlos and of the Río San Juan Department of Nicaragua. The city proper has a population of roughly 12,174, while the city and surrounding communities contain 37,461 as of 2005. San Carlos is positioned on the confluence of Lake Nicaragua...

, Nicaragua Tallinn
Tallinn
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It occupies an area of with a population of 414,940. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the banks of the Gulf of Finland, south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg. Tallinn's Old Town is in the list...

, Estonia Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

, China Zlín
Zlín
Zlín , from 1949 to 1989 Gottwaldov , is a city in the Zlín Region, southeastern Moravia, Czech Republic, on the Dřevnice River. The development of the modern city is closely connected to the Bata Shoes company...

, Czech Republic


and in addition has a sister city relationship with the American state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of   Michigan
Michigan
Michigan is a U.S. state located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake"....

, with the city of Holland, Michigan
Holland, Michigan
Holland is a city in the western region of the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is situated near the eastern shore of Lake Michigan on Lake Macatawa, which is fed by the Macatawa River ....


Politics


The city council has 39 members. The left-wing parties PvdA and GroenLinks
GreenLeft
GreenLeft is a green political party operating in the Netherlands.GreenLeft was formed on 1 March 1989 as a merger of four left-wing political parties: the Communist Party of the Netherlands, Pacifist Socialist Party, the Political Party of Radicals and the Evangelical People's Party...

 are the largest. After the elections in 2002, they formed a coalition with CDA
Christian Democratic Appeal
The Christian Democratic Appeal is a centre-right Dutch Christian democratic political party. It suffered severe losses in the 2010 elections and fell from the first to the fourth place...

 and VVD. Peter Rehwinkel has been the mayor since 2009. As a result of the elections of 2006, three left-wing parties (PvdA, GroenLinks and SP
Socialist Party (Netherlands)
The Socialist Party is a democratic socialist political party in the Netherlands. After the 2006 general election, the Socialist Party became one of the major parties of the Netherlands with 25 seats of 150, an increase of 16 seats. The party was in opposition against the fourth Balkenende cabinet...

), decided to form a new coalition, which was appointed on 26 April 2006.

Industry


Until recently, there were two large sugar factories inside the city boundaries. The factory of the Suiker Unie was originally outside of Groningen, but it was completely swallowed by the expansion of the city. After a campaign to close the factory, it was finally shut down in 2008/2009. Before closing down, the sugar production amounted to 250,000 tonnes of beet sugar, with 250 employees (2005 figures). The only remaining sugar factory is CSM Vierverlaten in Hoogkerk
Hoogkerk
Hoogkerk is a town in the Dutch province of Groningen. It is located in the municipality of Groningen, about 4 km west of the city.Hoogkerk was a separate municipality until 1969, when it was merged with the city of Groningen....

, which produces 235,000 tonnes of beet sugar, with 283 employees.

Other well known companies from Groningen are Hooghoudt (a producer of alcoholic beverages, genever and beerenburg
Beerenburg
Beerenburg is a Dutch drink, made by adding herbs to jenever, with about 30% alcohol.The original Beerenburg was made in the mid-19th century with a secret mixture of spices of the Amsterdam spice merchant Hendrik Beerenburg, to whom it owes its name. Soon local Beerenburg varieties emerged, each...

, amongst others), publishing house Wolters-Noordhoff and Theodorus Niemeyer (a coffee, tea and tobacco company).

Cycling and walking


Groningen has been called the "World Cycling City", since 57% of journeys within the city are made by bicycle. The city is very much adapted to the wishes of those who want to get around without a car, as it has an extensive cycle network, good public transport, and a large pedestrianised zone in the city centre. The transformation of the historic centre into a pedestrian priority zone enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes are accomplished by applying the principle of "filtered permeability"
Permeability (spatial and transport planning)
Permeability or connectivity describes the extent to which urban forms permit movement of people or vehicles in different directions. The terms are often used interchangeably, although differentiated definitions also exist...

. It means that the network configuration favours active transportation and selectively, “filters out” the car by reducing the number of streets that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip (see image). The logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid
Fused Grid
The Fused Grid is a street network pattern first proposed in 2002 and subsequently applied in Calgary, Alberta and in Stratford, Ontario . It represents a synthesis of two well known and extensively used network concepts: the "grid" and the “Radburn” pattern, derivatives of which are found in most...

. In the Italian TV programme of investigative journalism "Report" appeared a short film, considering the use of bikes in Groningen a good practice to emulate in Italy.

Rail


There are three stations in Groningen:
  • Groningen
    Groningen railway station
    Groningen is the main railway station in Groningen, the Netherlands. In Groningen, the station is also called Hoofdstation. The station opened on 1 June 1866 and is on the Harlingen–Nieuweschans railway. The first building was a temporary structure outside the former fortifications. In 1870, with...

  • Groningen Europapark
    Groningen Europapark railway station
    Groningen Europapark is a railway station located in Groningen, The Netherlands. The station was opened on 1 October 2007 and is located on the Harlingen–Nieuweschans railway between Groningen and Nieuweschans. The train service is operated by Arriva. A new station Groningen Europapark is scheduled...

  • Groningen Noord
    Groningen Noord railway station
    Groningen Noord is a railway station located in Groningen, The Netherlands. The station was opened on 15 June 1884 and is located on the Groningen–Delfzijl railway...



The main train station (served by the Nederlandse Spoorwegen
Nederlandse Spoorwegen
Nederlandse Spoorwegen , or NS, is the principal passenger railway operator in the Netherlands.Its trains operate over the tracks of the Dutch national railinfrastructure, operated by ProRail, which was split off from NS in 2003...

 and Arriva
Arriva
Arriva plc is a multinational public transport company owned by Deutsche Bahn and headquartered in Sunderland, United Kingdom. It has bus, coach, train, tram and waterbus operations in 12 countries across Europe, employs more than 47,500 people and services over 1.5 billion passenger journeys each...

) has regular services to most of the major cities in the Netherlands.

Direct destinations are:
  • Zwolle
    Zwolle
    Zwolle is a municipality and the capital city of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands, 120 kilometers northeast of Amsterdam. Zwolle has about 120,000 citizens.-History:...

    , Amersfoort
    Amersfoort
    Amersfoort is a municipality and the second largest city of the province of Utrecht in central Netherlands. The city is growing quickly but has a well-preserved and protected medieval centre. Amersfoort is one of the largest railway junctions in the country, because of its location on two of the...

    , Hilversum
    Hilversum
    is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Located in the region called "'t Gooi", it is the largest town in that area. It is surrounded by heathland, woods, meadows, lakes, and smaller villages...

    , Amsterdam
    Amsterdam
    Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

    -south and Schiphol Airport (Nederlandse Spoorwegen)
  • Zwolle
    Zwolle
    Zwolle is a municipality and the capital city of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands, 120 kilometers northeast of Amsterdam. Zwolle has about 120,000 citizens.-History:...

    , Amersfoort
    Amersfoort
    Amersfoort is a municipality and the second largest city of the province of Utrecht in central Netherlands. The city is growing quickly but has a well-preserved and protected medieval centre. Amersfoort is one of the largest railway junctions in the country, because of its location on two of the...

    , Utrecht
    Utrecht (city)
    Utrecht city and municipality is the capital and most populous city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbation, and is the fourth largest city of the Netherlands with a population of 312,634 on 1 Jan 2011.Utrecht's ancient city centre features...

    , Gouda
    Gouda
    Gouda is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. Gouda, which was granted city rights in 1272, is famous for its Gouda cheese, smoking pipes, and 15th-century city hall....

     and The Hague
    The Hague
    The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

     (Nederlandse Spoorwegen)
  • Leeuwarden (Arriva)
  • Hoogezand-Sappemeer
    Hoogezand-Sappemeer
    Hoogezand-Sappemeer is a municipality in the northeastern Netherlands. It is the second largest municipality in the province of Groningen, after the city of Groningen. It is well known for its ship building industry....

    , Winschoten
    Winschoten
    Winschoten is a former municipality and city in the northeast of the Netherlands.Population : 18.497; area: 22,24 km2.The origin of the name of Winschoten is not known but it has received nicknames. One of these is Molenstad . It has also been known, in living memory, as Sodom...

    , Leer
    Leer
    Leer is a town in the district of Leer, the northwestern part of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated at the river Ems, near the border with the Netherlands....

     (Germany) (Arriva)
  • Roodeschool
    Roodeschool
    Roodeschool is a community situated in the northeast of Groningen province in the Netherlands and forming part of the municipality of Eemsmond...

     and Delfzijl
    Delfzijl
    Delfzijl is a municipality and city in the northeast of the Netherlands. It is situated on the left bank of the river Ems estuary, which forms the border with Germany.-Population centres:...

     (Arriva)
  • Arriva will start a new service to Veendam
    Veendam
    Veendam is a municipality and a town in the northeastern Dutch province of Groningen.A Holland America Line cruise ship, the MS Veendam, is named after the city.- Population centres :...

     on may 1st, 2011.

Road


The A28 motorway
A28 motorway (Netherlands)
The A28 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands. It is approximately 188 kilometers in length.The A28 traverses the Dutch provinces of Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Drenthe and Groningen...

 connects the city of Groningen to Utrecht
Utrecht (city)
Utrecht city and municipality is the capital and most populous city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbation, and is the fourth largest city of the Netherlands with a population of 312,634 on 1 Jan 2011.Utrecht's ancient city centre features...

 (via Zwolle
Zwolle
Zwolle is a municipality and the capital city of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands, 120 kilometers northeast of Amsterdam. Zwolle has about 120,000 citizens.-History:...

 and Amersfoort
Amersfoort
Amersfoort is a municipality and the second largest city of the province of Utrecht in central Netherlands. The city is growing quickly but has a well-preserved and protected medieval centre. Amersfoort is one of the largest railway junctions in the country, because of its location on two of the...

). The A7 motorway
A7 motorway (Netherlands)
The A7 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands connecting Zaandam, via the Afsluitdijk, Sneek and Groningen to the German border near Bad Nieuweschans. The entire road is part of the European route E22, with exception of the first kilometre, between the terminus in Zaandam and the interchange...

 connects Groningen to Friesland
Friesland
Friesland is a province in the north of the Netherlands and part of the ancient region of Frisia.Until the end of 1996, the province bore Friesland as its official name. In 1997 this Dutch name lost its official status to the Frisian Fryslân...

 and Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

 (South-West) and Winschoten
Winschoten
Winschoten is a former municipality and city in the northeast of the Netherlands.Population : 18.497; area: 22,24 km2.The origin of the name of Winschoten is not known but it has received nicknames. One of these is Molenstad . It has also been known, in living memory, as Sodom...

 and the direction of Bremen
Bremen
The City Municipality of Bremen is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany. A commercial and industrial city with a major port on the river Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen-Oldenburg metropolitan area . Bremen is the second most populous city in North Germany and tenth in Germany.Bremen is...

 in the East.

Bus


Qbuzz run several city buses and urban buses. The main routes are:
  • 3: Lewenborg
    Lewenborg
    Lewenborg is a green suburb in the east of the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. It had 8,800 residents as of 2008. Its construction began in 1971....

    -city centre-main station-Vinkhuizen
  • 6: Beijum-city centre-main station-Hoornsemeer
  • 4/8 Hoogkerk
    Hoogkerk
    Hoogkerk is a town in the Dutch province of Groningen. It is located in the municipality of Groningen, about 4 km west of the city.Hoogkerk was a separate municipality until 1969, when it was merged with the city of Groningen....

    -centre-main station
  • 11: Zernike-city centre-main station
  • 15: Zernike-city centre-main station
  • 33/39/133: Groningen-Surhuisterveen
    Surhuisterveen
    Surhuisterveen is one of the 12 villages of the municipality of Achtkarspelen, Province Friesland, The Netherlands. As of 1 January 2010, Surhuisterveen had a population of 5,865 ....

  • 50/51: Groningen-Assen
    Assen
    Assen is a municipality and a city in the north eastern Netherlands, capital of the province of Drenthe. It received city rights in 1809. Assen's main claim to fame is the TT Circuit Assen the motorcycle racing circuit, where on the last Saturday in June the Dutch TT is run...

  • 61: Groningen-Bedum
    Bedum
    Bedum is a municipality and a town in the northeastern Netherlands. Populated by around 10,000 inhabitants, Bedum is one of the larger of Groningen's several satellite towns....

    -Uithuizen
    Uithuizen
    Uithuizen is a village in the Dutch province of Groningen. It is located in the municipality of Eemsmond. Uithuizen has a railway station.Uithuizen was a separate municipality until 1979, when it became part of Hefshuizen....

  • 82 Groningen-Roden
    Roden (Drenthe)
    Roden is a town in the Dutch province of Drenthe. It is located in the municipality of Noordenveld, about 16 km southeast of Groningen. Roden has 15.000 citizens....

  • 140: Groningen-Appingedam
    Appingedam
    - Population centres :Appingedam, Garreweer, Jukwerd, Laskwerd, Marsum, Oling, Opwierde, Solwerd, Tjamsweer.- Appingedam :Little is known about the exact age and origin of the name of Appingedam. It came into existence on the banks of the Delf, the present Damsterdiep, around 1200...

    -Delfzijl
    Delfzijl
    Delfzijl is a municipality and city in the northeast of the Netherlands. It is situated on the left bank of the river Ems estuary, which forms the border with Germany.-Population centres:...

  • 163: Groningen-Lauwersoog (connecting the ferry to Schiermonnikoog
    Schiermonnikoog
    Schiermonnikoog is an island, a municipality, and a national park in the northern Netherlands. Schiermonnikoog is one of the West Frisian Islands, and is part of the province of Friesland....

    )
  • 300/305: Groningen-(Gieten
    Gieten
    Gieten is a town in the Dutch province of Drenthe. It is a part of the municipality of Aa en Hunze, and lies about 13 km east of Assen.Gieten was a separate municipality until 1998, when it became a part of Aa en Hunze....

    (300))-Borger-Emmen
  • 301: Groningen-Veendam
    Veendam
    Veendam is a municipality and a town in the northeastern Dutch province of Groningen.A Holland America Line cruise ship, the MS Veendam, is named after the city.- Population centres :...

  • 304/314: Groningen-Drachten
    Drachten
    Drachten is a Dutch town, located in the municipality of Smallingerland in the province of Friesland.-Beginnings:Drachten began as a small community on the east side of the Drait River. There, early settlers started draining the land to use it for agriculture...

    -Heerenveen
    Heerenveen
    Heerenveen is a town in the Heerenveen municipality of the province of Friesland , in the north of the Netherlands.- History :The town was established in 1551 by three lords as a location for the purpose of digging peat which was used for fuel, hence the name...

  • 315: Groningen-Heerenveen
    Heerenveen
    Heerenveen is a town in the Heerenveen municipality of the province of Friesland , in the north of the Netherlands.- History :The town was established in 1551 by three lords as a location for the purpose of digging peat which was used for fuel, hence the name...

    -Lemmer
    Lemmer
    Lemmer is a town in the municipality of Lemsterland , in the Netherlands. It has a population of around 10,500 and is one of Friesland's most famous water sport towns.Lemmer also is a common Luxembourgish last name....

    -Lelystad
    Lelystad
    Lelystad is a municipality and a city in the centre of the Netherlands, and it is the capital of the province of Flevoland. The city, built on reclaimed land, was founded in 1967 and was named after Cornelis Lely, who engineered the Afsluitdijk, making the reclamation possible...

     (longest bus route in The Netherlands) – Interliner
    Interliner
    Interliner is an express bus system in the Netherlands. In this country the backbone of medium and long distance public transport is the railroad system. Long distance buses are used complementarily. While most bus lines have many stops or only span small distances Interliner is an express bus...



There are also direct buses between Groningen (train station) and Bremen
Bremen
The City Municipality of Bremen is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany. A commercial and industrial city with a major port on the river Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen-Oldenburg metropolitan area . Bremen is the second most populous city in North Germany and tenth in Germany.Bremen is...

 (airport) in Germany, run by Public Express.

In the near future, there are plans to build a tram route connecting the central station, the city centre and the university complex (Zernike).

Air


Groningen Airport Eelde
Groningen Airport Eelde
-External links:* from Airliners.net...

 is located 10 km south of the centre of Groningen, with scheduled and holiday charter services to European destinations.

Climate


Groningen has a cool temperate climate similar to most of the Netherlands, although somewhat colder in winter than other major cities due to its northeasterly position. Groningen has relatively warm summers and cold winters. Weather is influenced by the North Sea to the north-west and its prevailing north-western winds and gales. Winter temperatures are cool: on average above freezing, although frosts are common during spells of easterly winds blowing in from the inner European continent, i. e. Germany, Russia and even Siberia. Night-time temperatures of -10 °C or lower are not uncommon during cold winter periods. The lowest temperature ever recorded is -26.8 °C on February 16, 1956. Snow often falls, but rarely stays consecutively due to warmer daytime temperatures although white snowy days happen every winter. Summers are somewhat warm and humid. Temperatures of 30 °C (86 °F) or higher occur sporadically, most average daytime high's are around 22 °C (72 °F). Very rainy periods are common, especially in spring and summer. Average annual precipitation is about 900 mm.

Football stadium


The football stadium of FC Groningen is called Euroborg
Euroborg
Euroborg is the stadium of football club FC Groningen, with a capacity of 22,329 seats. Located to the south-east of Groningen, the Euroborg site houses a casino and a movie theatre, a school, a supermarket and a fitness centre. A temporary railway station at the Euroborg has opened in late 2007....

. Opened in January 2006, the stadium has 22,600 seats. There are plans to expand the stadium to a capacity of 35- or 40,000. The former football stadium of FC Groningen is the Oosterpark Stadion
Oosterpark Stadion
Oosterpark Stadion was the stadium of football club FC Groningen until December 2005. The all-seater stadium in Groningen's Oosterpark neighbourhood was inaugurated on September 30, 1933, and renovated in 1960, 1984 and 1987/88...

 (12,500 seats).

Notable people from Groningen

  • Willem Arnold Alting
    Willem Arnold Alting
    Willem Arnold Alting was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1780 until 1797.Alting was born in Groningen on 11 November 1724. He studied in his hometown and graduated in law....

     (1724), Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
    Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
    The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented the Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and Dutch recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1949.The first Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch East India Company...

     from 1780 until 1797
  • Joseph Ascher
    Joseph Ascher
    Joseph Ascher was a Dutch-Jewish composer and pianist.He was born in Groningen, the son of the chazzan of the city, who went on to become a cantor in London. Ascher started his music studies in London...

     (1829), composer and pianist
  • Jacob B. Bakema
    Jacob B. Bakema
    Jacob Berend Bakema was a Dutch modernist architect, notable for his public housing and involvement in the reconstruction of Rotterdam after the Second World War....

     (1914) modernist architect
  • Daniel Bernoulli
    Daniel Bernoulli
    Daniel Bernoulli was a Dutch-Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family. He is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics, and for his pioneering work in probability and statistics...

     (1700), mathematician and physicist
  • Roche Braziliano
    Roche Braziliano
    Roche Braziliano , was a Dutch pirate born in the town of Groningen. His pirate career lasted from 1654 until his disappearance around 1671...

     (ca. 1635), pirate
    Piracy
    Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea. The term can include acts committed on land, in the air, or in other major bodies of water or on a shore. It does not normally include crimes committed against persons traveling on the same vessel as the perpetrator...

  • Dirk Jan de Geer
    Dirk Jan de Geer
    Jonkheer Dirk Jan de Geer was a Dutch nobleman, lawyer, conservative statesman and prime minister of the Netherlands . He was disgraced for advocating a peace settlement between the Kingdom and Nazi Germany in 1940.Born in Groningen, he was a descendant of the de Geer family painted by Rembrandt...

     (1870), Jonkheer
    Jonkheer
    Jonkheer is a Dutch honorific of nobility.-Honorific of nobility:"Jonkheer" or "Jonkvrouw" is literally translated as "young lord" or "young lady". In medieval times such a person was a young and unmarried son or daughter of a high ranking knight or nobleman...

    , conservative
    Conservatism
    Conservatism is a political and social philosophy that promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions and supports, at the most, minimal and gradual change in society. Some conservatives seek to preserve things as they are, emphasizing stability and continuity, while others oppose modernism...

     statesman and Dutch Prime Minister
    Prime Minister of the Netherlands
    The Prime Minister of the Netherlands is the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands. He is the de facto head of government of the Netherlands and coordinates the policy of the government...

     (1926–1929, 1939–1940), disgraced for advocating a peace settlement between the Netherlands and Nazi Germany
    Nazi Germany
    Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

     in 1940
  • Volcher Coiter
    Volcher Coiter
    Volcher Coiter was a Dutch anatomist who established the study of comparative osteology and first described cerebrospinal meningitis.Coiter was born in Groningen...

     (1534), anatomist, founder of comparative osteology
    Osteology
    Osteology is the scientific study of bones. A subdiscipline of anatomy, anthropology, and archeology, osteology is a detailed study of the structure of bones, skeletal elements, teeth, morphology, function, disease, pathology, the process of ossification , the resistance and hardness of bones , etc...

     and first to identify cerebrospinal meningitis
    Meningitis
    Meningitis is inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs...

  • Julia Culp
    Julia Culp
    Julia Bertha Culp , the "Dutch nightingale", was an internationally celebrated mezzo-soprano in the years 1901–1919....

     (1880), mezzo-soprano, the "Dutch nightingale"
  • Jaap Eden
    Jaap Eden
    Jacobus Johannes "Jaap" Eden was a Dutch athlete. He is the only male athlete to has won world championships in both speed skating and bicycle racing .- Early life :Jaap Eden was born in Groningen to Johannes Eden and Maria Baale...

     (1873), only male athlete to have won world championships in both speed skating
    Speed skating
    Speed skating, or speedskating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in traveling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, and marathon speed skating...

     and cycling
    Cycling
    Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, or for sport. Persons engaged in cycling are cyclists or bicyclists...

  • Albert Eckhout
    Albert Eckhout
    Albert Eckhout was a Dutch portrait and still life painter.Eckhout was among the first European artists to paint scenes from the New World. In 1636, he traveled to Dutch Brazil, invited by count John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen. There, he painted portraits of natives, slaves and mulattos...

     (1610), painter
  • Reimer Eising
    Kettel
    Kettel is Reimer Eising , a self-described "elixir-brewing, camping-loving and musicmaking sorcerer-to-be." He is well-known for his playful, spontaneous melodies and organic folk sounds similar to Aphex Twin, Jega, and Plaid....

     (1982), musician
  • Joanna Gash
    Joanna Gash
    Joanna Gash , has been a Liberal member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Gilmore on the southern coast of New South Wales.-Personal:...

     (1944), Liberal
    Liberal Party of Australia
    The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party.Founded a year after the 1943 federal election to replace the United Australia Party, the centre-right Liberal Party typically competes with the centre-left Australian Labor Party for political office...

     member of the Australian House of Representatives
    Australian House of Representatives
    The House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia; it is the lower house; the upper house is the Senate. Members of Parliament serve for terms of approximately three years....

     representing the Division of Gilmore
    Division of Gilmore
    The Division of Gilmore is an Australian Electoral Division in New South Wales. The division was created in 1984 and is named for Dame Mary Gilmore, the poet and author. It is located in the Shoalhaven the southern Illawarra regions, extending from Warilla in the north to Durras in the south, then...

     on the southern coast of New South Wales
    New South Wales
    New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

  • John Goodricke
    John Goodricke
    John Goodricke FRS was an eminent and profoundly deaf amateur astronomer. He is best known for his observations of the variable star Algol in 1782.- Life and work :...

     (1764), astronomer
    Astronomer
    An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

  • Nico Habermann
    Nico Habermann
    Arie Nicolaas Habermann , often known as Nico Habermann, was a noted Dutch computer scientist.Habermann was born in Groningen, Netherlands, and earned his B.S. in mathematics and physics and M.S. in mathematics from the Free University of Amsterdam in 1953 and 1958. After working as a mathematics...

     (1932), computer scientist
    Computer science
    Computer science or computing science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems...

  • Tiberius Hemsterhuis
    Tiberius Hemsterhuis
    Tiberius Hemsterhuis was a Dutch philologist and critic.-Life:He was born in Groningen. His father, a learned physician, gave him a good early education and he entered the university of his native city in his fifteenth year, where he proved himself the best student of mathematics...

    (1685) philologist
  • Pete Hoekstra
    Pete Hoekstra
    Peter "Pete" Hoekstra is a former Republican U.S. Representative for who served in the House from 1993 until 2011. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Michigan in 2010 and is expected to run for the United States Senate against Debbie Stabenow in 2012.-Early life and education:Born...

     (1953), American Republican
    Republican Party (United States)
    The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

     member of Congress representing Michigan's 2nd congressional district
    Michigan's 2nd congressional district
    Michigan's 2nd congressional district is a United States Congressional district in Western Michigan. It consists of the counties of Benzie, Manistee, Wexford, Mason, Lake, Oceana, Newaygo, Muskegon, Ottawa, and the northern portion of Allegan and the northwest portion of Kent. The 2nd district has...

  • Johan Huizinga
    Johan Huizinga
    Johan Huizinga , was a Dutch historian and one of the founders of modern cultural history.-Life:Born in Groningen as the son of Dirk Huizinga, a professor of physiology, and Jacoba Tonkens, who died two years after his birth, he started out as a student of Indo-Germanic languages, earning his...

     (1872), historian
  • Jozef Israëls
    Jozef Israëls
    Jozef Israëls was a Dutch painter, and "the most respected Dutch artist of the second half of the nineteenth century".-Youth:...

     (1824), painter
  • Dirk Janssen
    Dirk Janssen
    Dirk Janssen was a Dutch gymnast who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics.Born in Groningen, Janssen was part of the Dutch gymnastics team, which finished seventh in the team event. In the individual all-around competition he finished 69th.He was the younger brother of Jan Janssen. He died at the...

     (1881), gymnast
    Gymnastics
    Gymnastics is a sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and balance. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique with each country having its own national governing body...

     in the 1908 Summer Olympics
    1908 Summer Olympics
    The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London, England, United Kingdom. These games were originally scheduled to be held in Rome. At the time they were the fifth modern Olympic games...

     who at his death at the time of his death 105 in 1986 was the longest-lived Olympic competitor in history
  • Gerard Kemkers
    Gerard Kemkers
    Gerard Kemkers is a former speed skater from the Netherlands, who represented his native country at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada. There he won the bronze medal in the men's 5000 metres....

     (1967), speed skating
    Speed skating
    Speed skating, or speedskating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in traveling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, and marathon speed skating...

     bronze medalist at 1988 Winter Olympics
    1988 Winter Olympics
    The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event celebrated in and around Calgary, Alberta, Canada from 13 to 28 February 1988. The host was selected in 1981 after having beat Falun, Sweden and Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy...

  • Egbert Bartholomeusz Kortenaer
    Egbert Bartholomeusz Kortenaer
    Egbert Bartholomeuszoon Kortenaer or Egbert Meussen Cortenaer was an admiral of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. His second name is also given as Bartolomeuszoon or Meeuwiszoon. All of these are variations on the patronym "Son of Bartholomew".Kortenaer was born in 1604 in Groningen of...

     (1604), Dutch admiral
    Admiral
    Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually considered a full admiral and above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet . It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"...

  • Alfred Lagarde
    Alfred Lagarde
    Alfred Lagarde was a Dutch voice actor.Born in Groningen, Lagarde performed the original voice of Telly on Sesamstraat, the Dutch co-production of Sesame Street. After a few brief appearances, Telly became a main character in the late 1980s...

     (1948), Dutch
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

     voice actor
  • Hendrik Willem Mesdag
    Hendrik Willem Mesdag
    Hendrik Willem Mesdag was a Dutch marine painter.He was born in Groningen, the son of the banker Klaas Mesdag and his wife Johanna Wilhelmina van Giffen. Mesdag was encouraged by his father, an amateur painter, to study art...

     (1831), painter
  • Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
    Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
    Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate. He pioneered refrigeration techniques, and he explored how materials behaved when cooled to nearly absolute zero. He was the first to liquify helium...

     (1853), Nobel laureate physicist
    Physicist
    A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic particles of which all ordinary matter is made to the behavior of the material Universe as a whole...

     who pioneered refrigeration
    Refrigeration
    Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another. This work is traditionally done by mechanical work, but can also be done by magnetism, laser or other means...

     techniques and discovered superconductivity
    Superconductivity
    Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance occurring in certain materials below a characteristic temperature. It was discovered by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on April 8, 1911 in Leiden. Like ferromagnetism and atomic spectral lines, superconductivity is a quantum...

  • Etta Palm d'Aelders
    Etta Palm d'Aelders
    Etta Lubina Johanna Palm d'Aelders was a Dutch feminist outspoken during the French Revolution. She gave the address Discourse on the Injustice of the Laws in Favour of Men, at the Expense of Women to the French National Convention on 30 December 1790.-Biography:Etta Aelders was the daughter of...

     (1743), early feminist and spy
    SPY
    SPY is a three-letter acronym that may refer to:* SPY , ticker symbol for Standard & Poor's Depositary Receipts* SPY , a satirical monthly, trademarked all-caps* SPY , airport code for San Pédro, Côte d'Ivoire...

  • Wim T. Schippers
    Wim T. Schippers
    Wim T. Schippers is a Dutch artist, comedian and voice actor, loosely related to the international Fluxus-movement....

     (1942), artist, comedian
  • Maarten Schmidt
    Maarten Schmidt
    Maarten Schmidt is a Dutch astronomer who measured the distances of quasars.Born in Groningen, The Netherlands, Schmidt studied with Jan Hendrik Oort. He earned his Ph.D. degree from Leiden Observatory in 1956....

     (1929), astronomer
    Astronomer
    An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

     who named and was the first to optically identify a quasar
    Quasar
    A quasi-stellar radio source is a very energetic and distant active galactic nucleus. Quasars are extremely luminous and were first identified as being high redshift sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves and visible light, that were point-like, similar to stars, rather than...

  • Jan Sloot
    Jan Sloot
    Romke Jan Bernhard Sloot was a Dutch electronics technician, who claimed to have developed a revolutionary data compression technique, the Sloot Digital Coding System, which could compress a complete movie down to 8 kilobytes of data— this is orders of magnitude greater compression than the...

     (ca. 1945), inventor, claimed to have invented a revolutionary data compression
    Data compression
    In computer science and information theory, data compression, source coding or bit-rate reduction is the process of encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation would use....

     technique
  • Rutger Smith
    Rutger Smith
    Rutger Smith is a Dutch track and field athlete competing in the shot put and discus throw. He was the first athlete to win medals at the World Championships in both events. He represented the Netherlands at the Summer Olympics in 2004 and 2008...

     (1981), track and field athlete competing in shot put
    Shot put
    The shot put is a track and field event involving "putting" a heavy metal ball—the shot—as far as possible. It is common to use the term "shot put" to refer to both the shot itself and to the putting action....

     and discus throw
    Discus throw
    The discus throw is an event in track and field athletics competition, in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as evidenced by the 5th century BC Myron statue, Discobolus...

    , the first athlete to win medals at World Championships in both events
  • A. W. L. Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer (1888), Dutch
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

     nobleman and last colonial Governor-General
    Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
    The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented the Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and Dutch recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1949.The first Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch East India Company...

     of the Netherlands East Indies, now Indonesia
    Indonesia
    Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

  • Jan C. Uiterwijk
    Jan C. Uiterwijk
    Jan Christiaan Uiterwijk was a Dutch entrepreneur.Jan Uiterwijk was born in Groningen to Daniel Uiterwijk and Dina Cornelia Verhagen. As a young man he and his brother were well known soccer players. At the end of WWII he moved to America with his wife Maria and three boys...

     (1915), entrepreneur and shipping line owner
  • Samuel van Houten
    Samuel van Houten
    Samuel van Houten was a Dutch liberal politician.Van Houten was born in Groningen. He studied law at the University of Groningen, obtaining a degree in 1859...

     (1837), politician, cabinet minister and founder of the short lived Liberal Party
    Liberal Party (Netherlands)
    The Liberal Party was a Dutch conservative liberal political party. The LP played only a marginal role in Dutch politics.-Party history:...

  • Stephan Veen
    Stephan Veen
    Stephan Patrick Veen is a retired field hockey forward and midfielder from The Netherlands, who twice became olympic champion with the Dutch national squad: in 1996 and in 2000....

     (1970), two-time Olympic gold medalist in field hockey
    Field hockey
    Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

     with the Dutch national squad in the 1996 Summer Olympics
    1996 Summer Olympics
    The 1996 Summer Olympics of Atlanta, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially known as the Centennial Olympics, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States....

     and the 2000 Summer Olympics
    2000 Summer Olympics
    The Sydney 2000 Summer Olympic Games or the Millennium Games/Games of the New Millennium, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...

  • Ida Vos
    Ida Vos
    Ida Vos was a Dutch author. She wrote books for adults and children. In most of her books, Vos wrote about her experiences as a Jewish girl during the Second World War...

     (1931), writer and poet
  • Corrie Winkel
    Corrie Winkel
    Kornelia Winkel is a former backstroke swimmer from The Netherlands, who won the silver medal in the 4x100 m medley relay at the 1964 Summer Olympics...

     (1944), backstroke
    Backstroke
    The backstroke, also sometimes called the back crawl, is one of the four swimming styles regulated by FINA, and the only regulated style swum on the back. This has the advantage of easy breathing, but the disadvantage of swimmers not being able to see where they are going. It is also the only...

     swimmer and silver medalist in the 4x100 m medley relay at the 1964 Summer Olympics
    1964 Summer Olympics
    The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan in 1964. Tokyo had been awarded with the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honor was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's...


See also


  • Battle of Groningen
    Battle of Groningen
    The Battle of Groningen took place during the final month of the Second World War, from April 13 to 16, 1945, in the city of Groningen between a mixture of German soldiers, Dutch and Belgian SS troops numbering 7,000 against the entire 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, though the whole division was...

  • Jewish Groningen
    Jewish Groningen
    Groningen has always been the largest town in the northern part of the Netherlands, attracting large numbers of Jews because of it throughout the history of the city. The community reached a high of some 2,700 members at the beginning of the 20th century. Only a small part of the 2,400-strong...

  • Siege of Groningen
    Siege of Groningen
    The Siege of Groningen was a battle that took place in 1672 during the Franco-Dutch war. It was a Dutch victory that ended all hope of the Bishop of Münster to push deeper into the Netherlands. The Münster army was so weakened by the defeat that the Dutch army successfully reconquered much of the...


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