Derry

Derry

Overview
Derry or Londonderry is the second-biggest city
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

 and the fourth-biggest city on the island of Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

. The name Derry is an anglicisation
Anglicisation
Anglicisation, or anglicization , is the process of converting verbal or written elements of any other language into a form that is more comprehensible to an English speaker, or, more generally, of altering something such that it becomes English in form or character.The term most often refers to...

 of the Irish
Irish language
Irish , also known as Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is now spoken as a first language by a minority of Irish people, as well as being a second language of a larger proportion of...

 name Doire or Doire Cholmcille meaning "oak-wood of Colmcille". In 1613, the city was granted a Royal Charter by King James I
James I of England
James VI and I was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603...

 and the "London" prefix was added, changing the name of the city to Londonderry. While the city is more usually known as Derry, Londonderry is also used and remains the legal name.

The old walled city lies on the west bank of the River Foyle
River Foyle
The River Foyle is a river in west Ulster in the northwest of Ireland, which flows from the confluence of the rivers Finn and Mourne at the towns of Lifford in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland, and Strabane in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. From here it flows to the City of Derry, where it...

, which is spanned by two road bridges and one footbridge.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Derry'
Start a new discussion about 'Derry'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Derry or Londonderry is the second-biggest city
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

 and the fourth-biggest city on the island of Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

. The name Derry is an anglicisation
Anglicisation
Anglicisation, or anglicization , is the process of converting verbal or written elements of any other language into a form that is more comprehensible to an English speaker, or, more generally, of altering something such that it becomes English in form or character.The term most often refers to...

 of the Irish
Irish language
Irish , also known as Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is now spoken as a first language by a minority of Irish people, as well as being a second language of a larger proportion of...

 name Doire or Doire Cholmcille meaning "oak-wood of Colmcille". In 1613, the city was granted a Royal Charter by King James I
James I of England
James VI and I was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603...

 and the "London" prefix was added, changing the name of the city to Londonderry. While the city is more usually known as Derry, Londonderry is also used and remains the legal name.

The old walled city lies on the west bank of the River Foyle
River Foyle
The River Foyle is a river in west Ulster in the northwest of Ireland, which flows from the confluence of the rivers Finn and Mourne at the towns of Lifford in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland, and Strabane in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. From here it flows to the City of Derry, where it...

, which is spanned by two road bridges and one footbridge. The city now covers both banks (Cityside on the west and Waterside
Waterside, Derry
The Waterside is an urban neighbourhood on the east side of the River Foyle opposite the Cityside of Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Traditionally, the Waterside ends at the Caw roundabout near the Foyle Bridge...

on the east). The city district also extends to rural areas to the southeast. The population of the city proper (the area defined by its 17th century charter) was 83,652 in the 2001 Census, while the Derry Urban Area
Derry Urban Area
The Derry Urban Area is the urban area that includes and surrounds the city of Derry in Northern Ireland, and is part of the Derry City Council area. It had a population of 93,512 in the 2001 census...

 had a population of 90,663. The Derry City Council
Derry City Council
Derry City Council is a district council in County Londonderry in Northern Ireland. The Council is is responsible for the city of Derry and the immediate environ, providing services to an estimated population of , making it the third largest district council in Northern Ireland by population.The...

 area had a population of 107,300 as of June 2006. The district is administered by Derry City Council and contains both Londonderry Port
Londonderry Port
Londonderry Port at Lisahally is a port near Derry, Northern Ireland. It is the United Kingdom’s most westerly port, has capacity for 30,000 ton vessels and accepts cruise ships. The current port is on the east bank of the River Foyle at the southern end of Lough Foyle, by the small village of...

 and City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport is an airport located northeast of Derry, Northern Ireland. It is located on the south bank of Lough Foyle, a short distance from the village of Eglinton and from the city centre...

.

The Greater Derry area, that area within about 20 miles (32.2 km) of the city, has a population of 237,000. This comprises the districts of Derry City and parts of Limavady
Limavady Borough Council
Limavady Borough Council is a Local Council in County Londonderry in Northern Ireland. Its headquarters is in the town of Limavady. The Borough has a population of over 32,000 with 63% of the population living in a rural setting. It covers an area of 586 square kilometres and includes the valley...

 district, Strabane
Strabane District Council
Strabane District Council is a Local Council in County Tyrone in Northern Ireland. The headquarters of the Council is in the town of Strabane. Apart from Strabane the other smaller towns in the area include Plumbridge, Newtownstewart, Donemana, Sion Mills and Castlederg...

 district, and North-East Donegal
Donegal North East (Dáil Éireann constituency)
Donegal North–East is a parliamentary constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas. The constituency elects 3 deputies...

.

Derry is close to the border with County Donegal
County Donegal
County Donegal is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is also located in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county...

, with which it has had a close link for many centuries. The person traditionally seen as the 'founder' of the original Derry is Saint Colmcille
Columba
Saint Columba —also known as Colum Cille , Colm Cille , Calum Cille and Kolban or Kolbjørn —was a Gaelic Irish missionary monk who propagated Christianity among the Picts during the Early Medieval Period...

, a holy man from Tír Chonaill, the old name for almost all of modern County Donegal (of which the west bank of the Foyle was a part before c. 1600). Derry and the nearby town of Letterkenny
Letterkenny
Letterkenny , with a population of 17,568, is the largest town in County Donegal, part of the Province of Ulster in Ireland. The town is located on the River Swilly...

 form the major economic core of north west Ireland.

In 2013, Derry will become the first city to be designated UK City of Culture
UK City of Culture
UK City of Culture is a designation given to a city in the United Kingdom for a period of one year. The aim of the initiative, which is administered by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, is to "build on the success of Liverpool's year as European Capital of Culture 2008, which had...

, having been awarded the title in July 2010.

Name



According to the city's Royal Charter
Royal Charter
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organizations such as cities or universities. Charters should be distinguished from warrants and...

 of 10 April 1662 the official name is Londonderry. This was reaffirmed in a High Court decision in January 2007 when Derry City Council sought guidance on the procedure for effecting a name change. The council had changed its name from "Londonderry City Council" to "Derry City Council" in 1984; the court case was seeking clarification as to whether this had also changed the name of the city. The decision of the court was that it had not but it was clarified that the correct procedure to do so was via a petition to the Privy Council
Privy council
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government. The word "privy" means "private" or "secret"; thus, a privy council was originally a committee of the monarch's closest advisors to give confidential advice on...

. Derry City Council since started the process were involved in conducting an equality impact assessment report (EQIA). Firstly it held an opinion poll of district residents in 2009, which reported that 75% of Catholics and 77% of Nationalists found the proposed change acceptable, compared to 6% of Protestants and 8% of Unionists. Then the EQIA held two consultative forums, and solicited comments from the general public on whether or not the city should have its name changed to Derry. A total of 12,136 comments were received, of which 3,108 were broadly in favour of the proposal, and 9,028 opposed to it.

Despite the official name, the city is more usually known as simply Derry, which is an anglicisation
Anglicisation
Anglicisation, or anglicization , is the process of converting verbal or written elements of any other language into a form that is more comprehensible to an English speaker, or, more generally, of altering something such that it becomes English in form or character.The term most often refers to...

 of the old Irish Daire, which in modern Irish is spelt Doire, and translates as "oak
Oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

-grove/oak-wood". The name derives from the settlement's earliest references, Daire Calgaich ("oak-grove of Calgach"). The name was changed from Derry in 1613 during the Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster
The Plantation of Ulster was the organised colonisation of Ulster—a province of Ireland—by people from Great Britain. Private plantation by wealthy landowners began in 1606, while official plantation controlled by King James I of England and VI of Scotland began in 1609...

 to reflect the establishment of the city by the London guilds.

The name "Derry" is preferred by nationalists
Irish nationalism
Irish nationalism manifests itself in political and social movements and in sentiment inspired by a love for Irish culture, language and history, and as a sense of pride in Ireland and in the Irish people...

 and it is broadly used throughout Northern Ireland's Catholic community, as well as that of the Republic of Ireland, whereas many unionists prefer "Londonderry"; however in everyday conversation Derry is used by most Protestant residents of the city. Apart from this local government decision, the city is usually known as Londonderry in official use within the UK. In the Republic of Ireland, the city and county are almost always referred to as Derry, on maps, in the media and in conversation. In April 2009, however, the Republic of Ireland's Minister for Foreign Affairs, Micheál Martin
Micheál Martin
Micheál Martin is an Irish politician who has been leader of Fianna Fáil since January 2011. He is a Teachta Dála for the Cork South Central constituency...

, announced that Irish passport holders who were born there could record either Derry or Londonderry as their place of birth. Whereas official road signs in the Republic use the name Derry, those in Northern Ireland bear Londonderry (sometimes abbreviated to L'Derry), although some of these have been defaced with the reference to London obscured. Usage varies among local organisations, with both names being used. Examples are City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport is an airport located northeast of Derry, Northern Ireland. It is located on the south bank of Lough Foyle, a short distance from the village of Eglinton and from the city centre...

, City of Derry Rugby Club, Derry City FC and the Protestant Apprentice Boys of Derry
Apprentice Boys of Derry
The Apprentice Boys of Derry is a Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide membership of over 80,000, founded in 1814. They are based in the city of Derry, Northern Ireland. However, there are Clubs and branches across Ireland, Great Britain and further afield...

, as opposed to Londonderry Port
Londonderry Port
Londonderry Port at Lisahally is a port near Derry, Northern Ireland. It is the United Kingdom’s most westerly port, has capacity for 30,000 ton vessels and accepts cruise ships. The current port is on the east bank of the River Foyle at the southern end of Lough Foyle, by the small village of...

, Londonderry YMCA Rugby Club and Londonderry Chamber Of Commerce. Most companies within the city choose local area names such as Pennyburn, Rosemount or "Foyle" from the River Foyle
River Foyle
The River Foyle is a river in west Ulster in the northwest of Ireland, which flows from the confluence of the rivers Finn and Mourne at the towns of Lifford in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland, and Strabane in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. From here it flows to the City of Derry, where it...

 to avoid alienating the other community. Londonderry railway station
Londonderry railway station
Londonderry/Derry Railway Station, known commonly as Waterside Railway Station, serves the city of Derry in Northern Ireland. The station is also used by residents of the west of County Londonderry, much of west Tyrone and County Donegal. It is operated by Northern Ireland Railways...

 is often referred to as Waterside railway station within the city but is called Derry/Londonderry at other stations. The council changed the name of the local government district covering the city to Derry on 7 May 1984, consequently renaming itself Derry City Council. This did not change the name of the city, although the city is coterminous with the district, and in law the city council is also the "Corporation of Londonderry" or, more formally, the "Mayor, Aldermen and Citizens of the City of Londonderry". The form "Londonderry" is used for the post town
Post town
A post town is a required part of all postal addresses in the United Kingdom, and a basic unit of the postal delivery system. Including the correct post town in the address increases the chances of a letter or parcel being delivered on time. Post towns are usually based upon the location of...

 by the Royal Mail
Royal Mail
Royal Mail is the government-owned postal service in the United Kingdom. Royal Mail Holdings plc owns Royal Mail Group Limited, which in turn operates the brands Royal Mail and Parcelforce Worldwide...

, however use of Derry will still ensure delivery.

The city is also nicknamed the Maiden City by virtue of the fact that its walls were never breached during the Siege of Derry
Siege of Derry
The Siege of Derry took place in Ireland from 18 April to 28 July 1689, during the Williamite War in Ireland. The city, a Williamite stronghold, was besieged by a Jacobite army until it was relieved by Royal Navy ships...

 in the late 17th century. It is also nicknamed Stroke
Slash (punctuation)
The slash is a sign used as a punctuation mark and for various other purposes. It is now often called a forward slash , and many other alternative names.-History:...

 City
by local broadcaster, Gerry Anderson
Gerry Anderson (broadcaster)
Gerald Michael Anderson, known professionally as Gerry Anderson , is a Sony Award-winning radio and television broadcaster from Derry, Northern Ireland who works for BBC Northern Ireland, and is a member of the Radio Academy Hall of fame...

, due to the 'politically correct' use of the oblique notation Derry/Londonderry (which appellation has itself been used by BBC Television
BBC Television
BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The corporation, which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927, has produced television programmes from its own studios since 1932, although the start of its regular service of television...

). A recent addition to the landscape has been the erection of several large stone columns on main roads into the city welcoming drivers, euphemistically, to "the walled city".

The name Derry is very much in popular use throughout Ireland for the naming of places, and there are at least six towns bearing that name and at least a further 79 places. The word Derry often forms part of the place name, for example Derrymore, Derrybeg and Derrylea.

The name Derry/Londonderry is not limited to Ireland. There is a town called Derry
Derry, New Hampshire
-Climate:-Demographics:As of the census of 2010, there were 33,109 people, 12,537 households, and 8,767 families residing in the town. The population density was 924.8 people per square mile . There were 13,277 housing units at an average density of 143.2/km²...

 situated right beside another town called Londonderry
Londonderry, New Hampshire
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 23,236 people, 7,623 households, and 6,319 families residing in the town. The population density was 555.8 people per square mile . There were 7,718 housing units at an average density of 184.6 per square mile...

 in New Hampshire
New Hampshire
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

 in the United States of America. There are also Londonderrys in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been increasingly undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have also been subject to periodic reform...

, England, in Vermont
Vermont
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state ranks 43rd in land area, , and 45th in total area. Its population according to the 2010 census, 630,337, is the second smallest in the country, larger only than Wyoming. It is the only New England...

, USA, in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the most populous province in Atlantic Canada. The name of the province is Latin for "New Scotland," but "Nova Scotia" is the recognized, English-language name of the province. The provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the...

, Canada, and in northern and eastern Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. Londonderry Island
Londonderry Island
Londonderry is an island in Tierra del Fuego in Chile at the western end of the Beagle Channel and Darwin Sound; the captain of HMS Beagle, Robert FitzRoy, was a descendant of the Marquis of Londonderry. Politically, the island is located in the Commune of Cabo de Hornos, which belongs to the...

 is situated off of Tierra Del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. The archipelago consists of a main island Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego divided between Chile and Argentina with an area of , and a group of smaller islands including Cape...

 in Chile
Chile
Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

.

Derry
Derry (Stephen King)
Derry, Maine is a fictional town and a part of Stephen King's fictional Maine topography, and, like Castle Rock, it has served as the setting for a number of his novels, novellas, and short stories. It first appeared in the short story "The Bird and the Album" and was expanded on in both It and...

 is also a fictional town in Maine, USA, used in some Stephen King novels.

City walls


Derry is the only remaining completely intact walled city in Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

 and one of the finest examples of a walled city in Europe. The walls constitute the largest monument in State care in Northern Ireland and, as the last walled city to
be built in Europe, stands as the most complete and spectacular.

The Walls were built during the period 1613-1619 by The Honourable The Irish Society
The Honourable The Irish Society
The Honourable The Irish Society is the organisation created by royal charter consisting of members nominated by livery companies of the City of London, set up to colonise County Londonderry during the plantation of Ulster. Notably it was involved in the construction of the city of Londonderry,...

 as defences for early 17th century settlers from England and Scotland. The Walls, which are approximately 1 mile (1.5 km) in circumference and which vary in height and width between 12 and 35 feet (4 to 12 metres), are completely intact and form a walkway around the inner city. They provide a unique promenade to view the layout of the original town which still preserves its Renaissance style street plan. The four original gates to the Walled City are Bishop’s Gate, Ferryquay Gate, Butcher Gate and Shipquay Gate. Three further gates were added later, Magazine Gate, Castle Gate and New Gate, making seven gates in total. Historic buildings within the walls include the 1633 Gothic cathedral of St Columb
St Columb's Cathedral
St Columb's Cathedral in the walled city of Derry, Northern Ireland is the mother church of the Church of Ireland Diocese of Derry and Raphoe and the parish church of Templemore....

, the Apprentice Boys Memorial Hall and the courthouse.

It is one of the few cities in Europe that never saw its fortifications breached, withstanding several sieges including one in 1689 which lasted 105 days, hence the city's nickname, The Maiden City.

History




The city has long been a focal point for important events in Irish history
History of Ireland
The first known settlement in Ireland began around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. Few archaeological traces remain of this group, but their descendants and later Neolithic arrivals, particularly from the Iberian Peninsula, were...

, including the 1688–89 siege of Derry
Siege of Derry
The Siege of Derry took place in Ireland from 18 April to 28 July 1689, during the Williamite War in Ireland. The city, a Williamite stronghold, was besieged by a Jacobite army until it was relieved by Royal Navy ships...

 and Bloody Sunday
Bloody Sunday (1972)
Bloody Sunday —sometimes called the Bogside Massacre—was an incident on 30 January 1972 in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland, in which twenty-six unarmed civil rights protesters and bystanders were shot by soldiers of the British Army...

 on 30 January 1972.

Early history


Derry is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in Ireland. The earliest historical references date to the 6th century when a monastery
Monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

 was founded there by St. Columba
Columba
Saint Columba —also known as Colum Cille , Colm Cille , Calum Cille and Kolban or Kolbjørn —was a Gaelic Irish missionary monk who propagated Christianity among the Picts during the Early Medieval Period...

 or Colmcille, a famous saint from what is now County Donegal
County Donegal
County Donegal is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is also located in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county...

, but for thousands of years before that people had been living in the vicinity.

Before leaving Ireland to spread Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 elsewhere, Columba founded a monastery in the then Doire Calgach, on the east side of the Foyle. According to oral and documented history, the site was granted to Columba by a local king. The monastery then remained in the hands of the federation of Columban churches who regarded Colmcille as their spiritual mentor. The year 546 is often referred to as the date that the original settlement was founded. However it is accepted that this was an erroneous date assigned by medieval chroniclers. It is accepted that between the 6th century and the 11th century, Derry was known primarily as a monastic settlement.

The town became strategically more significant during the Tudor conquest of Ireland and came under frequent attack, until in 1608 it was destroyed by Cahir O'Doherty
Cahir O'Doherty
Cahir O'Doherty was the last Gaelic Lord of Inishowen in north-west Ireland.The son of Shane Og O'Doherty, he was 14 when his father died and had to spend the next few years gaining control of his lordship. He was knighted by Lord Mountjoy...

, Irish chieftain of Inishowen.

Plantation


Planters organised by London livery companies through The Honourable The Irish Society
The Honourable The Irish Society
The Honourable The Irish Society is the organisation created by royal charter consisting of members nominated by livery companies of the City of London, set up to colonise County Londonderry during the plantation of Ulster. Notably it was involved in the construction of the city of Londonderry,...

 arrived in the 17th century as part of the plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster
The Plantation of Ulster was the organised colonisation of Ulster—a province of Ireland—by people from Great Britain. Private plantation by wealthy landowners began in 1606, while official plantation controlled by King James I of England and VI of Scotland began in 1609...

, and built the city of Londonderry across the Foyle from the earlier town, with walls to defend it from Irish insurgents who did not welcome the occupation. The aim was to settle Ulster with a population supportive of the Crown.

This Derry was the first planned city in Ireland: it was begun in 1613, with the walls being completed 5 years later in 1618, at a cost of £10,757. The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was thought to be a good design for defence. The grid pattern chosen was subsequently much copied in the colonies of British North America. The charter initially defined the city as extending three Irish miles (about 6.1 km) from the centre.

The modern city preserves the 17th century layout of four main streets radiating from a central Diamond to four gateways  — Bishop's Gate, Ferryquay Gate, Shipquay Gate and Butcher's Gate. The city's oldest surviving building was also constructed at this time: the 1633 Plantation Gothic cathedral of St Columb
St Columb's Cathedral
St Columb's Cathedral in the walled city of Derry, Northern Ireland is the mother church of the Church of Ireland Diocese of Derry and Raphoe and the parish church of Templemore....

. In the porch of the cathedral is a stone that records completion with the inscription: "If stones could speake, then London's prayse should sound, Who built this church and cittie from the grounde."

17th-century upheavals


During the 1640s, the city suffered in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in England, Ireland, and Scotland between 1639 and 1651 after these three countries had come under the "Personal Rule" of the same monarch...

, which began with the Irish Rebellion of 1641
Irish Rebellion of 1641
The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for the Catholics living under English rule...

, when the Gaelic Irish insurgents made a failed attack on the city. In 1649 the city and its garrison, which supported the republic
Republic
A republic is a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people. In modern times, a common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of...

an Parliament
Parliament of England
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England. In 1066, William of Normandy introduced a feudal system, by which he sought the advice of a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics before making laws...

 in London, were besieged by Scottish Presbyterian forces loyal to King Charles I
Charles I of England
Charles I was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his Royal prerogative which Charles...

. The Parliamentarians besieged in Derry were relieved by a strange alliance of Roundhead
Roundhead
"Roundhead" was the nickname given to the supporters of the Parliament during the English Civil War. Also known as Parliamentarians, they fought against King Charles I and his supporters, the Cavaliers , who claimed absolute power and the divine right of kings...

 troops under George Monck and the Irish Catholic general Owen Roe O'Neill
Owen Roe O'Neill
Eoghan Ruadh Ó Néill , anglicised as Owen Roe O'Neill , was a seventeenth century soldier and one of the most famous of the O'Neill dynasty of Ulster.- In Spanish service :...

. These temporary allies were soon fighting each other again however, after the landing in Ireland of the New Model Army
New Model Army
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration...

 in 1649. The war in Ulster was finally brought to an end when the Parliamentarians crushed the Irish Catholic Ulster army at the battle of Scarrifholis
Battle of Scarrifholis
The Battle of Scarrifholis was fought in Donegal North-West Ireland, on the 21st of June 1650, during the Irish Confederate Wars – part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms Cogadh ná Trí Ríocht...

 in nearby Donegal
Donegal
Donegal or Donegal Town is a town in County Donegal, Ireland. Its name, which was historically written in English as Dunnagall or Dunagall, translates from Irish as "stronghold of the foreigners" ....

 in 1650.

During the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, is the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau...

, only Derry and nearby Enniskillen
Enniskillen
Enniskillen is a town in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. It is located almost exactly in the centre of the county between the Upper and Lower sections of Lough Erne. It had a population of 13,599 in the 2001 Census...

 had a Protestant garrison by November 1688. An army of around 1,200 men, mostly "Redshanks" (Highlanders
Scottish Highlands
The Highlands is an historic region of Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to as the "Scottish Highlands". It was culturally distinguishable from the Lowlands from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands...

), under Alexander Macdonnell, 3rd Earl of Antrim, was slowly organised (they set out on the week William of Orange landed in England). When they arrived on 7 December 1688 the gates were closed against them and the Siege of Derry
Siege of Derry
The Siege of Derry took place in Ireland from 18 April to 28 July 1689, during the Williamite War in Ireland. The city, a Williamite stronghold, was besieged by a Jacobite army until it was relieved by Royal Navy ships...

 began. In April 1689, King James came to the city and summoned it to surrender. The King was rebuffed and the siege lasted until the end of July with the arrival of a relief ship.

18th and 19th centuries



The city was rebuilt in the 18th century with many of its fine Georgian
Georgian architecture
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United...

 style houses still surviving. The city's first bridge across the River Foyle was built in 1790. During the 18th and 19th centuries the port became an important embarkation point for Irish emigrants setting out for North America. Some of these founded the colonies of Derry
Derry (disambiguation)
Derry is a city in Northern Ireland.It may also refer to:-Places:In Ireland *The Roman Catholic Diocese of Derry*The Church of Ireland Diocese of Derry and RaphoeIn Northern Ireland...

 and Londonderry
Londonderry, New Hampshire
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 23,236 people, 7,623 households, and 6,319 families residing in the town. The population density was 555.8 people per square mile . There were 7,718 housing units at an average density of 184.6 per square mile...

 in the state of New Hampshire
New Hampshire
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

.

Also during the 19th century, it became a destination for migrants fleeing areas more severely affected by the Irish Potato Famine. One of the most notable shipping lines was the McCorkell Line
McCorkell Line
The McCorkell Line was operated by Wm. McCorkell & Co. Ltd. from 1778, principally carrying passengers from Ireland, Scotland and England to the Americas...

 operated by Wm. McCorkell & Co. Ltd. from 1778. The McCorkell's most famous ship was the Minnehaha, which was known as the "Green Yacht from Derry".

Partition



During the Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
The Irish War of Independence , Anglo-Irish War, Black and Tan War, or Tan War was a guerrilla war mounted by the Irish Republican Army against the British government and its forces in Ireland. It began in January 1919, following the Irish Republic's declaration of independence. Both sides agreed...

, the area was rocked by sectarian violence, partly prompted by the guerilla war raging between the Irish Republican Army
Irish Republican Army
The Irish Republican Army was an Irish republican revolutionary military organisation. It was descended from the Irish Volunteers, an organisation established on 25 November 1913 that staged the Easter Rising in April 1916...

 and British forces, but also influenced by economic and social pressures. By mid 1920 there was severe sectarian rioting in the city. Many lives were lost and in addition many Catholics and Protestants were expelled from their homes during this communal unrest. After a week's violence, a truce was negotiated by local politicians on both unionist and republican sides.

In 1921, following the Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
The Anglo-Irish Treaty , officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the secessionist Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of...

 and the partition of Ireland, it unexpectedly became a border city, separated from much of its traditional economic hinterland in County Donegal
County Donegal
County Donegal is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is also located in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county...

.

During the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the city played an important part in the Battle of the Atlantic. Ships from the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

, the Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Canadian Navy
The history of the Royal Canadian Navy goes back to 1910, when the naval force was created as the Naval Service of Canada and renamed a year later by King George V. The Royal Canadian Navy is one of the three environmental commands of the Canadian Forces...

, and other Allied navies were stationed in the city and the United States military established a base. The reason for such a high degree of military and naval activity was self-evident: Derry was the United Kingdom's westernmost port; indeed, the city was the westernmost Allied port in Europe: thus, Derry was a crucial jumping-off point, together with Glasgow and Liverpool, for the shipping convoys that ran between Europe and North America. The large numbers of military personnel in Derry substantially altered the character of the city, bringing in some outside colour to the local area, as well as some cosmopolitan and economic buoyancy during these years. At the conclusion of the Second World War, eventually some 60 U-boats of the German Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
The Kriegsmarine was the name of the German Navy during the Nazi regime . It superseded the Kaiserliche Marine of World War I and the post-war Reichsmarine. The Kriegsmarine was one of three official branches of the Wehrmacht, the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany.The Kriegsmarine grew rapidly...

 ended in the city's harbour at Lisahally after their surrender.

Troubles





Catholics were discriminated against under Unionist government in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

, both politically and economically. In the late 1960s the city became the flashpoint of disputes about institutional gerrymandering
Gerrymandering
In the process of setting electoral districts, gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating geographic boundaries to create partisan, incumbent-protected districts...

. Political scientist
Political science
Political Science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior...

 John Whyte
John Henry Whyte
John Henry Whyte was an Irish historian, political scientist and author of books on Northern Ireland, divided societies and on church-state affairs in Ireland.-Early life:...

 explains that:


All the accusations of gerrymandering, practically all the complaints about housing and regional policy, and a disproportionate amount of the charges about public and private employment come from this area. The area – which consisted of Counties Tyrone and Fermanagh, Londonderry County Borough, and portions of Counties Londonderry and Armagh - had less than a quarter of the total population of Northern Ireland yet generated not far short of three-quarters of the complaints of discrimination...The unionist government must bear its share of responsibility. It put through the original gerrymander which underpinned so many of the subsequent malpractices, and then, despite repeated protests, did nothing to stop those malpractices continuing. The most serious charge against the Northern Ireland government is not that it was directly responsible for widespread discrimination, but that it allowed discrimination on such a scale over a substantial segment of Northern Ireland.


A civil rights
Civil rights
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from unwarranted infringement by governments and private organizations, and ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination or repression.Civil rights include...

 demonstration in 1968 led by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association
Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association
The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association was an organisation which campaigned for equal civil rights for the all the people in Northern Ireland during the late 1960s and early 1970s...

 was banned by the Government and blocked using force by the Royal Ulster Constabulary
Royal Ulster Constabulary
The Royal Ulster Constabulary was the name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2000. Following the awarding of the George Cross in 2000, it was subsequently known as the Royal Ulster Constabulary GC. It was founded on 1 June 1922 out of the Royal Irish Constabulary...

. The events that followed the August 1969 Apprentice Boys parade resulted in the Battle of the Bogside
Battle of the Bogside
The Battle of the Bogside was a very large communal riot that took place during 12–14 August 1969 in Derry, Northern Ireland. The fighting was between residents of the Bogside area and the Royal Ulster Constabulary .The rioting erupted after the RUC attempted to disperse Irish nationalists who...

, when Catholic rioters fought the police, leading to widespread civil disorder in Northern Ireland and is often dated as the starting point of the Troubles
The Troubles
The Troubles was a period of ethno-political conflict in Northern Ireland which spilled over at various times into England, the Republic of Ireland, and mainland Europe. The duration of the Troubles is conventionally dated from the late 1960s and considered by many to have ended with the Belfast...

.

On Sunday January 30, 1972, 13 unarmed civilians were shot dead by British paratroopers during a civil rights march in the Bogside
Bogside
The Bogside is a neighbourhood outside the city walls of Derry, Northern Ireland. The area has been a focus point for many of the events of The Troubles, from the Battle of the Bogside and Bloody Sunday in the 1960s and 1970s...

 area. Another 13 were wounded and one further man later died of his wounds. This event came to be known as Bloody Sunday.

Violence eased towards the end of the Troubles in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Irish journalist Ed Maloney claims in "The Secret History of the IRA" that republican leaders there negotiated a de facto ceasefire in the city as early as 1991. Whether this is true or not, the city did see less bloodshed by this time than Belfast or other localities.

The city was visited by a killer whale in November 1977 at the height of the Troubles; it was dubbed Dopey Dick by the thousands who came from miles around to see him.

Governance


The local district council is Derry City Council
Derry City Council
Derry City Council is a district council in County Londonderry in Northern Ireland. The Council is is responsible for the city of Derry and the immediate environ, providing services to an estimated population of , making it the third largest district council in Northern Ireland by population.The...

, which consists of five electoral areas: Cityside, Northland, Rural, Shantallow
Shantallow
Shantallow is an ancient townland now almost totally with the City of Derry and lies in the Roman Catholic parish of Templemore, within the North-West Liberties of Derry....

 and Waterside
Waterside, Derry
The Waterside is an urban neighbourhood on the east side of the River Foyle opposite the Cityside of Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Traditionally, the Waterside ends at the Caw roundabout near the Foyle Bridge...

. The council of 30 members is re-elected every four years, though the 2009 election is expected to be postponed until 2011, when a new council for Derry and Strabane is planned to replace existing councils. As of the 2005 election, 14 Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party
The Social Democratic and Labour Party is a social-democratic, Irish nationalist political party in Northern Ireland. Its basic party platform advocates Irish reunification, and the further devolution of powers while Northern Ireland remains part of the United Kingdom...

 (SDLP) members, ten Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin
Sinn Féin is a left wing, Irish republican political party in Ireland. The name is Irish for "ourselves" or "we ourselves", although it is frequently mistranslated as "ourselves alone". Originating in the Sinn Féin organisation founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith, it took its current form in 1970...

, five Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Unionist Party
The Democratic Unionist Party is the larger of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland. Founded by Ian Paisley and currently led by Peter Robinson, it is currently the largest party in the Northern Ireland Assembly and the fourth-largest party in the House of Commons of the...

 (DUP), and one Ulster Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party
The Ulster Unionist Party – sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party – is the more moderate of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland...

 (UUP) make up the council. The mayor and deputy mayor are elected annually by councillors, and SDLP councillor Gerard Diver's term as mayor began in June 2008.

The local authority boundaries correspond to the Foyle constituency
Foyle (UK Parliament constituency)
Foyle is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.-Boundaries:The seat was created in boundary changes in 1983, as part of an expansion of Northern Ireland's constituencies from 12 to 17, and was predominantly made up from the old Londonderry constituency...

 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories, located in London...

 and the Foyle constituency
Foyle (Assembly constituency)
Foyle is a constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly.The seat was first used for a Northern Ireland-only election for the Northern Ireland Forum in 1996. Since 1998, it has elected members to the current Assembly....

 of the Northern Ireland Assembly
Northern Ireland Assembly
The Northern Ireland Assembly is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland. It has power to legislate in a wide range of areas that are not explicitly reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, and to appoint the Northern Ireland Executive...

. In European Parliament
European Parliament
The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union . Together with the Council of the European Union and the Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU and it has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world...

 elections, it is part of the Northern Ireland constituency
Northern Ireland (European Parliament constituency)
Northern Ireland is a constituency of the European Parliament. It currently elects three MEPs using the Single Transferable Vote, the only United Kingdom constituency to do so.- Members of the European Parliament :- 2009 :...

.

Coat of arms and motto



The devices on the city's arms are a skeleton and a three-towered castle on a black field, with the chief or top third of the shield depicting the arms of the City of London
City of London
The City of London is a small area within Greater London, England. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of...

: a red cross and sword on white. In the centre of the cross is a gold harp.
The blazon
Blazon
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image...

 of the arms is as follows:

Sable, a human skeleton Or seated upon a mossy stone proper and in dexter chief a castle triple towered argent on a chief also argent a cross gules thereon a harp or and in the first quarter a sword erect gules

According to documents in the College of Arms
College of Arms
The College of Arms, or Heralds’ College, is an office regulating heraldry and granting new armorial bearings for England, Wales and Northern Ireland...

 in London and the Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland
Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland
The Genealogical Office is an office of the Government of Ireland containing genealogical records. It includes the Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland , the authority in the Republic of Ireland for heraldry. The Chief Herald authorises the granting of arms to Irish bodies and Irish people,...

 in Dublin, the arms of the city were confirmed in 1613 by Daniel Molyneux, Ulster King of Arms. The College of Arms document states that the original arms of the City of Derry were ye picture of death (or a skeleton) on a moissy stone & in ye dexter point a castle and that upon grant of a charter of incorporation and the renaming of the city as Londonderry in that year the first mayor had requested the addition of a "chief of London".

Theories have been advanced as to the meaning of the "old" arms of Derry, before the addition of the chief bearing the arms of the City of London:
  • A suggestion has been made that the castle is related to an early 14th century castle in nearby Greencastle
    Greencastle, County Donegal
    Greencastle, County Donegal , is a commercial fishing port located in the north of the scenic Inishowen Peninsula on the north coast of County Donegal, part of the Province of Ulster, in the northwest of Ireland. Nowadays, given the decline in the fishing industry, it resembles more closely a...

     belonging to the Anglo-Norman Earl of Ulster
    Earl of Ulster
    The title of Earl of Ulster has been created several times in the Peerage of Ireland and Peerage of the United Kingdom. Currently, the title is a subsidiary title of the Duke of Gloucester, and is used as a courtesy title by the Duke's son, Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster...

     Richard de Burgh
    Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster
    Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster and 3rd Baron of Connaught , called The Red Earl, was one of the most powerful Irish nobles of the late 13th and early 14th centuries.-Early life:...

    .
  • The most popular theory about the skeleton is that it is that of a Norman
    Normans
    The Normans were the people who gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. They were descended from Norse Viking conquerors of the territory and the native population of Frankish and Gallo-Roman stock...

     De Burgh knight who was starved to death in the castle dungeons in 1332 on the orders of his cousin the above mentioned Earl of Ulster
    Earl of Ulster
    The title of Earl of Ulster has been created several times in the Peerage of Ireland and Peerage of the United Kingdom. Currently, the title is a subsidiary title of the Duke of Gloucester, and is used as a courtesy title by the Duke's son, Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster...

    . Another explanation put forward was that it depicted Cahir O'Doherty
    Cahir O'Doherty
    Cahir O'Doherty was the last Gaelic Lord of Inishowen in north-west Ireland.The son of Shane Og O'Doherty, he was 14 when his father died and had to spend the next few years gaining control of his lordship. He was knighted by Lord Mountjoy...

     (Sir Charles O'Dogherty), who was put to death after Derry was invested by the English army in 1608. During the days of Gerrymandering
    Gerrymandering
    In the process of setting electoral districts, gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating geographic boundaries to create partisan, incumbent-protected districts...

     and discrimination against the Catholic population of Derry, Derry's Roman Catholics often used to claim in dark wit that the skeleton was a local waiting for help from the council bureaucracy.


In 1979, Londonderry City Council, as it was then known, commissioned a report into the city's arms and insignia, as part of the design process for an heraldic badge
Heraldic badge
A heraldic badge is an emblem or personal device worn as a badge to indicate allegiance to or the property of an individual or family. Medieval forms are usually called a livery badge, and also a cognizance...

. The published report found that there was no basis for any of the popular explanations for the skeleton and that it was "purely symbolic and does not refer to any identifiable person".

The 1613 records of the arms depicted a harp in the centre of the cross, but this was omitted from later depictions of the city arms, and in the Letters Patent
Letters patent
Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch or president, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation...

 confirming the arms to Londonderry Corporation in 1952. In 2002 Derry City Council applied to the College of Arms to have the harp restored to the city arms, and Garter
Garter Principal King of Arms
The Garter Principal King of Arms is the senior King of Arms, and the senior Officer of Arms of the College of Arms. He is therefore the most powerful herald within the jurisdiction of the College – primarily England, Wales and Northern Ireland – and so arguably the most powerful in the world...

 and Norroy & Ulster
Norroy and Ulster King of Arms
Norroy and Ulster King of Arms is one of the senior Officers of Arms of the College of Arms, and the junior of the two provincial Kings of Arms. The current office is the combination of two former appointments...

 Kings of Arms accepted the 17th century evidence, issuing letters patent to that effect in 2003.

The motto attached to the coat of arms reads in Latin, "Vita, Veritas, Victoria". This translates into English as, "Life, Truth, Victory".

Geography



Derry is characterised by its distinctively hilly topography. The River Foyle
River Foyle
The River Foyle is a river in west Ulster in the northwest of Ireland, which flows from the confluence of the rivers Finn and Mourne at the towns of Lifford in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland, and Strabane in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. From here it flows to the City of Derry, where it...

 forms a deep valley as it flows through the city, making Derry a place of very steep streets and sudden, startling views. The original walled city of Londonderry lies on a hill on the west bank of the River Foyle. In the past, the river branched and enclosed this wooded hill as an island; over the centuries, however, the western branch of the river dried up and became a low-lying and boggy district that is now called the Bogside.

Today, modern Derry extends considerably north and west of the city walls and east of the river. The half of the city the west of the Foyle is known as the Cityside and the area east is called the Waterside
Waterside, Derry
The Waterside is an urban neighbourhood on the east side of the River Foyle opposite the Cityside of Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Traditionally, the Waterside ends at the Caw roundabout near the Foyle Bridge...

. The Cityside and Waterside are connected by the Craigavon Bridge
Craigavon Bridge
The Craigavon Bridge is one of three bridges in Derry, Northern Ireland. It crosses the River Foyle further south than the Foyle Bridge and Peace Bridge. It is one of only a few double-decker road bridges in Europe. It was named after Lord Craigavon, the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.The...

 and Foyle Bridge
Foyle Bridge
The Foyle Bridge is a bridge in Derry in Northern Ireland. The central cantilever span of the bridge is the longest in Ireland at 234 metres , and the whole suspended bridge structure including the approach spans is also the longest in Ireland at 866 metres .It crosses the River Foyle to the north...

. The district also extends into rural areas to the southeast of the city.

This much larger city, however, remains characterised by the often extremely steep hills that form much of its terrain on both sides of the river. A notable exception to this lies on the north-eastern edge of the city, on the shores of Lough Foyle, where large expanses of sea and mudflats were reclaimed in the middle of the 19th century. Today, these slob lands are protected from the sea by miles of sea walls and dikes. The area is an internationally important bird sanctuary, ranked among the top 30 wetland sites in the UK.

Other important nature reserves lie at Ness Country Park, 10 miles (16.1 km) east of Derry; and at Prehen Wood, within the city's south-eastern suburbs.

Climate


Derry has, like most of Ireland, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 system. The nearest official Met Office Weather Station for which climate data is available is Carmoney, just west of City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport is an airport located northeast of Derry, Northern Ireland. It is located on the south bank of Lough Foyle, a short distance from the village of Eglinton and from the city centre...

 and about 5 miles north east of the city centre. However, observations ceased in 2004 and the nearest Weather Station is currently Ballykelly, due 12 miles east north east. Typically, 27.6 nights of the year will report an air frost at Carmoney, and at least 1mm of precipitation will be reported on 181.4 days (1971-2000 averages).

The lowest temperature recorded at Carmoney was -11.0 C on the 27th December 1995.

Demography


Derry Urban Area (DUA), including the city and the neighbouring settlements of Culmore
Culmore
Culmore is a village and townland in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is between Derry and Muff, at the mouth of the River Foyle. In the 2001 Census it had a population of 2,960 people.- History :...

, Newbuildings
Newbuildings
Newbuildings or New Buildings is a large village in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It lies about 1 km from the banks of the River Foyle and 5 km south of the city of Derry...

 and Strathfoyle
Strathfoyle
Strathfoyle is a village in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, about north east of Derry. It was newly built in different phases between the late 1920s and the late 1930s, with many new recent additions to the village, including Westlake, Butler's Wharf and Old Fort. In the 2001 Census it had...

, is classified as a city by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) since its population exceeds 75,000. On census day (29 April 2001) there were 90,736 people living in Derry Urban Area
Derry Urban Area
The Derry Urban Area is the urban area that includes and surrounds the city of Derry in Northern Ireland, and is part of the Derry City Council area. It had a population of 93,512 in the 2001 census...

. Of these, 27.0 percent were aged under 16 years and 13.4 percent were aged 60 and over; 48.3 percent of the population were male and 51.7 percent were female; 77.8 percent were from a Roman Catholic background and 20.8 percent were from a Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 background; and 7.1 percent of people aged 16–74 were unemployed.

The mid-2006 population estimate for the wider Derry City Council
Derry City Council
Derry City Council is a district council in County Londonderry in Northern Ireland. The Council is is responsible for the city of Derry and the immediate environ, providing services to an estimated population of , making it the third largest district council in Northern Ireland by population.The...

 area was 107,300. Population growth in 2005/06 was driven by natural change, with net out-migration of approximately 100 people.

The city was one of the few in Ireland to experience an increase in population during the Irish Potato Famine as migrants came to it from other, more heavily affected areas.

Protestant minority



Concerns have been raised by both communities over the increasingly divided nature of the city. It is estimated that during the course of the Troubles, as many as 15,000 Protestants moved from the city side. Fewer than 500 Protestants now live on the west bank of the River Foyle, compared to 18,000 in 1969, with most on the Fountain Estate and it is feared that the city could become permanently divided.

However, concerted efforts have been made by local community, church and political leaders from both traditions to redress the problem. A conference to bring together key actors and promote tolerance was held in October 2006. The Rt Rev. Dr Ken Good, the Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
The Church of Ireland is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. The church operates in all parts of Ireland and is the second largest religious body on the island after the Roman Catholic Church...

 Bishop of Derry and Raphoe, said he was happy living on the cityside. "I feel part of it. It is my city and I want to encourage other Protestants to feel exactly the same", he said.

Support for Protestants in the district has been strong from the former SDLP city Mayor Helen Quigley
Helen Quigley
Helen Quigley was a Social Democratic and Labour Party politician from Derry in Northern Ireland.She had been a member of Derry City Council since 2001 and the Mayor of Derry in 2006-2007...

. Cllr Quigley has made inclusion and tolerance key themes of her mayoralty. The Mayor Helen Quigley said it is time for "everyone to take a stand to stop the scourge of sectarian and other assaults in the city."

Economy



History


The economy of the district was based significantly on the textile industry until relatively recently. For many years women were often the sole wage earners working in the shirt factories while the men predominantly in comparison had high levels of unemployment. This led to significant male emigration. The history of shirt making in the city dates back as far as 1831 and is said to have been started by William Scott and his family who first exported shirts to Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

. Within 50 years, shirt making in the city was the most prolific in the UK with garments being exported all over the world. It was known so well that the industry received a mention in Das Kapital
Das Kapital
Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Ökonomie , by Karl Marx, is a critical analysis of capitalism as political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the capitalist mode of production, and how it was the precursor of the socialist mode of production.- Themes :In Capital: Critique of...

by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the development of social science and the socialist political movement...

, when discussing the factory
Factory
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial building where laborers manufacture goods or supervise machines processing one product into another. Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production...

 system:

The industry reached its peak in the 1920s employing around 18,000 people. In modern times however the textile industry declined due to in most part cheaper Asian wages.

A long-term foreign employer in the area is Du Pont, which has been based at Maydown since 1958, its first European production facility. Originally Neoprene
Neoprene
Neoprene or polychloroprene is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. Neoprene in general has good chemical stability, and maintains flexibility over a wide temperature range...

 was manufactured at Maydown and subsequently followed by Hypalon
Hypalon
Hypalon is a trademark for chlorosulfonated polyethylene synthetic rubber noted for its resistance to chemicals, temperature extremes, and ultraviolet light. It was a product of DuPont Performance Elastomers, a subsidiary of DuPont....

. More recently Lycra and Kevlar
Kevlar
Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids such as Nomex and Technora. Developed at DuPont in 1965, this high strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires...

 production units were active. Thanks to a healthy worldwide demand for Kevlar which is made at the plant, the facility recently undertook a £40 million upgrade to expand its global Kevlar production. Du Pont has stated that contributing factors to its continued commitment to Maydown are "low labor costs, excellent communications, and tariff-free, easy access to the Britain and European continent."

Inward investment



In the last 15 years there has been a drive to increase inward investment in the city, more recently concentrating on digital industries. Currently the three largest private-sector employers are American firms. Economic successes have included call centres and a large investment by Seagate
Seagate Technology
Seagate Technology is one of the world's largest manufacturers of hard disk drives. Incorporated in 1978 as Shugart Technology, Seagate is currently incorporated in Dublin, Ireland and has its principal executive offices in Scotts Valley, California, United States.-1970s:On November 1, 1979...

, which has operated a factory in the Springtown Industrial Estate since 1993. Seagate currently employs over 1,000 people in the Springtown premises, which produce more than half of the company's total requirement for hard drive read-write heads.

A recent but controversial new employer in the area is Raytheon
Raytheon
Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007...

, Raytheon Systems Limited, was established in 1999, in the Ulster Science & Technology Park, Buncrana Road. Although some of the local people welcomed the jobs boost, others in the area objected to the jobs being provided by a firm involved heavily in the arms trade. Following four years of protest by the Foyle Ethical Investment Campaign, in 2004 Derry City Council passed a motion declaring the district a "A 'No – Go' Area for the Arms Trade". In 2009, the company announced that it was not renewing its lease when it expired in 2010 and was looking for a new location for its operations.

Significant multinational employers in the region include Firstsource of India, DuPont
DuPont
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company , commonly referred to as DuPont, is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont. DuPont was the world's third largest chemical company based on market capitalization and ninth based on revenue in 2009...

, INVISTA
INVISTA
Invista, headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, is the world's largest integrated fiber, resin and intermediates company. DuPont originally formed the company as a subsidiary in 2003 from its textile fibers division and named it DuPont Textiles and Interiors while a permanent identity was established...

, Stream International, Seagate Technology
Seagate Technology
Seagate Technology is one of the world's largest manufacturers of hard disk drives. Incorporated in 1978 as Shugart Technology, Seagate is currently incorporated in Dublin, Ireland and has its principal executive offices in Scotts Valley, California, United States.-1970s:On November 1, 1979...

, Perfecseal, NTL
Arqiva
Arqiva is a telecommunications company which provides infrastructure and broadcast transmission facilities in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The present company, with headquarters located at Crawley Court in the village of Crawley, Hampshire, was formed by National Grid Wireless...

, Raytheon
Raytheon
Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007...

 and Northbrook Technology
Northbrook Technology
Allstate NI is a company based in Belfast, Derry and Strabane in Northern Ireland. The company was previously known as Northbrook Technology. As of May 7, 2008, Northbrook Technology was renamed to Allstate Northern Ireland....

 of the United States, Arntz Belting and Invision Software of Germany, and Homeloan Management of the UK. Major local business employers include Desmonds, Northern Ireland's largest privately-owned company, manufacturing and sourcing garments, E&I Engineering, St. Brendan's Irish Cream Liqueur
Saint Brendan's
Saint Brendan's Irish Cream Liqueur is a proprietary cream liqueur named after Saint Brendan. It is made in Derry, Northern Ireland, using local Irish whiskey and fresh cream....

 and McCambridge Duffy, one of the largest insolvency practices in the UK.

Even though the city provides cheap labour by standards in Western Europe, critics have noted that the grants offered by the Northern Ireland Industrial Development Board have helped land jobs for the area that only last as long as the funding lasts. This was reflected in questions to the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State
A Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State is the lowest of three tiers of government minister in the government of the United Kingdom, junior to both a Minister of State and a Secretary of State....

 for Northern Ireland, Richard Needham
Richard Needham
Richard Francis Needham, 6th Earl of Kilmorey, Kt, PC usually known as Sir Richard Needham is a former Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom...

, in 1990. It was noted that it cost £30,000 to create one job in an American firm in Northern Ireland.

Critics of investment decisions affecting the district often point to the decision to build a new university building in nearby (predominately Protestant) Coleraine
Coleraine
Coleraine is a large town near the mouth of the River Bann in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is northwest of Belfast and east of Derry, both of which are linked by major roads and railway connections...

 rather than developing the University of Ulster Magee Campus. Another major government decision affecting the city was the decision to create the new town of Craigavon
Craigavon
Craigavon is a settlement in north County Armagh, Northern Ireland. It was a planned settlement that was begun in 1965 and named after Northern Ireland's first Prime Minister — James Craig, 1st Viscount Craigavon. It was intended to be a linear city incorporating Lurgan and Portadown, but this plan...

 outside Belfast, which again was detrimental to the development of the city. Even in October 2005, there was perceived bias against the comparatively impoverished North West of the province, with a major civil service job contract going to Belfast. Mark Durkan
Mark Durkan
Mark Durkan is an Irish nationalist politician in Northern Ireland who was leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party from 2001 to 2010.-Early life:...

, the Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party
The Social Democratic and Labour Party is a social-democratic, Irish nationalist political party in Northern Ireland. Its basic party platform advocates Irish reunification, and the further devolution of powers while Northern Ireland remains part of the United Kingdom...

 (SDLP) leader and Member of Parliament
Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

 (MP) for Foyle was quoted in the Belfast Telegraph as saying:
In July 2005, the Irish Minister for Finance, Brian Cowen
Brian Cowen
Brian Cowen is a former Irish politician who served as Taoiseach of Ireland from 7 May 2008 to 9 March 2011. He was head of a coalition government led by Fianna Fáil which until 23 January 2011 had the support of the Green Party and independent TDs.Cowen was also leader of Fianna Fáil from 7 May...

, called for a joint task force to drive economic growth in the cross border region. This would have implications for Counties Londonderry, Tyrone, and Donegal across the border.

Shopping



The city is the north west's foremost shopping district, housing two large shopping centres along with numerous shop packed streets serving much of the greater county, as well as Tyrone
County Tyrone
Historically Tyrone stretched as far north as Lough Foyle, and comprised part of modern day County Londonderry east of the River Foyle. The majority of County Londonderry was carved out of Tyrone between 1610-1620 when that land went to the Guilds of London to set up profit making schemes based on...

 and Donegal
County Donegal
County Donegal is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is also located in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county...

. While retail developments in Letterkenny
Letterkenny
Letterkenny , with a population of 17,568, is the largest town in County Donegal, part of the Province of Ulster in Ireland. The town is located on the River Swilly...

 have lessened cross-border traffic from north County Donegal, the weakness of the pound sterling
Pound sterling
The pound sterling , commonly called the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, its Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, British Antarctic Territory and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence...

 over the course of 2009 made border towns such as Derry attractive to shoppers from south of the border.

The city centre has two main shopping centres; the Foyleside Shopping Centre
Foyleside Shopping Centre
Foyleside Shopping Centre is a shopping centre in Derry, Northern Ireland. It is Northern Ireland's largest shopping centre and won the NIRSC "Best Shopping centre in Northern Ireland" award. Construction started in the early 1990s and the centre opened in 1995...

 which has 45 stores and 1430 parking spaces, and the Richmond Centre
Richmond Centre (Derry)
The Richmond Centre is a shopping centre in Derry, Northern Ireland. It is the second largest shopping centre in the city at . The centre contains about 40 retail units, including some major high street names....

, which has 39 retail units. The Quayside Shopping Centre also serves the city-side and there is also Lisnagelvin Shopping Centre in the Waterside. These centres, as well as local-run businesses, feature numerous national and international stores. A recent addition was the Crescent Link Retail Park
Crescent Link Retail Park
Crescent Link Retail Park is an out-of-town retail park located in the south eastern periphery of Derry, Northern Ireland. It is just off the A514, which itself is named Crescent Link; hence the retail park's name...

 located in the Waterside with many international chain stores, including Homebase, Currys, Carpet Right, PC World, Argos Extra, Toys R Us, Halfords, DW Sports (formerly JJB Sports), Pets at Home, Tesco Express and M&S Simply Food . In the short space of time that this site has been operational, it has quickly grown to become the second largest retail park in Northern Ireland (second only to Sprucefield in Lisburn).

The city is also home to the world's oldest independent department store; Austins
Austins of Derry
Austins is a department store located in the Diamond of Derry, Northern Ireland. The store was established in 1830 and remains standing as Ireland's oldest. It is the world's oldest independent department store...

. Established in 1830, Austins predates Jenners
Jenners
Jenners Department Store, now known simply as Jenners, is a department store located in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was the oldest independent department store in Scotland until its acquisition by House of Fraser in 2005.- History :...

 of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

 by 5 years, Harrods
Harrods
Harrods is an upmarket department store located in Brompton Road in Brompton, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London. The Harrods brand also applies to other enterprises undertaken by the Harrods group of companies including Harrods Bank, Harrods Estates, Harrods Aviation and Air...

 of London by 15 years and Macy's
Macy's
Macy's is a U.S. chain of mid-to-high range department stores. In addition to its flagship Herald Square location in New York City, the company operates over 800 stores in the United States...

 of New York by 25 years. The store's five-story Edwardian building is located within the walled city in the area known as The Diamond.

Landmarks


Derry is renowned for its architecture. This can be primarily ascribed to the formal planning of the historic walled city of Derry at the core of the modern city. This is centred on the Diamond with a collection of late Georgian
Georgian architecture
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United...

, Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 and Edwardian
Edwardian architecture
Edwardian architecture is the style popular when King Edward VII of the United Kingdom was in power; he reigned from 1901 to 1910, but the architecture style is generally considered to be indicative of the years 1901 to 1914....

 buildings maintaining the gridlines of the main thoroughfares (Shipquay Street, Ferryquay Street, Butcher Street and Bishop Street) to the City Gates. St Columb's Cathedral
St Columb's Cathedral
St Columb's Cathedral in the walled city of Derry, Northern Ireland is the mother church of the Church of Ireland Diocese of Derry and Raphoe and the parish church of Templemore....

 does not follow the grid pattern reinforcing its civic status. This Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
The Church of Ireland is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. The church operates in all parts of Ireland and is the second largest religious body on the island after the Roman Catholic Church...

 Cathedral was the first post-Reformation
English Reformation
The English Reformation was the series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church....

 Cathedral built for an Anglican church. The construction of the Roman Catholic St Eugene's Cathedral
St Eugene's Cathedral
St Eugene's Cathedral is the Roman Catholic cathedral located in Derry, Northern Ireland. It is the "Mother Church" for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Derry, as well as the parish Church of the parish of Templemore.-History:...

 in the Bogside in the 19th-century was another major architectural addition to the city. The more recent infill buildings within the walls are of varying quality and in many cases these were low quality hurriedly constructed replacements for 1970s bomb damaged buildings. The Townscape Heritage Initiative has funded restoration works to key listed buildings and other older structures.

In the three centuries since their construction, the city walls have been adapted to meet the needs of a changing city. The best example of this adaptation is the insertion of three additional gates  — Castle Gate, New Gate and Magazine Gate  — into the walls in the course of the 19th century. Today, the fortifications form a continuous promenade around the city centre, complete with cannon, avenues of mature trees and views across Derry. Historic buildings within the city walls include St Augustine's Church, which sits on the city walls close to the site of the original monastic settlement; the copper-domed Austin's department store, which claims to the oldest such store in the world; and the imposing Greek Revival Courthouse on Bishop Street. The red-brick late-Victorian Guildhall
Guildhall, Derry
The Guildhall in Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, is a building in which the elected members of Derry City Council meet. It was built in 1890....

, also crowned by a copper dome, stands just beyond Shipquay Gate and close to the river front.

There are many museums and sites of interest in and around the city, including the Foyle Valley Railway Centre, the Amelia Earhart
Amelia Earhart
Amelia Mary Earhart was a noted American aviation pioneer and author. Earhart was the first woman to receive the U.S. Distinguished Flying Cross, awarded for becoming the first aviatrix to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean...

 Centre And Wildlife Sanctuary, the Apprentice Boys
Apprentice Boys of Derry
The Apprentice Boys of Derry is a Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide membership of over 80,000, founded in 1814. They are based in the city of Derry, Northern Ireland. However, there are Clubs and branches across Ireland, Great Britain and further afield...

 Memorial Hall, Ballyoan Cemetery
Ballyoan Cemetery
Ballyoan Cemetery is a cemetery in Derry, Northern Ireland.In the mid-1990s, numerous human remains were found at the Waterside Workhouse, Derry Workhouse. These remains, believed to be of people who died in the mid-nineteenth century, were later interred in this cemetery.Ballyoan Cemetery is...

, The Bogside, numerous murals by the Bogside Artists
Bogside Artists
The Bogside Artists are a trio of mural painters from Derry, Northern Ireland, consisting of Tom Kelly, his brother William Kelly, and Kevin Hasson...

, Derry Craft Village, Free Derry Corner
Free Derry Corner
Free Derry Corner is a square in the Bogside neighbourhood of Derry, Northern Ireland, which lies in the intersection of the Lecky Road, Rossville Street and Fahan Street. On the Free Derry Corner is a memorial to the 1981 hunger strikers and several murals...

, O'Doherty Tower (now home to part of the Tower Museum), the Guildhall
Guildhall, Derry
The Guildhall in Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, is a building in which the elected members of Derry City Council meet. It was built in 1890....

, the Harbour Museum, the Museum of Free Derry, Chapter House Museum, the Workhouse Museum, the Nerve Centre
Nerve Centre
The Nerve Centre is a youth self-help organisation established in 1990 in Derry, Northern Ireland to provide a creative outlet for youth culture and the many young people who feel excluded from the "arts sector"...

, St. Columb's Park and Leisure Centre, St Eugene's Cathedral
St Eugene's Cathedral
St Eugene's Cathedral is the Roman Catholic cathedral located in Derry, Northern Ireland. It is the "Mother Church" for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Derry, as well as the parish Church of the parish of Templemore.-History:...

, Creggan Country Park, The Millennium Forum and the Foyle
Foyle Bridge
The Foyle Bridge is a bridge in Derry in Northern Ireland. The central cantilever span of the bridge is the longest in Ireland at 234 metres , and the whole suspended bridge structure including the approach spans is also the longest in Ireland at 866 metres .It crosses the River Foyle to the north...

 and Craigavon
Craigavon Bridge
The Craigavon Bridge is one of three bridges in Derry, Northern Ireland. It crosses the River Foyle further south than the Foyle Bridge and Peace Bridge. It is one of only a few double-decker road bridges in Europe. It was named after Lord Craigavon, the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.The...

 bridges.

Future projects include the Walled City Signature Project, which intends to ensure that the city's walls become a world class tourist experience.

The city has seen a large boost to its economy in the form of tourism over the last few years. Cheap flights offered by budget airlines have enticed many people to visit the city. Tourism mainly focuses around the pubs, mainly those of Waterloo Street. Other attractions include museums, a vibrant shopping centre and trips to the Giant's Causeway
Giant's Causeway
The Giant's Causeway is an area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the result of an ancient volcanic eruption. It is located in County Antrim on the northeast coast of Northern Ireland, about three miles northeast of the town of Bushmills...

, which is approximately 50 miles (80.5 km) away.


Transport


The transport network is built out of a complex array of old and modern roads and railways throughout the city and county. The city's road network also makes use of two bridges to cross the River Foyle
River Foyle
The River Foyle is a river in west Ulster in the northwest of Ireland, which flows from the confluence of the rivers Finn and Mourne at the towns of Lifford in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland, and Strabane in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. From here it flows to the City of Derry, where it...

, the Craigavon Bridge
Craigavon Bridge
The Craigavon Bridge is one of three bridges in Derry, Northern Ireland. It crosses the River Foyle further south than the Foyle Bridge and Peace Bridge. It is one of only a few double-decker road bridges in Europe. It was named after Lord Craigavon, the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.The...

 and the Foyle Bridge
Foyle Bridge
The Foyle Bridge is a bridge in Derry in Northern Ireland. The central cantilever span of the bridge is the longest in Ireland at 234 metres , and the whole suspended bridge structure including the approach spans is also the longest in Ireland at 866 metres .It crosses the River Foyle to the north...

, the longest bridge in Ireland. Derry also serves as a major transport hub for travel throughout nearby County Donegal
County Donegal
County Donegal is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is also located in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county...

.

In spite of it being the second city of Northern Ireland (and it being the second-largest city in all of Ulster
Ulster
Ulster is one of the four provinces of Ireland, located in the north of the island. In ancient Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a "king of over-kings" . Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into a number of counties for administrative and judicial...

), road and rail links to other cities are below par for its standing. Many business leaders claim that government investment in the city and infrastructure has been badly lacking. Some have stated that this is due to its outlying border location whilst others have cited a sectarian bias against the region west of the River Bann
River Bann
The River Bann is the longest river in Northern Ireland, the total length being 80 miles . The river winds its way from the south east corner of Northern Ireland to the north west coast, pausing in the middle to widen into the enormous Lough Neagh...

 due to its high proportion of Catholics. There is no direct motorway link with Dublin or Belfast
Belfast
Belfast is the capital of and largest city in Northern Ireland. By population, it is the 14th biggest city in the United Kingdom and second biggest on the island of Ireland . It is the seat of the devolved government and legislative Northern Ireland Assembly...

. The rail link to Belfast has been downgraded over the years so that presently it is not a viable alternative to the roads for industry to rely on. There are currently plans for £1 billion worth of transport infrastructure investment in and around the district.

Buses


Most public transport in Northern Ireland is operated by the subsidiaries of Translink
Translink (Northern Ireland)
Translink is the brand name of the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company , a public corporation in Northern Ireland which provides the public transport in the region. NI Railways, Ulsterbus and Metro are all part of Translink....

. Originally the city's internal bus network was run by Ulsterbus
Ulsterbus
Ulsterbus is a public transport operator in Northern Ireland and operates bus services outside Belfast. It is part of Translink , which also includes Northern Ireland Railways, Metro Belfast and Flexibus.-Services:Ulsterbus is responsible for most of the province-wide bus...

, which still provides the city's connections with other towns in Northern Ireland. The city's buses are now run by Ulsterbus Foyle
Ulsterbus Foyle
Ulsterbus Foyle is a brandname developed by Ulsterbus for its services in Derry, Northern Ireland. The service was opened on 4 September 2006 following a review and expansion of the city's bus routes and replacement of many of the cities older buses....

, just as Translink Metro
Metro (Belfast)
Metro is the trading name for bus company Citybus in Belfast, Northern Ireland. It is a subsidiary of the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company, within the common management structure of Translink, along with Ulsterbus and Northern Ireland Railways....

 now provides the bus service in Belfast. The Ulsterbus Foyle network offers 13 routes across the city into the suburban areas, excluding an Easibus link which connects to the Waterside and Drumahoe, and a free Rail Link Bus runs from the Waterside Railway Station to the city centre. All buses leave from the Foyle Street Bus Station in the city centre.

Long distance buses depart from Foyle Street Bus Station to destinations throughout Ireland. Buses are operated by both Ulsterbus
Ulsterbus
Ulsterbus is a public transport operator in Northern Ireland and operates bus services outside Belfast. It is part of Translink , which also includes Northern Ireland Railways, Metro Belfast and Flexibus.-Services:Ulsterbus is responsible for most of the province-wide bus...

 and Bus Éireann
Bus Éireann
Bus Éireann provides bus services in Ireland with the exception of those operated entirely within the Dublin Region, which are provided by Dublin Bus. Bus Éireann, established as a separate company in 1987, is a subsidiary of Córas Iompair Éireann. The logo of Bus Éireann incorporates a red Irish...

 on cross-border routes and also by Lough Swilly
Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway
The Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway Company is an Irish public transport and freight company incorporated in June 1853. Despite its name it operates no railway services. It formerly operated 99 miles of railways but closed its last line in July 1953...

 buses to Co. Donegal. There is a half-hourly service to Belfast
Belfast
Belfast is the capital of and largest city in Northern Ireland. By population, it is the 14th biggest city in the United Kingdom and second biggest on the island of Ireland . It is the seat of the devolved government and legislative Northern Ireland Assembly...

 every day, called the Maiden City Flyer, which is the Goldline Express flagship route. There are hourly services to Strabane
Strabane
Strabane , historically spelt Straban,is a town in west County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It contains the headquarters of Strabane District Council....

, Omagh
Omagh
Omagh is the county town of County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It is situated where the rivers Drumragh and Camowen meet to form the Strule. The town, which is the largest in the county, had a population of 19,910 at the 2001 Census. Omagh also contains the headquarters of Omagh District Council and...

, Coleraine
Coleraine
Coleraine is a large town near the mouth of the River Bann in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is northwest of Belfast and east of Derry, both of which are linked by major roads and railway connections...

, Letterkenny
Letterkenny
Letterkenny , with a population of 17,568, is the largest town in County Donegal, part of the Province of Ulster in Ireland. The town is located on the River Swilly...

 and Buncrana, and eleven services a day to bring people to Dublin. There is a daily service to Sligo
Sligo
Sligo is the county town of County Sligo in Ireland. The town is a borough and has a charter and a town mayor. It is sometimes referred to as a city, and sometimes as a town, and is the second largest urban area in Connacht...

, Galway
Galway
Galway or City of Galway is a city in County Galway, Republic of Ireland. It is the sixth largest and the fastest-growing city in Ireland. It is also the third largest city within the Republic and the only city in the Province of Connacht. Located on the west coast of Ireland, it sits on the...

, Shannon Airport
Shannon Airport
Shannon Airport, is one of the Republic of Ireland's three primary airports along with Dublin and Cork. In 2010 around 1,750,000 passengers passed through the airport, making it the third busiest airport in the Republic of Ireland after Dublin and Cork, and the fifth busiest airport on the island...

 and Limerick
Limerick
Limerick is the third largest city in the Republic of Ireland, and the principal city of County Limerick and Ireland's Mid-West Region. It is the fifth most populous city in all of Ireland. When taking the extra-municipal suburbs into account, Limerick is the third largest conurbation in the...

.

Air



City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport is an airport located northeast of Derry, Northern Ireland. It is located on the south bank of Lough Foyle, a short distance from the village of Eglinton and from the city centre...

, the council-owned airport near Eglinton
Eglinton, County Londonderry
Eglinton is a village in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It lies east of Derry, to which it serves as a sleeper village, and west of Limavady. Many inhabitants of the village work in Derry city and send their children to school there. Eglinton had a population of 3,165 people in the 2001...

, has been growing in recent years with new investment in extending the runway and plans to redevelop the terminal. It is hoped that the new investment will add to the airport's currently limited array of domestic and international flights and reduce the annual subsidy of £3.5 million from the local council.

Work has commenced to turn the A2
A2 road (Northern Ireland)
The A2 is a major road in Northern Ireland, a large section of which is often called the Antrim Coast Road because it follows the scenic coastline of County Antrim....

 from Maydown
Maydown
Maydown is a small village and townland in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It is near Derry and Strathfoyle and is within the Derry City Council area. In the 2001 Census it had a population of 270 people.- Industry :...

 to Eglinton
Eglinton, County Londonderry
Eglinton is a village in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It lies east of Derry, to which it serves as a sleeper village, and west of Limavady. Many inhabitants of the village work in Derry city and send their children to school there. Eglinton had a population of 3,165 people in the 2001...

 and inturn the airport
City of Derry Airport
City of Derry Airport is an airport located northeast of Derry, Northern Ireland. It is located on the south bank of Lough Foyle, a short distance from the village of Eglinton and from the city centre...

 into a dual carriageway
Dual carriageway
A dual carriageway is a class of highway with two carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation...

, with completion estimated by November 2010. City of Derry airport is the main regional airport for County Donegal
County Donegal
County Donegal is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is also located in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county...

, County Londonderry
County Londonderry
The place name Derry is an anglicisation of the old Irish Daire meaning oak-grove or oak-wood. As with the city, its name is subject to the Derry/Londonderry name dispute, with the form Derry preferred by nationalists and Londonderry preferred by unionists...

 and west County Tyrone
County Tyrone
Historically Tyrone stretched as far north as Lough Foyle, and comprised part of modern day County Londonderry east of the River Foyle. The majority of County Londonderry was carved out of Tyrone between 1610-1620 when that land went to the Guilds of London to set up profit making schemes based on...

 as well as Derry City itself.

The airport is served by Aer Arann
Aer Arann
Aer Arann is a regional airline based in Dublin, Ireland. Aer Arann operates scheduled services from Ireland and the Isle of Man to destinations in Ireland, the United Kingdom, and France, with a fleet of 18 aircraft. Aer Arann has expanded from a single aircraft to Ireland's third largest airline...

, Flybe
Flybe
Flybe Group PLC is a British low-cost regional airline headquartered at the Jack Walker House at Exeter International Airport in Devon, England...

 and Ryanair
Ryanair
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline. Its head office is at Dublin Airport and its primary operational bases at Dublin Airport and London Stansted Airport....

 with scheduled flights to Birmingham International Airport
Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

, Dublin
Dublin Airport
Dublin Airport, , is operated by the Dublin Airport Authority. Located in Collinstown, in the Fingal part of County Dublin, 18.4 million passengers passed through the airport in 2010, making it the busiest airport in the Republic of Ireland, followed by Cork and Shannon...

, Glasgow Prestwick Airport, Liverpool
Liverpool John Lennon Airport
Liverpool John Lennon Airport is an international airport serving the city of Liverpool and the North West of England. Formerly known as Speke Airport, RAF Speke, and Liverpool Airport the airport is located within the City of Liverpool adjacent to the estuary of the River Mersey some southeast...

, London Stansted, Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

 and Tenerife South
Tenerife South Airport
Tenerife South Airport , previously known as Tenerife South-Reina Sofia Airport, is one of two international airports located on the island of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands . Between its opening and the end of 2006, a total of 173,912,207 passengers passed through the airport...

 all year round with a summer schedule to Alicante
Alicante
Alicante or Alacant is a city in Spain, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community. It is also a historic Mediterranean port. The population of the city of Alicante proper was 334,418, estimated , ranking as the second-largest...

, Faro
Faro, Portugal
Faro is the southernmost city in Portugal. It is located in the Faro Municipality in southern Portugal. The city proper has 41,934 inhabitants and the entire municipality has 58,305. It is the seat of the Faro District and capital of the Algarve region...

 as well as summer charter flights to Majorca and Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

 in Spain.

Railways


Northern Ireland Railways
Northern Ireland Railways
NI Railways, also known as Northern Ireland Railways and for a brief period of time, Ulster Transport Railways , is the railway operator in Northern Ireland...

 (N.I.R.) has a single route from Londonderry railway station
Londonderry railway station
Londonderry/Derry Railway Station, known commonly as Waterside Railway Station, serves the city of Derry in Northern Ireland. The station is also used by residents of the west of County Londonderry, much of west Tyrone and County Donegal. It is operated by Northern Ireland Railways...

 (also known as Waterside Station) on the Waterside
Waterside, Derry
The Waterside is an urban neighbourhood on the east side of the River Foyle opposite the Cityside of Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. Traditionally, the Waterside ends at the Caw roundabout near the Foyle Bridge...

 to via , , , and . The service, which had been allowed to deteriorate in the 1990s, has since been improved by increased investment.

In 2008 the Department for Regional Development announced a plan to have the track re-laid between Derry and Coleraine by 2013, add a passing loop
Passing loop
A passing loop is a place on a single line railway or tramway, often located at a station, where trains or trams in opposing directions can pass each other. Trains/trams in the same direction can also overtake, providing that the signalling arrangement allows it...

 to increase traffic capacity and increase the number of trains by introducing two additional diesel multiple unit
Diesel multiple unit
A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple unit train consisting of multiple carriages powered by one or more on-board diesel engines. They may also be referred to as a railcar or railmotor, depending on country.-Design:...

s. The £86 million plan will reduce the journey time to Belfast by 30 minutes and allow commuter trains to arrive before 9 a.m. for the first time. Many still do not use the train, because, at over two hours, it is slower centre-to-centre than the 100-minute Ulsterbus Goldline Express service.

Railway history



Throughout the first half of the 20th century the city was served by four different railways that between them linked the city with much of the province of Ulster, plus a harbour railway netowrk that linked the other four lines. There was also a tramway on the City side of the Foyle.
19th and 20th century growth

Derry's first railway was the Irish gauge
Irish gauge
Irish gauge railways use a track gauge of . It is used in* Ireland * Australia where it is also known as Victorian Broad Gauge* Brazil where it is also known as Bitola larga no Brasil....

  Londonderry and Enniskillen Railway
Londonderry and Enniskillen Railway
The Londonderry and Enniskillen Railway was an Irish gauge railway in Ireland.-Construction and opening:The Londonderry and Enniskillen Railway was incorporated in 1845. Construction began at Derry and followed the west bank of the River Foyle southwards to Strabane, which was reached in 1847...

 (L&ER). Construction began in 1845 from a temporary station at Cow Market on the City side of the Foyle, reached Strabane
Strabane
Strabane , historically spelt Straban,is a town in west County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It contains the headquarters of Strabane District Council....

 in 1847 and was extended from Cow Market to its permanent terminus at Foyle Road in 1850. The L&ER reached Omagh
Omagh
Omagh is the county town of County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It is situated where the rivers Drumragh and Camowen meet to form the Strule. The town, which is the largest in the county, had a population of 19,910 at the 2001 Census. Omagh also contains the headquarters of Omagh District Council and...

 in 1852 and Enniskillen
Enniskillen
Enniskillen is a town in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. It is located almost exactly in the centre of the county between the Upper and Lower sections of Lough Erne. It had a population of 13,599 in the 2001 Census...

 in 1854, and was absorbed into the Great Northern Railway (Ireland)
Great Northern Railway (Ireland)
The Great Northern Railway was an Irish gauge railway company in Ireland.The Great Northern was formed in 1876 by a merger of the Irish North Western Railway , Northern Railway of Ireland, and Ulster Railway. The Ulster Railway was the GNRI's oldest constituent, having opened between Belfast and...

 in 1883.

The Londonderry and Coleraine Railway (L&CR), also Irish gauge, reached the city in 1852 and opened its terminus at Waterside. The Belfast and Northern Counties Railway leased the line from 1861 and took it over in 1871.

The Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway
Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway
The Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway Company is an Irish public transport and freight company incorporated in June 1853. Despite its name it operates no railway services. It formerly operated 99 miles of railways but closed its last line in July 1953...

 opened between Farland Point on Lough Swilly
Lough Swilly
Lough Swilly in Ireland is a glacial fjord or sea inlet lying between the western side of the Inishowen Peninsula and the Fanad Peninsula, in County Donegal. Along with Carlingford Lough and Killary Harbour it is one of three known glacial fjords in Ireland....

 and a temporary terminus at Pennyburn in 1863. In 1866 it extended from Pennyburn to its permanent terminus at Graving Dock. The L&LSR was Irish gauge until 1885, when it was converted to narrow gauge
Narrow gauge
A narrow gauge railway is a railway that has a track gauge narrower than the of standard gauge railways. Most existing narrow gauge railways have gauges of between and .- Overview :...

 for through running with the Letterkenny Railway.

The Londonderry Port and Harbour Commissioners
Londonderry Port
Londonderry Port at Lisahally is a port near Derry, Northern Ireland. It is the United Kingdom’s most westerly port, has capacity for 30,000 ton vessels and accepts cruise ships. The current port is on the east bank of the River Foyle at the southern end of Lough Foyle, by the small village of...

 (LPHC) linked Graving Dock and Foyle Road stations with a railway through Middle Quay in 1867, and linked this line with Waterside station by a railway over the new Carlisle Bridge in 1868. The bridge was replaced in 1933 with the double-deck Craigavon Bridge
Craigavon Bridge
The Craigavon Bridge is one of three bridges in Derry, Northern Ireland. It crosses the River Foyle further south than the Foyle Bridge and Peace Bridge. It is one of only a few double-decker road bridges in Europe. It was named after Lord Craigavon, the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.The...

, with the LPHC railway on its lower deck.

In 1900 the gauge Donegal Railway
County Donegal Railways Joint Committee
The County Donegal Railways Joint Committee operated an extensive 3 foot gauge railway system serving county Donegal, Ireland,from 1906 until 1960...

 extended from Strabane to Derry, establishing a terminus at Victoria Road. This was next to Carlisle Bridge and had a junction with the LPHC railway. The LPHC line was altered to dual gauge
Dual gauge
A dual-gauge or mixed-gauge railway has railway track that allows trains of different gauges to use the same track. Generally, a dual-gauge railway consists of three rails, rather than the standard two rails. The two outer rails give the wider gauge, while one of the outer rails and the inner rail...

 which allowed gauge traffic between the Donegal Railway and L&LSR as well as Irish gauge traffic between the GNR and B&NCR. In 1906 the Northern Counties Committee
Northern Counties Committee
The Northern Counties Committee was a railway that served the north-east of Ireland. It was built to Irish gauge but later acquired a number of narrow gauge lines...

 (NCC, successor to the B&NCR) and the GNR jointly took over the Donegal Railway, making it the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee
County Donegal Railways Joint Committee
The County Donegal Railways Joint Committee operated an extensive 3 foot gauge railway system serving county Donegal, Ireland,from 1906 until 1960...

 (CDRJC).

The United Kingdom Government subsidised both the L&LSR and the Donegal Railway to build long extensions into remote parts of County Donegal
County Donegal
County Donegal is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is also located in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county...

. By 1905 these served much of the county, making Derry (and also Strabane) a key rail hub for the county.

The City of Derry Tramways
City of Derry Tramways
The City of Derry Tramways was a tramway in Derry, Ireland that operated from 1897 until 1919. This was a standard gauge line served by horse trams and was never electrified.The tramway had only one line...

 was opened in 1897. This was a standard gauge
Standard gauge
The standard gauge is a widely-used track gauge . Approximately 60% of the world's existing railway lines are built to this gauge...

  line served by horse trams
Horsecar
A horsecar or horse-drawn tram is an animal-powered streetcar or tram.These early forms of public transport developed out of industrial haulage routes that had long been in existence, and from the omnibus routes that first ran on public streets in the 1820s, using the newly improved iron or steel...

 and was never electrified. The tramway had only one line, was 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long, and ran along the City side of the Foyle parallel to the LPHC's line on that side of the river. It was closed in 1919.
20th century decline

The partition of Ireland
Partition of Ireland
The partition of Ireland was the division of the island of Ireland into two distinct territories, now Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland . Partition occurred when the British Parliament passed the Government of Ireland Act 1920...

 in 1922 turned the boundary with County Donegal into an international frontier. This changed trade patterns to the railways' detriment and placed border posts on every line to and from Derry except the NCC route to . The L&LSR crossed the border between Pennyburn and Bridge End, the CDRJC crossed just beyond Strabane, and the GNR line crossed twice between Derry and Strabane. Stops for customs inspections greatly delayed trains and disrupted timekeeping.

Over the next few years customs agreements between the two states enabled GNR trains to and from Derry to pass through the Free State without inspection unless they were scheduled to serve local stations on the west bank of the Foyle, and for goods on all railways to be carried between different parts of the Free State to pass through Northern Ireland under customs bond
Bonded warehouse
A Bonded warehouse is a building or other secured area in which dutiable goods may be stored, manipulated, or undergo manufacturing operations without payment of duty. It may be managed by the state or by private enterprise. In the latter case a customs bond must be posted with the government...

. However, local passenger and goods traffic continued to be delayed by customs examinations.

In the 1920s and 30s and again after the Second World War the railways also faced increasing road competition. The L&LSR closed its line in 1953, followed by the CDRJC in 1954. The Ulster Transport Authority
Ulster Transport Authority
The Ulster Transport Authority ran rail and bus transport in Northern Ireland from 1948 until 1966.-Formation and consolidation:The UTA was formed by the Transport Act 1948, which merged the Northern Ireland Road Transport Board and the Belfast and County Down Railway...

 took over the NCC in 1949 and the GNR's lines in Northern Ireland in 1958. The UTA also took over the LPHC railway, which it closed in 1962. In accordance with The Benson Report submitted to the Northern Ireland Government in 1963, the UTA closed the former GNR line to Derry in 1965.

Since 1965 the former L&CR line has been Derry's sole railway link. As such it has carried not only passenger services between Derry and Belfast but also CIÉ
CIE
-Organizations:* Cambridge International Examinations, an international examination board* Cleveland Institute of Electronics, a private technical and engineering educational institution — the International Commission on Illumination...

 freight services using Derry as a railhead
Railhead
The word railhead is a railway term with two distinct meanings, depending upon its context.Sometimes, particularly in the context of modern freight terminals, the word is used to denote a terminus of a railway line, especially if the line is not yet finished, or if the terminus interfaces with...

 for Donegal.

Road network


The road network has historically seen under-investment and has lacked good road connections to both Belfast and Dublin for many years. Long overdue, the largest road investment in the north west's history is now (2010) taking place with building of the 'A2 Broadbridge Maydown to City of Derry Airport dualling' project and announcement of the 'A6 Londonderry to Dungiven Dualling Scheme' which will help to reduce the travel time to Belfast. The latter project brings a dual-carriageway link between Northern Ireland's two largest cities one step closer. The project is costing £320 million and is expected to be completed in 2016.

In October 2006 the Government of Ireland announced that it was to invest
Euro
The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

1 billion in Northern Ireland; and one of the planned projects will be 'The A5 Western Transport Corridor', the complete upgrade of the A5 Derry – Omagh – Aughnacloy (– Dublin) road, around 90 kilometres (55.9 mi) long, to dual carriageway
Dual carriageway
A dual carriageway is a class of highway with two carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation...

 standard.

It is not yet known if these two separate projects will connect at any point, although there have been calls for some form of connection between the two routes. In June 2008 Conor Murphy
Conor Murphy
Conor Terence Murphy is an Irish republican Sinn Féin politician.According to An Phoblacht, Murphy first became involved with the Irish Republican Army during the 1981 hunger strikes...

, Minister for Regional Development, announced that there will be a study into the feasibility of connecting the A5 and A6. Should it proceed, the scheme would most likely run from Drumahoe to south of Prehen along the south east of the City.

Sea



Londonderry Port
Londonderry Port
Londonderry Port at Lisahally is a port near Derry, Northern Ireland. It is the United Kingdom’s most westerly port, has capacity for 30,000 ton vessels and accepts cruise ships. The current port is on the east bank of the River Foyle at the southern end of Lough Foyle, by the small village of...

 at Lisahally is the United Kingdom's most westerly port and has capacity for 30,000-ton vessels. The Londonderry Port and Harbour Commissioners
Londonderry Port
Londonderry Port at Lisahally is a port near Derry, Northern Ireland. It is the United Kingdom’s most westerly port, has capacity for 30,000 ton vessels and accepts cruise ships. The current port is on the east bank of the River Foyle at the southern end of Lough Foyle, by the small village of...

 (LPHC) announced record turnover, record profits and record tonnage figures for the year ended March 2008. The figures are the result of a significant capital expenditure programme for the period 2000 to 2007 of about £22 million. Tonnage handled by LPHC increased almost 65% between 2000 and 2007, according to the latest annual results.

The port gave vital Allied service in the longest running campaign of the Second World War, the Battle of the Atlantic, and saw the surrender of the German U-Boat fleet at Lisahally on 8 May 1945.

Education




Derry is home to the Magee Campus
Magee College
Magee College is a campus of the University of Ulster located in Derry, Northern Ireland. It opened in 1865 as a Presbyterian Christian arts and theological college...

 of the University of Ulster
University of Ulster
The University of Ulster is a multi-campus, co-educational university located in Northern Ireland. It is the largest single university in Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland...

, formerly Magee College. However Lockwood's 1960s decision to locate Northern Ireland's second university in Coleraine rather than Derry helped contribute to the formation of the civil rights movement that ultimately led to The Troubles
The Troubles
The Troubles was a period of ethno-political conflict in Northern Ireland which spilled over at various times into England, the Republic of Ireland, and mainland Europe. The duration of the Troubles is conventionally dated from the late 1960s and considered by many to have ended with the Belfast...

. Derry was the town more closely associated with higher learning, with Magee College already more than a century old by that time. In the mid-1980s a half-hearted attempt was made at rectifying this mistake by forming Magee College as a campus of the University of Ulster
University of Ulster
The University of Ulster is a multi-campus, co-educational university located in Northern Ireland. It is the largest single university in Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland...

 but this has failed to stifle calls for the establishment of an independent University in Derry that can grow to it full potential. The campus has never thrived and currently only has 3,500 students out of a total University of Ulster
University of Ulster
The University of Ulster is a multi-campus, co-educational university located in Northern Ireland. It is the largest single university in Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland...

 student population of 27,000. Ironically, although Coleraine is blamed by many in the city for 'stealing the University', it has only 5,000 students, the remaining 19,000 being based in Belfast.

The North West Regional College
North West Regional College
North West Regional College is a further education and higher education college in the north west region of Northern Ireland. The College has three main campuses: Strand Road, Derry, Main Street, Limavady and Derry Road, Strabane....

 is also based in the city. In recent years it has grown to almost 30,000 students.

One of the two oldest secondary schools in Northern Ireland is located in Derry, Foyle and Londonderry College
Foyle and Londonderry College
Foyle College, which is also known by its former name Foyle and Londonderry College or FALC, is a co-educational voluntary grammar school in the city of Derry, Northern Ireland. In 1976, two local schools, Foyle College and Londonderry High School, merged under the Foyle and Londonderry College Act...

. It was founded in 1616 by the merchant taylors and remains a popular choice. Other secondary schools include St. Columb's College
St. Columb's College
St. Columb's College is a Roman Catholic boys' grammar school in Derry, Northern Ireland and, since 2008, a specialist school in Mathematics and Computing...

, Oakgrove Integrated College
Oakgrove Integrated College
Oakgrove Integrated College is an integrated secondary school based in Derry, Northern Ireland. The all-ability school was founded in 1992 with the hope of integrating young people from both sides of Northern Ireland's religious divide and giving all of its students 'self-esteem'.- History :The...

, St Cecilia's College
St Cecilia's College
St Cecilia's College is a secondary school located in Derry, Northern Ireland. It is a Catholic-maintained girls school with an enrolment of 947 pupils aged 11–18 and is located in the Northland Road area of Derry. It has 60 teaching staff. The college has decanted to the Northland Road to...

, St Mary's College
St Mary's College, Derry
St. Marys College is an all girls Catholic-maintained secondary school and Specialist Science School located in Derry, Northern Ireland. Situated in the heart of the Creggan area of Derry, it attracts pupils from a wide catchment area, with an enrolment of nearly one thousand pupils aged 11–18 and...

, St. Joseph's Boys' School, Lisneal College
Lisneal College
Lisneal College is a controlled secondary school located in Derry, Northern Ireland. It is within the Western Education and Library Board area....

, Thornhill College
Thornhill College
Thornhill College is a Roman Catholic girls' grammar school in Derry, Northern Ireland. It was founded by the Sisters of Mercy in 1886 and moved to Culmore in 1932. It moved into its new building in 2003. It has a student population of approximately 1500 and a staff of 100 teachers. Miss Hamilton...

, Lumen Christi College
Lumen Christi College
Lumen Christi College is a co-educational Catholic grammar school in Derry, Northern Ireland, founded in September 1997. The school is located at the site of the old St. Columb's College. In 2007, 2008 and 2009, Lumen Christi topped the GCSE and A-Level results league tables in Northern Ireland,...

 and St. Brigid's College. There are also numerous primary schools.

Sports



The city is home to sports clubs and teams. Both association football and Gaelic football
Gaelic football
Gaelic football , commonly referred to as "football" or "Gaelic", or "Gah" is a form of football played mainly in Ireland...

 are popular in the area. In association football, the city's most prominent clubs include Derry City
Derry City F.C.
Derry City Football Club is a professional football club based in Derry, Northern Ireland. It plays in the League of Ireland Premier Division...

 who play in the national league
League of Ireland
The League of Ireland is the national association football league of the Republic of Ireland. Founded in 1921, as a league of eight clubs, it has expanded over time into a two-tiered league of 22 clubs. It is currently split into the League of Ireland Premier Division and the League of Ireland...

 of the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

; Institute
Institute F.C.
Institute F.C. is a Northern Irish intermediate football club who play in IFA Championship 1.The club, founded in 1905, are based in the Drumahoe area of Derry and play their home matches at the Riverside Stadium in the YMCA Grounds...

 and Oxford United Stars
Oxford United Stars F.C.
Oxford United Stars F.C. is a Northern Ireland football club, founded in 1937, based in Derry. It currently competes in the Northern Ireland Intermediate League. They are known as the U2's in reference to Oxford United's nickname 'The U's'...

, of the Irish League
IFA Premiership
The IFA Premiership – formerly the Irish Premier League, and before that the Irish Football League–and still known in popular parlance simply as the Irish League, is the national football league in Northern Ireland, and was historically the league for the whole of Ireland. Clubs in the league are...

.

In addition to the Derry City, Institute and Oxford United Stars, who all play in national leagues, other clubs are based in the city. The local football league is the Derry and District League
Derry and District League
The Derry and District League is an amateur football league in Derry. The league includes youth and senior football teams. The Senior Sunday League has two divisions, the Premier and the First Division. The Youth Leagues have one league for each age group, from under-10 up to under-17. Teams such...

 and teams from the city and surrounding areas participate, including Lincoln Courts, Don Boscos, and Trojans
Trojans F.C.
Trojans Football Club is a football club based in Derry, Northern Ireland, currently playing in the Northern Ireland Intermediate League. The club was founded in 1938 by Edmund Carton and is based in the Creggan area of Derry...

; also North West teams like BBOB (Boys Brigade Old Boys). The Foyle Cup
Foyle Cup
The Foyle Cup is a youth soccer tournament held every year in Derry City. Along with the Milk Cup, which takes place around the same time, The Foyle Cup is one of Ireland and indeed Europe's premier youth tournaments.-History:...

 youth soccer tournament is held annually in the city. It has attracted many notable teams in the past, including Werder Bremen
SV Werder Bremen
SV Werder Bremen is a German sports club best known for its association football team playing in Bremen, in the northwest German federal state of the same name. The club was founded on 4 February 1899 as Fußballverein Werder by a group of sixteen vocational high school students who had won a prize...

, IFK Göteborg
IFK Göteborg
IFK Göteborg is a Swedish professional football club based in Gothenburg. Founded in 1904, the club has won 18 national championship titles, five national cup titles, and two UEFA Cups....

 and Ferencváros.

In Gaelic football Derry GAA
Derry GAA
The Derry County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Derry GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland. It is responsible for Gaelic games in the GAA county of Derry, which covers virtually the same territory as the former administrative county of Londonderry...

 are the county team and play in the Gaelic Athletic Association
Gaelic Athletic Association
The Gaelic Athletic Association is an amateur Irish and international cultural and sporting organisation focused primarily on promoting Gaelic games, which include the traditional Irish sports of hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, handball and rounders...

's National Football League
National Football League (Ireland)
The National Football League is a Gaelic football tournament held annually between the county teams of Ireland, under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association. The prize for the winning team is the New Ireland Cup, presented by the New Ireland Assurance Company...

, Ulster Senior Football Championship
Ulster Senior Football Championship
For information on this years competition, see Ulster Senior Football Championship 2011-2010 Draw:-2009 Draw:-2008 Draw:-Top winners:* All-Ireland winning years in bold.-Roll of honour:Notes:* 1907 No final result in records...

 and All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier competition in Gaelic football, is a series of games organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association and played during the summer and early autumn...

. They also field hurling
Hurling
Hurling is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association, and played with sticks called hurleys and a ball called a sliotar. Hurling is the national game of Ireland. The game has prehistoric origins, has been played for at least 3,000 years, and...

 teams in the equivalent tournaments. There are many Gaelic games clubs in and around the city, for example Na Magha CLG
Na Magha CLG
Na Magha CLG, of Derry, Northern Ireland is a Gaelic sports club in the Derry league of the Gaelic Athletic Association. They have both camogie and hurling teams from U8 to senior level. They are the only hurling and camogie teams in Derry city. The club recently opened their new pitch at the...

, Steelstown GAC
Steelstown GAC
Steelstown Brian Óg's GAC is a Gaelic Athletic Association club based in Derry, Northern Ireland. The club is a member of the Derry GAA and currently cater for Gaelic football and Ladies' Gaelic football....

, Doire Colmcille CLG
Doire Colmcille CLG
Doire Colmcille CLG is a Gaelic Athletic Association club based in Derry, Northern Ireland. The club is a member of the Derry GAA and currently cater for Gaelic football and Ladies' Gaelic football....

, Seán Dolans GAC
Seán Dolans GAC
Seán Dolans GAC is a Gaelic Athletic Association club based in Derry, Northern Ireland. The club is a member of the Derry GAA and currently cater for Gaelic football and Ladies' Gaelic football....

, Na Piarsaigh CLG Doire Trasna and Slaughtmanus GAC
Slaughtmanus GAC
St. Mary's GAC Slaughtmanus is a Gaelic Athletic Association club based in Slaughtmanus on the outskirts of Derry, Northern Ireland. The club is a member of the Derry GAA and currently cater for Gaelic football and Camogie....

.

There are many boxing clubs, the most well-known being The Ring Boxing Club, which is associated with Charlie Nash
Charlie Nash
Charlie Nash, born in Derry, Northern Ireland, in 1951, is a retired boxer. As an amateur he held an Irish national title and represented Ireland in the 1972 Olympic Games. As a professional he won the professional British and then European lightweight titles but lost to Jim Watt, when he...

 and John Duddy
John Duddy
John Francis Duddy is a retired middleweight professional boxer, from Derry, Northern Ireland. Duddy fought under the moniker of "Ireland's John Duddy" or "The Derry Destroyer"....

, amongst others.

Rugby Union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 is also quite popular in the city, with the City of Derry Rugby Club situated not far from the city centre. City of Derry won both the Ulster Towns Cup and the Ulster Junior Cup in 2009.
Londonderry YMCA RFC is another rugby club and is based in Drumahoe
Drumahoe
Drumahoe is a village and townland in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It lies to the east of Derry and was once a village, but has been absorbed by the city. It is home to Institute F.C., an Irish Premier League football club. The busy A6 road from Belfast to Derry passes through the...

 which is just outside the city.

The city's only basketball club is North Star Basketball Club
North Star Basketball Club
North Star Basketball Club is a basketball club affiliated to Basketball Ireland and Basketball Northern Ireland. The club is based in the city of Derry in Northern Ireland. North Star was originally established in the 1970s however the club dissolved in 1986. The club was reformed in 2002 and...

 which has teams in the Basketball Northern Ireland
Basketball Northern Ireland
Basketball Northern Ireland is the National Governing Body for Basketball in Northern Ireland. The Association is affiliated to Basketball Ireland has responsibility for the promotion, development and administration of all basketball activities in Northern Ireland...

 senior and junior Leagues.

Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 is also a popular sport in the city, particularly in the Waterside. The city is home to two cricket clubs, Brigade Cricket Club
Brigade Cricket Club
Brigade Cricket Club is a cricket club in Derry, Northern Ireland, playing in North West Senior League 1.Founded in 1909 and originally known as Church Lads' Brigade, the club adopted its current name in 1923...

 and Glendermott Cricket Club
Glendermott Cricket Club
Glendermott Cricket Club is a cricket club in Derry, Northern Ireland, playing in North West Senior League 1....

, both of whom play in the North West Senior League
North West Senior League
The North West Senior League is the provincial cricket league within the North West Cricket Union jurisdiction in Ireland, which covers counties Londonderry, Fermanagh, and part of Tyrone in Northern Ireland and County Donegal in the Republic of Ireland. The league has eighteen members and is...

.

Golf is also a sport which is popular with many in the City. There are two golf clubs situated in the city, City of Derry Golf Club and Foyle International Golf Centre.

Culture



In recent years the city and surrounding countryside have become well known for their artistic legacy, producing Nobel Prize-winning poet Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer. He lives in Dublin. Heaney has received the Nobel Prize in Literature , the Golden Wreath of Poetry , T. S. Eliot Prize and two Whitbread prizes...

, poet Seamus Deane
Seamus Deane
Seamus Deane is an Irish poet, novelist, and critic.Born in Derry, Northern Ireland, Deane was born into a Catholic nationalist family. He attended St. Columb's College in Derry, Queen's University Belfast and Pembroke College, Cambridge University . At St...

, playwright Brian Friel
Brian Friel
Brian Friel is an Irish dramatist, author and director of the Field Day Theatre Company. He is considered to be the greatest living English-language dramatist, hailed by the English-speaking world as an "Irish Chekhov" and "the universally accented voice of Ireland"...

, writer and music critic Nik Cohn
Nik Cohn
Nik Cohn is a British rock journalist, born in London in 1946. He was brought up in Derry, in the North of Ireland, the son of historian Norman Cohn and Russian writer Vera Broido...

, artist Willie Doherty
Willie Doherty
Willie Doherty is an artist, who has mainly worked in photography and video. He has twice been a Turner Prize nominee.-Life and work:...

, socio-political commentator and activist Eamonn McCann
Eamonn McCann
Eamonn McCann is an Irish journalist, author and political activist.-Life:McCann was born and has lived most of his life in Derry. He was educated at St. Columb's College in the city. He is prominently featured in the documentary film The Boys of St...

 and bands such as The Undertones
The Undertones
The Undertones are a punk rock/new wave band formed in Derry, Northern Ireland, in 1975.The original line-up of the Undertones released thirteen singles and four studio albums — The Undertones , Hypnotised , Positive Touch and The Sin of Pride — before disbanding in July 1983.Music guide Allmusic...

. The large political gable-wall murals of Bogside Artists
Bogside Artists
The Bogside Artists are a trio of mural painters from Derry, Northern Ireland, consisting of Tom Kelly, his brother William Kelly, and Kevin Hasson...

, Free Derry Corner
Free Derry Corner
Free Derry Corner is a square in the Bogside neighbourhood of Derry, Northern Ireland, which lies in the intersection of the Lecky Road, Rossville Street and Fahan Street. On the Free Derry Corner is a memorial to the 1981 hunger strikers and several murals...

, the Foyle Film Festival, the Derry Walls, St Eugene's and St Columb's Cathedrals and the annual Halloween street carnival are popular tourist attractions. In 2010, Derry was named the UK's tenth 'most musical' City by PRS for Music.

Media


The local papers the Derry Journal
Derry Journal
The Derry Journal is a newspaper based in Derry, Northern Ireland, serving County Londonderry as well as County Donegal in the Republic of Ireland. It is operated by a Johnston Press holding company entitled Derry Journal Newspapers. The paper is published on Tuesday and Friday and is a sister...

(known as the Londonderry Journal until 1880) and the Londonderry Sentinel
Londonderry Sentinel
The Londonderry Sentinel is a newspaper based in Derry, Northern Ireland. It is published by Johnston Publishing , a holding company of Johnston Press and William Allen is the current editor...

reflect the divided history of the city: the Journal was founded in 1772 and is Ireland's second oldest newspaper; the Sentinel newspaper was formed in 1829 when new owners of the Journal embraced Catholic Emancipation
Catholic Emancipation
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws...

, and the editor left the paper to set up the Sentinel. There are numerous radio stations receivable: the largest stations based in the city are BBC Radio Foyle
BBC Radio Foyle
BBC Radio Foyle is a BBC Northern Ireland local radio station, serving County Londonderry in Northern Ireland. It is named after the River Foyle which flows through the city where the station is based. The station broadcasts from BBC's Northland Road studios on 93.1 FM and 792 MW in Derry, County...

 and the commercial station Q102.9
Q102.9
Q102.9 "Northwest's Best Music" is a radio station based in Derry, County Londonderry. It broadcasts on FM 102.9 to the north west of Northern Ireland, Q102 also broadcasts via DAB throughout Northern Ireland via the Score NI multiplex. It is part of the Q Radio Network, which also owns a number...

. There is a locally based television station, C9TV
C9TV
C9TV is a local television station based in Derry, Northern Ireland. The station's licences were awarded by the ITC in 1996 and allow the station to broadcast to Derry, Limavady, Coleraine and Strabane. The channels signal also spills into County Donegal in the Republic and can be picked up in...

, which is one of only two local or 'restricted' television services in Northern Ireland.

Night-life


The city's night-life is mainly centred on the weekend, with several bars and clubs providing "student nights" during the weekdays. Waterloo Street and the Strand Road are central to the City's nightlife. Waterloo Street is a steep street lined with various pubs, both Irish traditional and modern. Live rock and traditional music can frequently be heard emanating from the pub-doors and windows whilst walking up or down the street at night. The city is renowned for producing talented musicians and many bands perform in venues around the city, for example the Smalltown America
Smalltown America
Smalltown America is a UK-based independent record label formed in 2001. Staff are currently based in London and Derry, and the label has a stated aim of "cultivating a productive staff of music lovers and a self-sustainable business model, through which artists can release the best records they...

 duo, Fighting with Wire
Fighting with Wire
Fighting with Wire are an alternative heavy rock and punk band hailing from Derry, Northern Ireland. They have toured with Biffy Clyro, Million Dead, Reuben, Twin Atlantic, yourcodenameis:milo, Kerbdog, Helmet, You Me At Six, Nomeansno, InMe, Brigade, Against Me! and Seafood...

 and Jetplane Landing
Jetplane Landing
Jetplane Landing is a four piece band from Derry and London . They comprise Andrew Ferris , Jamie Burchell , Cahir O’Doherty and Raife Burchell . Jamie and Raife are brothers...

. Numerous other young local and indeed international bands perform at the Nerve Centre
Nerve Centre
The Nerve Centre is a youth self-help organisation established in 1990 in Derry, Northern Ireland to provide a creative outlet for youth culture and the many young people who feel excluded from the "arts sector"...

.

Events

  • The "Banks of the Foyle Hallowe’en Carnival" (known in Irish
    Irish language
    Irish , also known as Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is now spoken as a first language by a minority of Irish people, as well as being a second language of a larger proportion of...

     as Féile na Samhna) in Derry are a huge tourism boost for the city. The carnival is promoted as being the first and longest running Halloween carnival in the whole of Ireland, It is called the largest street party in Ireland by the Derry Visitor and Convention Bureau with more than 30,000 ghoulish revellers taking to the streets annually.
  • In March, the city hosts the Big Tickle Comedy Festival, which in 2006 featured Dara Ó Briain
    Dara Ó Briain
    Dara Ó Briain is an Irish stand-up comedian and television presenter, noted for hosting topical panel shows such as The Panel and Mock the Week....

     and Colin Murphy
    Colin Murphy (comedian)
    Colin Murphy is an Irish comedian. He was born in Belfast, Northern Ireland but now lives in Downpatrick, Northern Ireland. He is best known for his television work hosting and co-writing The Blizzard of Odd, The Unbelievable Truth, and as resident panelist on The Panel for RTÉ and The Blame Game...

    . In April the city plays host to the City Of Derry Jazz And Big Band Festival
    City of Derry Jazz and Big Band Festival
    The City Of Derry Jazz And Big Band Festival is a jazz festival held annually in Derry, Northern Ireland. It started in 2002 and is funded by Derry City Council, Guinness and the Department for Culture, Arts and Leisure and is supported by BBC Radio Foyle and BBC Radio Ulster...

     and in November the Foyle Film Festival, the biggest film festival in Northern Ireland.
  • Every summer the city hosts Tomo-Dachi
    Tomo-Dachi
    Tomo-Dachi was an anime convention based in Derry, Northern Ireland.Starting in the summer of 2005, Tomo-Dachi was the first anime convention to run in Ireland.The original venue was The Nerve Centre, on Magazine Street in the city centre of Derry...

    , Ireland's largest Anime convention
    Anime convention
    An anime convention is an event or gathering with a primary focus on anime, manga and Japanese culture. Commonly, anime conventions are multi-day events hosted at convention centers, hotels or college campuses. They feature a wide variety of activities and panels...

    , which in July 2006 was held at Magee College
    Magee College
    Magee College is a campus of the University of Ulster located in Derry, Northern Ireland. It opened in 1865 as a Presbyterian Christian arts and theological college...

    , University of Ulster
    University of Ulster
    The University of Ulster is a multi-campus, co-educational university located in Northern Ireland. It is the largest single university in Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland...

    .
  • The Siege of Derry
    Siege of Derry
    The Siege of Derry took place in Ireland from 18 April to 28 July 1689, during the Williamite War in Ireland. The city, a Williamite stronghold, was besieged by a Jacobite army until it was relieved by Royal Navy ships...

     is commemorated annually by the fraternal organisation the Apprentice Boys of Derry
    Apprentice Boys of Derry
    The Apprentice Boys of Derry is a Protestant fraternal society with a worldwide membership of over 80,000, founded in 1814. They are based in the city of Derry, Northern Ireland. However, there are Clubs and branches across Ireland, Great Britain and further afield...

     in the week long Maiden City Festival
    Maiden City Festival
    The Maiden City Festival takes place in Derry, Northern Ireland in the second week in August each year. In 2008 the Festival was described as a "diverse, varied programme of events that underscores the organisers' desire to provide something for everyone", as well as a "showcase for Protestant...

    .
  • The Instinct Festival is an annual youth festival celebrating the Arts. It is held around Easter and has proven a success in recent years.
  • Celtronic is a major annual electronic dance festival held at venues all around the city. The 2007 Festival featured the DJ, Erol Alkan
    Erol Alkan
    Erol Alkan is a London-based electro DJ of Turkish Cypriot descent.-DJ and club promoter:In 1993, Erol Alkan started DJing in various Indie nightclubs in London....

    .
  • The Millennium Forum
    Millennium Forum
    The Millennium Forum is a theatre and conference centre in Newmarket Street, Derry, Northern Ireland.It was the first purpose built theatre in Derry and opened in 2001. It has a seating capacity of 1000 and the largest theatre stage in Ireland. It hosts entertainment of all kinds and can also be...

     is the main theatre in the city, it holds numerous shows weekly.
  • On 9 December 2007 Derry entered the Guinness Book of Records when 13000 Santas gathered to break the world record beating previous records held by Liverpool and Las Vegas.
  • Winner of the 2005 Britain in Bloom
    Britain in Bloom
    RHS Britain in Bloom, supported by Anglian Home Improvements, is the largest horticultural campaign in the United Kingdom. It was first held in 1963, initiated by the British Tourist Board based on the example set by Fleurissement de France. It has been organised by the Royal Horticultural Society ...

    competition (City category). Runner-up 2009.

Notable people


Notable people who were born or have lived in Derry include:

External links