Fermentative hydrogen production

Fermentative hydrogen production

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Fermentative hydrogen production is the fermentative
Fermentation (biochemistry)
Fermentation is the process of extracting energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, using an endogenous electron acceptor, which is usually an organic compound. In contrast, respiration is where electrons are donated to an exogenous electron acceptor, such as oxygen,...

 conversion of organic substrate to biohydrogen
Biohydrogen
Biohydrogen is defined as hydrogen produced biologically, most commonly by algae and bacteria. Biohydrogen is a potential biofuel obtainable from both cultivation and waste organic materials.-Introduction:...

 manifested by a diverse group of bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...

 using multi enzyme
Enzyme
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical reactions in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates...

 systems involving three steps similar to anaerobic conversion
Anaerobic digestion
Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. It is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy....

. Dark fermentation
Dark fermentation
Dark fermentation is the fermentative conversion of organic substrate to biohydrogen. It is a complex process manifested by diverse group of bacteria by a series of biochemical reactions involving three steps similar to anaerobic conversion...

 reactions do not require light energy, so they are capable of constantly producing hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. With an average atomic weight of , hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's chemical elemental mass. Stars in the main sequence are mainly...

 from organic compounds throughout the day and night. Using synthetic biology
Synthetic biology
Synthetic biology is a new area of biological research that combines science and engineering. It encompasses a variety of different approaches, methodologies, and disciplines with a variety of definitions...

, the bacteria are usually genetically altered.

Photofermentation
Photofermentation
Photofermentation is the fermentative conversion of organic substrate to biohydrogen manifested by a diverse group of photosynthetic bacteria by a series of biochemical reactions involving three steps similar to anaerobic conversion...

 differs from dark fermentation
Dark fermentation
Dark fermentation is the fermentative conversion of organic substrate to biohydrogen. It is a complex process manifested by diverse group of bacteria by a series of biochemical reactions involving three steps similar to anaerobic conversion...

 because it only proceeds in the presence of light
Light
Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of sight. Visible light has wavelength in a range from about 380 nanometres to about 740 nm, with a frequency range of about 405 THz to 790 THz...

. Electrohydrogenesis
Electrohydrogenesis
Electrohydrogenesis or biocatalyzed electrolysis is the name given to a process for generating hydrogen gas from organic matter being decomposed by bacteria. This process uses a modified fuel cell to contain the organic matter and water...

 is used in microbial fuel cell
Microbial fuel cell
A microbial fuel cell or biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature....

s.

Bacteria strains


For example photo-fermentation with Rhodobacter sphaeroides
Rhodobacter sphaeroides
Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a kind of purple bacteria; a group of bacteria that can obtain energy through photosynthesis. Its best growth conditions are anaerobic phototrophy and aerobic chemoheterotrophy in the absence of light. R. sphaeroides is also able to fix nitrogen...

 SH2C can be employed to convert small molecular fatty acids into hydrogen.

See also

  • Hyvolution
  • Synthetic biology
    Synthetic biology
    Synthetic biology is a new area of biological research that combines science and engineering. It encompasses a variety of different approaches, methodologies, and disciplines with a variety of definitions...

  • Biohydrogen
    Biohydrogen
    Biohydrogen is defined as hydrogen produced biologically, most commonly by algae and bacteria. Biohydrogen is a potential biofuel obtainable from both cultivation and waste organic materials.-Introduction:...

  • Fermentation (biochemistry)
    Fermentation (biochemistry)
    Fermentation is the process of extracting energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, using an endogenous electron acceptor, which is usually an organic compound. In contrast, respiration is where electrons are donated to an exogenous electron acceptor, such as oxygen,...

  • Hydrogen production
    Hydrogen production
    Hydrogen production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen. Currently the dominant technology for direct production is steam reforming from hydrocarbons. Many other methods are known including electrolysis and thermolysis...


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