Energy Information Administration

Energy Information Administration

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Encyclopedia
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material...

. EIA collects, analyzes, and disseminates independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.

EIA is the Nation's premier source of energy information and, by law, its data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States government.

The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 established EIA as the primary federal government authority on energy statistics and analysis, building upon systems and organizations first established in 1974 following the oil market disruption of 1973.

EIA conducts a comprehensive data collection program that covers the full spectrum of energy sources, end uses, and energy flows; generates short- and long-term domestic and international energy projections; and performs informative energy analyses.

EIA disseminates its data products, analyses, reports, and services to customers and stakeholders primarily through its website and the customer contact center. EIA programs cover data on coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

, petroleum
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

, natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

, electric
Electric power
Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt.-Circuits:Electric power, like mechanical power, is represented by the letter P in electrical equations...

, renewable
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable . About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from...

 and nuclear
Nuclear power
Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity...

 energy.

Budget


Located in Washington, DC, EIA is an organization of about 380 federal employees, with an annual budget of $95.4 million in Fiscal Year 2011. The 2011 budget is 14 percent below the funding level in FY 2010 and required significant cuts in EIA's data, analysis, and forecasting activities. In addition to program changes, EIA also cut live telephone support at its Information Center. EIA's FY 2011 Congressional Budget submission, as well as its FY 2012 Congressional Budget submission, can be viewed at http://www.cfo.doe.gov/crorg/cf30.htm.

Independence


By law, EIA's products are prepared independently of policy considerations. EIA neither formulates nor advocates any policy conclusions. The Department of Energy Organization Act allows EIA's processes and products to be independent from review by Executive Branch officials; specifically, Section 205(d) says:

"The Administrator shall not be required to obtain the approval of any other officer or employee of the Department in connection with the collection or analysis of any information; nor shall the Administrator be required, prior to publication, to obtain the approval of any other officer or employee of the United States with respect to the substance of any statistical or forecasting technical reports which he has prepared in accordance with law."

Products, publications, and databases


More than 2 million people use EIA's information online each month. Some of EIA's most popular products include:
  • Today in Energy: Energy education product published every weekday that contains small timely and topical bites written in plain language that highlight current issues, topics, and data trends.
  • Energy Explained: Energy information written for a general audience. A nonpartisan guide to the entire range of energy topics from biodiesel to uranium.
  • Energy Kid's Page: A very popular product from EIA is its "Kid's Page," which educates students, citizens, and even policymakers and journalists about energy.
  • This Week in Petroleum: Weekly summary and explanation of events in U.S. and world petroleum markets, including weekly data.
    In March 2010, the Wall Street Journal reported that a large variety of problems with EIA's collection of oil inventory data, including ancient technology and out-of-date methodology, have made it nearly impossible for staff to detect errors. A weak security system also left the data open to being hacked or leaked, according to documents obtained by newspaper.
  • Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update: Weekly price data for U.S. national and regional averages.
  • Country Energy Profiles: Data by country, region, and commercial group (OECD, OPEC) for 215 countries and in-depth analysis for 151 countries.
  • Short-Term Energy Outlook: Energy projections for the next 18 months, updated monthly.
  • Annual Energy Outlook: Projection and analysis of U.S. energy supply, demand, and prices through 2035 based on EIA's National Energy Modeling System
    National Energy Modeling System
    The National Energy Modeling System is an economic and energy model of United States energy markets created at the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. NEMS projects the production, consumption, conversion, import, and pricing of energy...

    . Projections are always based on current legislation.
  • International Energy Outlook: EIA's assessment of the outlook for international energy markets through 2035.
  • Monthly Energy Review: Provides statistics on monthly and annual U.S. national energy
    Energy
    In physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

     consumption going back approximately 30 years, broken down by source in downloadable PDF. The figures are given in units of quads (quadrillion BTUs.)
  • Annual Energy Review: EIA's primary report of historical annual energy statistics. For many series, data begins with the year 1949.
  • Country Analysis Briefs: EIA's in-depth analyses of energy production, consumption, imports, and exports for more than 50 individual countries and regions.

Legislation Affecting EIA


The Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974
Energy Reorganization Act of 1974
The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 is a United States federal law that established the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, a single agency, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, had responsibility for the development and production of nuclear weapons and for both...

, Public Law 93-275, as amended, created the first U.S. agency with the primary focus on energy and mandated it to collect, assemble, evaluate, and analyze energy information. It also provided FEA with data collection enforcement authority for gathering data from energy producing and major consuming firms. Section 52 of the FEA Act mandated establishment of the National Energy Information System to "…contain such energy information as is necessary to carry out the Administration’s statistical and forecasting activities…"

The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, Public Law 95-91, created the Department of Energy. Section 205 of this law established the Energy Information Administration (EIA) as the primary Federal Government authority on energy statistics and analysis to carry out a

...central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information which is relevant to energy resource reserves, energy production, demand, and technology, and related economic and statistical information, or which is relevant to the adequacy of energy resources to meet demands in the near and longer term future for the Nation’s economic and social needs.

The same law established that EIA's processes and products are independent from review by Executive Branch officials.

The majority of EIA energy data surveys are based on the general mandates set forth above. However, there are some surveys specifically mandated by law, including:
  • EIA-28, Financial Reporting System - Section 205(h) of the DOE Organization Act.
  • EIA-1605 and 1605EZ, Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases - Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992
    Energy Policy Act of 1992
    The Energy Policy Act is a United States government act.It was passed by Congress and addressed energy efficiency, energy conservation and energy management , natural gas imports and exports , alternative fuels and requiring certain fleets to acquire alternative fuel vehicles, which are capable of...

    .
  • EIA-886, Annual Survey of Alternative Fueled Vehicle Suppliers and Users - Section 503(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992
    Energy Policy Act of 1992
    The Energy Policy Act is a United States government act.It was passed by Congress and addressed energy efficiency, energy conservation and energy management , natural gas imports and exports , alternative fuels and requiring certain fleets to acquire alternative fuel vehicles, which are capable of...

    .
  • EIA-858, Uranium Marketing Annual Survey - Section 1015 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992
    Energy Policy Act of 1992
    The Energy Policy Act is a United States government act.It was passed by Congress and addressed energy efficiency, energy conservation and energy management , natural gas imports and exports , alternative fuels and requiring certain fleets to acquire alternative fuel vehicles, which are capable of...

    .
  • EIA-846A-C, Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey - Section 205(i) of the DOE Organization Act (the Act calls for a biennial survey; however, this survey is done quadrennially due to resource constraints).
  • EIA-457A-G, Residential Energy Consumption Survey - Section 205(k) of the DOE Organization Act (the Act calls for a triennial survey; however, this survey is done quadrennially due to resource constraints).
  • EIA-871A-F, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Section 205(k) of the DOE Organization Act (the Act calls for a triennial survey; however, this survey is done quadrennially due to resource constraints).
  • Petroleum Marketing Surveys - Section 507 of Part A of Title V of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 broadly directs EIA to collect information on the pricing, supply, and distribution of petroleum products by product category at the wholesale and retail levels, on a State-by-State basis, which was collected as of September 1, 1981, by the Energy Information Administration.

External links