Daozang

Daozang

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Encyclopedia
Daozang meaning "Treasury of Dao
DAO
DAO may refer to:* D-amino acid oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme.* Data access object, a design pattern used in object-oriented software engineering* De-asphalted oil, a crude oil refinery process stream...

" or "Daoist Canon", consists of around 1400 texts that were collected circa C.E. 400 (after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Daoist texts). They were collected by Daoist monks of the period in an attempt to bring together all of the teachings of Daoism, including all the commentaries and expositions of the various masters from the original teachings found in the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi. It was split into Three Grottoes, which mirrors the Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 Tripitaka
Tripiṭaka
' is a traditional term used by various Buddhist sects to describe their various canons of scriptures. As the name suggests, a traditionally contains three "baskets" of teachings: a , a and an .-The three categories:Tripitaka is the three main categories of texts that make up the...

 (three baskets) division. These three divisions were based on the main focus of Daoism in Southern China during the time it was made, namely; meditation
Meditation
Meditation is any form of a family of practices in which practitioners train their minds or self-induce a mode of consciousness to realize some benefit....

, ritual
Ritual
A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value. It may be prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. The term usually excludes actions which are arbitrarily chosen by the performers....

, and exorcism
Exorcism
Exorcism is the religious practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed...

.

These Three Grottoes were used as levels for the initiation of Daoist masters, from lowest (exorcism) to highest (meditation).

As well as the Three Grottoes there were Four Supplements that were added to the Canon circa C.E. 500. These were mainly taken from older core Daoist texts (e.g. [Dao De Jing]) apart from one which was taken from an already established and separate philosophy known as Tianshi Dao (Way of the Heavenly Masters).

Although the above can give the appearance that the Canon is highly organized, this is far from the truth. Although the present-day Canon does preserve the core divisions, there are substantial forks in the arrangement due to the later addition of commentaries, revelations and texts elaborating upon the core divisions.

Timeline

  1. The First Daozang
    • This was the first time an attempt was made to bring together all the teachings and texts from across China and occurred circa C.E. 400 and consisted of roughly 1,200 scrolls
  2. The Second Daozang
    • In C.E. 748 the Tang emperor Tang Xuan-Zong (claimed to be a descendant of Laozi
      Laozi
      Laozi was a mystic philosopher of ancient China, best known as the author of the Tao Te Ching . His association with the Tao Te Ching has led him to be traditionally considered the founder of Taoism...

      ), sent monks to collect further teachings to add to the Canon.
  3. The Third Daozang
    • Around C.E. 1016 of the Song dynasty, the Daozang was revised and many texts collected during the Tang dynasty were removed. This third Daozang consisted of approximately 4500 scrolls.
  4. The Fourth Daozang
    • In C.E. 1444 of the Ming dynasty, a final version was produced consisting of approximately 5300 scrolls.

Many new Daozang were published.

Three Grottoes (sandong) 三洞 C.E. 400

  1. Authenticity Grotto (Dongzhen) 洞真部: Texts of Supreme Purity (Shangqing) tradition
    • This grotto is concerned mainly with meditation and is the highest phase of initiation for a Daoist master.
  2. Mystery Grotto (Dongxuan) 洞玄部: Texts of Sacred Treasure (Lingbao) tradition
    • This grotto is concerned mainly with rituals and is the middle phase of initiation for a Daoist master.
  3. Spirit Grotto (Dongshen) 洞神部: Texts of Three Sovereigns (Sanhuang) tradition
    • This grotto is concerned mainly with exorcisms and is the lowest phase of initiation for a Daoist master.

Each of the above Three Grottoes then has the following 12 chapters

  1. Main texts (Benwen) 本文類
  2. Talisman
    Amulet
    An amulet, similar to a talisman , is any object intended to bring good luck or protection to its owner.Potential amulets include gems, especially engraved gems, statues, coins, drawings, pendants, rings, plants and animals; even words said in certain occasions—for example: vade retro satana—, to...

    s (Shenfu) 神符類
  3. Commentaries (Yujue) 玉訣類
  4. Diagrams and illustrations (Lingtu) 靈圖類
  5. Histories and genealogies (Pulu) 譜錄類
  6. Precepts (Jielu) 戒律類
  7. Ceremonies (Weiyi) 威儀類
  8. Ritual
    Ritual
    A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value. It may be prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. The term usually excludes actions which are arbitrarily chosen by the performers....

    s (Fangfa) 方法類
  9. Practices (Zhongshu) 像術(衆術)類
  10. Biographies (Jizhuan) 記傳類
  11. Hymn
    Hymn
    A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification...

    s (Zansong) 讚頌類
  12. Memorials (Biaozou) 表奏類

Four Supplements C.E. 500

  1. Great Mystery (Taixuan) 太玄部: Based on the Dao De Jing
  2. Great Peace (Taiping) 太平部: Based on the Taiping Jing
  3. Great Purity (Taiqing) 太清部: Based on the Taiqing Jing and other alchemical
    Alchemy
    Alchemy is an influential philosophical tradition whose early practitioners’ claims to profound powers were known from antiquity. The defining objectives of alchemy are varied; these include the creation of the fabled philosopher's stone possessing powers including the capability of turning base...

     texts
  4. Orthodox One (Zhengyi) 正一(正乙)部: Based on the Way of the Celestial Masters (Tianshi Dao) tradition.

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