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Clarke County, Georgia

Clarke County, Georgia

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Encyclopedia
Clarke County is a county in the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

. As of the 2000 census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

, the population
Population
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define a sexual population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals...

 was 101,489. The 2007 Census Estimate shows a population of 114,063. Its county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 is Athens
Athens, Georgia
Athens-Clarke County is a consolidated city–county in U.S. state of Georgia, in the northeastern part of the state, comprising the former City of Athens proper and Clarke County. The University of Georgia is located in this college town and is responsible for the initial growth of the city...

, with which it is a consolidated city-county
Consolidated city-county
In United States local government, a consolidated city–county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. As such it is simultaneously a city, which is a municipal corporation, and a county, which is an administrative division of a state...

.

The Athens-Clarke County (balance) is the principal city of and is included in the Athens-Clarke County, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History


Clarke County was created in 1801 by an act of the Georgia General Assembly
Georgia General Assembly
The Georgia General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Georgia. It is bicameral, being composed of the Georgia House of Representatives and the Georgia Senate....

 on December 5. The county was named after Revolutionary War hero Elijah Clarke
Elijah Clarke
Elijah Clarke , born in Anson County, North Carolina, was a soldier and officer with the Continentals and considered a hero of the American Revolutionary War. Afterward he was elected to the Georgia legislature. In 1794 he organized the Trans-Oconee Republic, several settlements in counties of...

 and included 250 square miles (647.5 km²) of land that was originally part of Jackson County. Clarke was most recognized for being credited with the 1779 victory at the Battle of Kettle Creek
Battle of Kettle Creek
The Battle of Kettle Creek was one of the most important battles of the American Revolutionary War to be fought in Georgia. The battle was fought on February 14, 1779, in Wilkes County about eight miles from present-day Washington, Georgia...

 in Wilkes County
Wilkes County, Georgia
Wilkes County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of 2000, the population was 10,687. The 2007 Census estimate shows a population of 10,262. The county seat is the city of Washington. Referred to as "Washington-Wilkes", the county seat and county are commonly treated as a...

. The Elijah Clarke Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution
Daughters of the American Revolution
The Daughters of the American Revolution is a lineage-based membership organization for women who are descended from a person involved in United States' independence....

 erected a monument
Monument
A monument is a type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or simply as an example of historic architecture...

 in his name in the middle of Broad Street in Athens that still stands today.

As the population of the county grew alongside the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia is a public research university located in Athens, Georgia, United States. Founded in 1785, it is the oldest and largest of the state's institutions of higher learning and is one of multiple schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States...

 in the early 19th century, its agricultural and cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

 industries prospered. The adjacent plantation
Plantation
A plantation is a long artificially established forest, farm or estate, where crops are grown for sale, often in distant markets rather than for local on-site consumption...

 harvest
Harvest
Harvest is the process of gathering mature crops from the fields. Reaping is the cutting of grain or pulse for harvest, typically using a scythe, sickle, or reaper...

s flowed through city mills and were bolstered by the natural resources of the Oconee River
Oconee River
The Oconee River is a river which has its origin in Hall County, Georgia, and terminates where it joins the Ocmulgee River to form the Altamaha River near Lumber City at the borders of Montgomery County, Wheeler County, and Jeff Davis County. South of Athens, two forks, known as the North Oconee...

. These early manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

 and textile
Textile
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands...

 production operations were big industries in Clarke County and in Athens, particularly so once the railroad came to the area beginning in 1841. Athens and Clarke County were second only to Savannah
Savannah, Georgia
Savannah is the largest city and the county seat of Chatham County, in the U.S. state of Georgia. Established in 1733, the city of Savannah was the colonial capital of the Province of Georgia and later the first state capital of Georgia. Today Savannah is an industrial center and an important...

 and Chatham County
Chatham County, Georgia
Chatham County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. The county seat and largest city is Savannah. In the official US Census of 2010, Chatham County had a total population of 265,128 . Chatham is the most populous Georgia county outside the Atlanta metropolitan area...

 in capital
Financial capital
Financial capital can refer to money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or provide their services or to that sector of the economy based on its operation, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc....

 invested in manufacturing during the 1840s.

Two skirmishes took place in Clarke County during the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 in 1864, one near Barber's Creek and the other off of Mitchell's Road. An occupation garrison arrived in Athens on May 29 and a provost-marshal government was set up temporarily. Formal military occupation
Military occupation
Military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory passes to a hostile army. The territory then becomes occupied territory.-Military occupation and the laws of war:...

 of the area ended before the end of 1864, although federal occupation continued until early 1866.

The original Clarke County Commission had selected Watkinsville
Watkinsville, Georgia
Watkinsville is a town in Oconee County, Georgia, United States. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 2,097. The city is the county seat of Oconee County...

, now in Oconee County
Oconee County, Georgia
Oconee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. It was created on February 25, 1875. As of the 2000 census, the population was 26,225. Census estimates for 2007 show a population of 31,367...

, as the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

. All county offices and county business, including the courts and jail, later moved north to Athens when the seat was moved on November 24 of 1871. For four years, county meetings were held in the old town hall in Athens until 1876 when a new courthouse
Courthouse
A courthouse is a building that is home to a local court of law and often the regional county government as well, although this is not the case in some larger cities. The term is common in North America. In most other English speaking countries, buildings which house courts of law are simply...

 was constructed in the area bounded by Prince Avenue, Hill Street and Pope Street. The current courthouse in use today was later erected on the corner of Washington and Jackson Streets downtown in 1914.

On February 12, 1875, to placate county residents still angry over the relocation of the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 to Athens
Athens, Georgia
Athens-Clarke County is a consolidated city–county in U.S. state of Georgia, in the northeastern part of the state, comprising the former City of Athens proper and Clarke County. The University of Georgia is located in this college town and is responsible for the initial growth of the city...

 three years earlier, the state legislature created Oconee County
Oconee County, Georgia
Oconee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. It was created on February 25, 1875. As of the 2000 census, the population was 26,225. Census estimates for 2007 show a population of 31,367...

 from the southwest section of Clarke County and named Watkinsville
Watkinsville, Georgia
Watkinsville is a town in Oconee County, Georgia, United States. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 2,097. The city is the county seat of Oconee County...

 as its seat. Oconee
Oconee County, Georgia
Oconee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. It was created on February 25, 1875. As of the 2000 census, the population was 26,225. Census estimates for 2007 show a population of 31,367...

 gained one-third of Clarke's population and three-fifths of its land.

During this time, the title of "commissioner of roads and revenue" was proscribed by the legislature to what would be known as county commissioners. The county, as an extension of the state, would operate welfare and health programs, build and maintain roads and conduct courts of law that were part of the state justice system.

In 1973, the Georgia legislature passed legislation
Legislation
Legislation is law which has been promulgated by a legislature or other governing body, or the process of making it...

 on March 29 increasing the number of county commissioners from three to five and allocating a position for a county administrator.

In 1990, the citizens of Athens and Clarke County voted to unify the two governments creating Athens-Clarke County, becoming only the second unified city-county government in the state of Georgia after Columbus
Columbus, Georgia
Columbus is a city in and the county seat of Muscogee County, Georgia, United States, with which it is consolidated. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 189,885. It is the principal city of the Columbus, Georgia metropolitan area, which, in 2009, had an estimated population of 292,795...

-Muscogee County
Muscogee County, Georgia
Muscogee County is a county located on the central western border of the U.S. state of Georgia. It is part of the Columbus, Georgia-Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2000 census, the population was 186,291. The 2009 Census Estimate shows a population of 190,414...

. The citizens of Augusta and Richmond County voted likewise to join their governments in 1996, creating the Augusta-Richmond County unified government.

Geography


Clarke County is located at 33°57′19"N 83°22′59"W (33.955464, -83.383245).

According to the 2000 census, the county has a total area of 121.28 square miles (314.1 km²), the smallest county in Georgia, of which 120.79 square miles (312.8 km²) (or 99.60%) is land and 0.49 square miles (1.3 km²) (or 0.40%) is water.

Major highways

  • U.S. Route 29
    U.S. Route 29
    U.S. Route 29 is a north–south United States highway that runs for from the western suburbs of Baltimore, Maryland, to Pensacola, Florida. This highway's northern terminus is at Maryland Route 99 in Ellicott City, Maryland...

  • U.S. Route 78
    U.S. Route 78
    U.S. Highway 78 is an east–west United States highway that runs for 715 miles from Memphis, Tennessee, to Charleston, South Carolina. Between Memphis and Birmingham, Alabama, it is being upgraded to become Interstate 22....


  • U.S. Route 78 Business
  • U.S. Route 129
    U.S. Route 129
    U.S. Route 129 is an offshoot route of U.S. Route 29, which it intersects near Athens, Georgia. US 129 currently runs for 582 miles from Knoxville, Tennessee, to Chiefland, Florida, at U.S. Route 19 and U.S. Route 98. It passes through the states of Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia and Florida...

  • U.S. Route 441
    U.S. Route 441
    U.S. Route 441 is a spur route of U.S. Route 41. It currently runs for 939 miles from U.S. Route 41 in Miami, Florida to U.S. Route 25W in Lake City, Tennessee. Between its termini, US 441 passes through the states of Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee...

  • State Route 8
  • State Route 10
  • State Route 10 Loop/State Route 422
  • State Route 15
  • State Route 15 Alternate
  • State Route 72


The following highways direct traffic toward Clarke County but end shortly before reaching the county line:
  • State Route 24
    State Route 24 (Georgia)
    State Route 24 is a state highway in the U.S. state of Georgia. It runs from State Route 15 north of Watkinsville south to Milledgeville along U.S. Highway 441, east to Waynesboro, and southeast and southwest to end at State Route 26/U.S. Highway 80 in Statesboro.Initially SR 24 ran from...

  • State Route 106
  • State Route 316
  • State Route 330
    State Route 330 (Georgia)
    State Route 330 is a short west–east state route than runs from S.R. 82 north of Statham in Barrow County east to U.S. 129/S.R. 15 ALT northwest of Athens in Jackson County....


Adjacent counties

  • Madison County, Georgia
    Madison County, Georgia
    Madison County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. It was created on December 5, 1811. As of 2000, the population was 25,730. The 2007 Census Estimate shows a population of 28,012. The county seat is Danielsville....

     - northeast
  • Oglethorpe County, Georgia
    Oglethorpe County, Georgia
    Oglethorpe County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. It is the largest county in Northeast Georgia. As of 2000, the population was 12,635. The 2007 Census Estimate showed a population of 13,963...

     - east/southeast
  • Oconee County, Georgia
    Oconee County, Georgia
    Oconee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. It was created on February 25, 1875. As of the 2000 census, the population was 26,225. Census estimates for 2007 show a population of 31,367...

     - south/southwest
  • Barrow County, Georgia
    Barrow County, Georgia
    Barrow County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of 2000, the population was 46,144. The 2007 Census Estimate placed the population at 67,139...

     - west
  • Jackson County, Georgia
    Jackson County, Georgia
    Jackson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. The population in 2000 was 41,589. Explosive growth is evident with a population of 63,544 in the 2009 Census estimates. The county seat is Jefferson.-History:...

     - northwest

Demographics


As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 101,489 people, 39,706 households, and 19,694 families residing in the county. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 840 people per square mile (324/km²). There were 42,126 housing units at an average density of 349 per square mile (135/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 64.89% White
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 27.25% Black
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

 or African American
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 0.21% Native American
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 3.13% Asian
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 0.04% Pacific Islander
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 3.08% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 1.41% from two or more races. 6.34% of the population were Hispanic
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

 or Latino
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

 of any race.

There were 39,706 households out of which 22.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.60% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 13.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.40% were non-families. 29.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the county the population was spread out with 17.80% under the age of 18, 31.30% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 15.40% from 45 to 64, and 8.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.20 males.

The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 in the county was $20,948 in 2008, and the median income for a family was $36,039. Males had a median income of $30,482 versus $23,069 for females. In 2008, 32.2% of the county's population were living below the poverty line. As a result, Clarke ranked #4 on City Data's list of "Top 101 cities with the highest percentage of residents living in poverty in 2007"

Cities and towns

  • Athens
    Athens, Georgia
    Athens-Clarke County is a consolidated city–county in U.S. state of Georgia, in the northeastern part of the state, comprising the former City of Athens proper and Clarke County. The University of Georgia is located in this college town and is responsible for the initial growth of the city...

  • Winterville
    Winterville, Georgia
    Winterville is a city in Clarke County, Georgia, United States. Since 1991, when the city of Athens abandoned its city charter to form the unified government of Athens-Clarke County, Winterville has been the only municipality located wholly within Athens-Clarke County...

  • Bogart
    Bogart, Georgia
    Pink ponies live in this town and then good vj is b=Bogart is a town in Clarke and Oconee counties in the U.S. state of Georgia. The town is mostly in Oconee County, with a portion extending into Clarke County. The population was 1,049 at the 2000 census — 931 of the town's 1,049 residents lived...


See also




External links