Garmsar

Garmsar

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Garmsar is a city in and the capital of Garmsar County
Garmsar County
Garmsar County is a county in Semnan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Garmsar. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 77,676, in 21,706 families. The county is divided into three districts: the Central District, Eyvanki District, and Aradan District. The county has three...

, Semnan Province
Semnan Province
Semnan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the north of the country, and its center is Semnan. The province of Semnan covers an area of 96,816 square kilometers and stretches along the Alborz mountain range and borders to Dasht-e Kavir desert in its southern parts.Counties of...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. At the 2006 census, its population was 38,891, in 10,951 families.

Garmsar is located about 82 kilometres (51 mi) southeast of Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

. It lies on the edge of Dasht-e Kavir
Dasht-e Kavir
Dasht-e Kavir , also known as Kavir-e Namak or Great Salt Desert is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian plateau. It is about 800 kilometers long and 320 kilometers wide with a total surface area of about 77,600 square kilometers , making it the Earth's 23rd largest desert...

, Iran's largest desert. Many people in the city commute to Tehran due to its proximity. Ghasre Bahram, The Stone Way, Stonvand Castle, the Sar Darre Mountains, and Kavir Desert National Park are tourist attractions located in the area.

Garmsar is also known for its high population of the educated and elite. It is the hometown of current Islamic Republic President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.

People


The county's area measuring 10,686 sq. km with a population of 75,000 is located at the climax of the overthrown cone of Habaleh Roud (river). The fertile plain has been a haven to various tribes, which have either migrated hither under pressure or voluntarily. The fertile plain has been a haven to various tribes, which have either migrated hither under pressure or voluntarily. Ethnic diversity in the area has resulted in its being known as the "Island of Tribes". Ethnic diversity in the area has resulted in its being known as the "Island of Tribes".Garmsar is also known for its high rate of academic natives which made the city one of the best cities among all the country.

According to what is written in this respect by a member to the French Iranology Institute in Tehran, Bernard Hourcad, "Some 20 tribal groups from all provinces have gathered at the southern slopes of Alborz to the east of Tehran, which represent a brief anthropology of the whole country at the gateways of Iran's capital city of Tehran. They were mostly taken to Tehran as hostages, once Karim Khan Zand was ousted and when Tehran gradually became known as the nation's capital. Some tribal groups which have often been separated from one another throughout the course of history, have preserved their pastoral and tribal methods of production, their cultural traditions as well as their tribal names and whereabouts. "

Various tribal groups reside in different districts of the city of Garmsar including Aradan, Eivankei and the central. Various tribal groups reside in different districts of the city of Garmsar including Aradan, Eivankei and the central. The most significant tribal groups residing in Garmsar include Osanlou, Elika'i, (Ali Ka'i), Pazouki, Ameri Arab, Lor, Kurd, Nafar, Bakhtiyari, Baseri, Kati, Gilak, Masoumi Arab, Sarhangi Arab, Derazi Arab and Hodavand tribes.

Elika'i tribe originates from Elika, an area located in Chalous and includes nine tribes known as Gilvari, Qandali, Qasemi, Ashouri, Abvali (Abouli), Shah Hosseini, Qanbari, Galini and Kashani. Elika'i tribe originates from Elika, an area located in Chalous and includes nine tribes known as Gilvari, Qandali, Qasemi, Ashouri, Abvali (Abouli), Shah Hosseini, Qanbari, Galini and Kashani.

During the past two centuries, several families including Ilzadeh from Bakhtiyari tribe, Mish-mast Arab and Qashqais have joined the Elika'i tribe and speak in Elika'i dialect, which is quite similar to Mazandarani, and especially to Saravi (belonging to the city of Sari) dialects. During the past two centuries, several families including Ilzadeh from Bakhtiyari tribe, Mish-mast Arab and Qashqais have joined the Elika'i tribe and speak in Elika'i dialect, which is quite similar to Mazandarani, and especially to Saravi (belonging to the city of Sari) dialects. Elika'is, who mainly resided in the villages of Garmsar plain by the beginning of the present century, founded a great number of villages including Adl Abad, Noureddin Abad, Deh Piran, Hadji Abad, Sohrab Khani, Kohantal (Gandal), Ramezan Qareh, Ahmad Abad, Ghiyath Abad and (Nodeh-Khaleseh). Elika'is, who mainly resided in the villages of Garmsar plain by the beginning of the present century, founded a great number of villages including Adl Abad, Noureddin Abad, Deh Piran, Hadji Abad, Sohrab Khani, Kohantal (Gandal), Ramezan Qareh , Ahmad Abad, Ghiyath Abad and (Nodeh-Khaleseh). The population of Elika'i tribe partially chose to migrate to the cities of Garmsar and Aradan as well as the cities of Tehran and Varamin. The population of Elika'i tribe partially chose to migrate to the cities of Garmsar and Aradan as well as the cities of Tehran and Varamin.

At present, they constitute the most significant tribal groups residing in Garmsar, which according to the social and economic statistics taken on the migrating nomad by early summer 1998, 275 families including 1,255 individuals are living a semi-nomadic life. At present, they constitute the most significant tribal groups residing in Garmsar, which according to the social and economic statistics taken on the migrating nomad by early summer 1998, 275 families including 1,255 individuals are living a semi-nomadic life. Their summer resort includes Garmsar's northern heights known as Gilour, the summer resorts of Firouzkouh, Damavand and Polour in Tehran province, while in winter they migrate to the margin of the eastern desert and to the west of Garmsar. Their summer resort includes Garmsar's northern heights known as Gilour, the summer resorts of Firouzkouh, Damavand and Polour in Tehran province, while in winter they migrate to the margin of the eastern desert and to the west of Garmsar.

Pazooka Tribe


They were exiled from Orumiyeh around 400 years ago under the reign of the Safavid dynasty, settled down at Khar and Varamin, while a few of them chose to reside at Taroud and Hesarbon villages in Firouzkouh. They were exiled from Orumiyeh around 400 years ago under the reign of the Safavid dynasty, settled down at Khar and Varamin, while a few of them chose to reside at Taroud and Hesarbon villages in Firouzkouh. According to the travel account written about Astarabad, Mazandaran and Gilan, "Bazooka and Asayeshlou tribes are from Aradan who were taken there from Rome under the reign of Shah Ismaeil. Their population is estimated by Saniuddoleh at 600-700, who reside at Radian, which is considered the capital and the most important village of Khar area. According to the travel account written about Astarabad, Mazandaran and Gilan, "Bazooka and Asayeshlou tribes are from Aradan who were taken there from Rome under the reign of Shah Ismaeil. Their population is estimated by Saniuddoleh at 600-700, who reside at Radian, which is considered the capital and the most important village of Khar area.

Bazookas speak their own language, namely Turkish. Bazookas speak their own language, namely Turkish. They also speak Persian quite fluently. They also speak Persian quite fluently. At present they are mostly centered at Radian and Shah-bough village. At present they are mostly centered at Radian and Shah-bough village.

Ameri Arab tribe was made to migrate to the area from Fars province and settled at Kohanabad village. Ameri Arab tribe was made to migrate to the area from Fars province and settled at Kohanabad village. The village was earlier known as Oubeh Arab. The village was earlier known as Oubeh Arab.

Nafar tribe migrated into Garmsar area from the Fars province capital city of Shiraz. Nafar tribe migrated into Garmsar area from the Fars province capital city of Shiraz. The name of the tribe is taken from the word "Nafar" (person). The name of the tribe is taken from the word "Nafar" (person). Under the reign of Nader Shah Afshar and the Zandieh dynasty, the tribe was led by Hadji Hossein Qoli Khan Nafar, and due to his high influence and reputation at the court, the tribe gradually became known by his name. Under the reign of Nader Shah Afshar and the Zandieh dynasty, the tribe was led by Hadji Hossein Qoli Khan Nafar, and due to his high influence and reputation at the court, the tribe gradually became known by his name. Its population is mentioned by Saniuddoleh to comprise of 30 families. Its population is mentioned by Saniuddoleh to comprise of 30 families. Nafaris reside at Qeshlaq Nafar village. Nafaris reside at Qeshlaq Nafar village.

The Kurds residing in Garmsar area come from two tribes known as Shadlou and Qarachorlou. The Kurds residing in Garmsar area come from two tribes known as Shadlou and Qarachorlou. Their settlement at the area dates back to 1006 AH, which marks the historical migration of the Kurds from southern Caucasus state to Azarbaijan, Khar, Varamin and eventually Khorasan. Their settlement at the area dates back to 1006 AH, which marks the historical migration of the Kurds from southern Caucasus state to Azarbaijan, Khar, Varamin and eventually Khorasan. Some members of Qarachorlou and Shadlou tribes have been residing at Khar and Varamin ever since. Some members of Qarachorlou and Shadlou tribes have been residing at Khar and Varamin ever since. The Kurds generally reside at Hossein Abad, Ali-abad, Qal'eh-Kharabeh and Jalil Abad villages. The Kurds generally reside at Hossein Abad, Ali-abad, Qal'eh-Kharabeh and Jalil Abad villages. In 1932, the population of the Kurds was registered by Masoud Keyhan as including 120 families.

Hodavand tribe comes from Khorram Abad and is known as Lords. Hodavand tribe comes from Khorram Abad and is known as Lords. They were transferred to the Fars area by Karim Khan Zand. They were transferred to the Fars area by Karim Khan Zand. Later on Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar made them migrate from Fars to the outskirts of Tehran, Varamin and Eivankei. Later on Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar made them migrate from Fars to the outskirts of Tehran, Varamin and Eivankei. They mainly reside at the cities of Pak Dasht and Varamin. They mainly reside at the cities of Pak Dasht and Varamin. Some of them reside at Eivankei district at Sangab, Kouros-e Bala, Kouros-e Pa'in (upper and lower Kouros) Behvard and Chandab villages. Some of them reside at Eivankei district at Sangab, Kouros-e Bala, Kouros-e Pa'in (upper and lower Kouros) Behvard and Chandab villages. Another Lori tribe, known as Zandi, resides at Lajran village in Garmsar area. Another Lori tribe, known as Zandi, resides at Lajran village in Garmsar area.

The Exiled Lors


In the beginning of the present century, various Lor tribes were made to migrate to Gramsar from the provinces where they resided earlier. In the beginning of the present century, various Lor tribes were made to migrate to Gramsar from the provinces where they resided earlier. However, in a short while, they returned to their original homeland. However, in a short while, they returned to their original homeland. For instance, in a document dated April 29, 1930 the reply of the financial department to the decree issued by the Ministry of Finance concerning the housing of 100 Lor families, it was reiterated that 73 families were to be housed at Arbabi village and the remaining 27 to be dispatched to Khaleseh Khar village. For instance, in a document dated April 29, 1930 the reply of the financial department to the decree issued by the Ministry of Finance concerning the housing of 100 Lor families, it was reiterated that 73 families were to be housed at Arbabi village and the remaining 27 to be dispatched to Khaleseh Khar village.

Gilaks reside at the villages at Rameh area to the northeast of Garmsar including Rameh Bala, Rameh Pa'in, (upper and lower Rameh) Chahar Taq and Qalifbaf. Gilaks reside at the villages at Rameh area to the northeast of Garmsar including Rameh Bala, Rameh Pa'in, (upper and lower Rameh) Chahar Taq and Qalifbaf. In recent years these villages have just been resided in warm seasons, while in the remaining seasons their residents migrate to the cities of Aradan and Garmsar as well as Jalil Abad and Ali-abad villages. In recent years these villages have just been resided in warm seasons, while in the remaining seasons their residents migrate to the cities of Aradan and Garmsar as well as Jalil Abad and Ali-abad villages. The Gilaks speak in Mazandarani dialect. The Gilaks speak in Mazandarani dialect.

Residents of Deh Namak



Since old days, the ancient village of Deh Namak, located on the way between Tehran and Khorasan, 45 km to the east of Garmsar, has been a significant residential point. Since old days, the ancient village of Deh Namak, located on the way between Tehran and Khorasan, 45 km to the east of Garmsar, has been a significant residential point. The residents of Deh Namak village and the city of Semnan in Khorasan province are related to one another, while the dialect spoken by them are similar as well. The residents of Deh Namak village and the city of Semnan in Khorasan province are related to one another, while the dialect spoken by them are similar as well.

Other Immigrants


Besides the tribal groups, the area is also resided by a number of migrants from the central province, Kashan, Ardestan and Natanz, among whom one might refer to the Tabataba'i Seyeds from Zavareh in Ardestan residing at Qatoul village. Besides the tribal groups, the area is also resided by a number of migrants from the central province, Kashan, Ardestan and Natanz, among whom one might refer to the Tabataba'i Seyeds from Zavareh in Ardestan residing at Qatoul village

Colleges

  • Islamic Azad University of Garmsar
    Islamic Azad University of Garmsar
    Islamic Azad University - Garmsar Branch is a branch of Iran's Islamic Azad Universities. It is situated in the city of Garmsar 82 kilometers southeast of Tehran.-History:...

  • Elmi Kaar bordi, Garmsar
  • Alla ed Dolle Haji Abad, Garmsar
  • Payam e noor

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