Charles University in Prague

Charles University in Prague

Overview
Charles University in Prague (also simply Charles University; ; ; ) is the oldest and largest university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

 and is also considered the earliest German university. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation.

Its seal shows its protector
Protector (title)
Protector, sometimes spelled protecter, is used as a title or part of various historical titles of heads of state and others in authority...

, Emperor Charles IV
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV , born Wenceslaus , was the second king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first king of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor....

, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire following his election to the office by the princes of the Kingdom of Germany...

 and King of Bohemia kneeling in front of St.
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Encyclopedia
Charles University in Prague (also simply Charles University; ; ; ) is the oldest and largest university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

 and is also considered the earliest German university. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation.

Its seal shows its protector
Protector (title)
Protector, sometimes spelled protecter, is used as a title or part of various historical titles of heads of state and others in authority...

, Emperor Charles IV
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV , born Wenceslaus , was the second king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first king of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor....

, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire following his election to the office by the princes of the Kingdom of Germany...

 and King of Bohemia kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint
Patron saint
A patron saint is a saint who is regarded as the intercessor and advocate in heaven of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person...

 of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).

Medieval university (1349–1419)



The establishment of a medieval university
Medieval university
Medieval university is an institution of higher learning which was established during High Middle Ages period and is a corporation.The first institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of...

 in Prague
Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

 was inspired by Roman-German Emperor Charles of Luxembourg
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV , born Wenceslaus , was the second king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and the first king of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor....

. He asked his friend and ally, Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI , bornPierre Roger, the fourth of the Avignon Popes, was pope from May 1342 until his death in December of 1352...

, to do so. On 26 January 1347 the pope issued the bull establishing a university in Prague, modeled on the University of Paris
University of Paris
The University of Paris was a university located in Paris, France and one of the earliest to be established in Europe. It was founded in the mid 12th century, and officially recognized as a university probably between 1160 and 1250...

, with the full (4) number of faculties, that is including theological. On 7 April 1348 Charles, the king of Bohemia, gave to the established university privileges and immunities from the secular power in a Golden Bull
Golden Bull
A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal , attached to a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The term was originally coined for the golden seal itself but came to be applied to the entire decree...

 and on 14 January 1349 he repeated that as the King of the Romans
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire following his election to the office by the princes of the Kingdom of Germany...

. Most Czech sources since the 19th century—encyclopedias, general histories, materials of the University itself—prefer to give 1348 as the year of the founding of the university, rather than 1347 or 1349. This was caused by an anticlerical shift in the 19th century, shared by both Czechs and Germans
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

.

The university was actually opened in 1349. The university was sectioned into parts called nations
Nation (university)
Student nations or simply nations are regional corporations of students at a university. Once widespread across Europe in medieval times, they are now largely restricted to the ancient universities of Sweden and Finland...

: the Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

n, Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

n, Polish and Saxon
Saxony
The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

. The Bohemian natio included Bohemians, Moravians, southern Slavs, and Hungarians; the Bavarian included Austrians, Swabia
Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

ns, natives of Franconia
Franconia
Franconia is a region of Germany comprising the northern parts of the modern state of Bavaria, a small part of southern Thuringia, and a region in northeastern Baden-Württemberg called Tauberfranken...

 and of the Rhine provinces; the Polish included Silesia
Silesia
Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts also in the Czech Republic, and Germany.Silesia is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław...

ns, Poles, Russians; the Saxon included inhabitants of the Margravate of Meissen, Thuringia
Thuringia
The Free State of Thuringia is a state of Germany, located in the central part of the country.It has an area of and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states....

, Upper and Lower Saxony, Denmark, and Sweden. Ethnically Czech students made 16 – 20 % of all students. Archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice
Arnošt of Pardubice
Arnošt z Pardubic was the first Archbishop of Prague. He was also an advisor and diplomat to Emperor Charles IV....

 took an active part in the foundation by obliging the clergy to contribute and became a chancellor
Chancellor
Chancellor is the title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the Cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the...

 of the university (i.e., director or manager).

The first graduate was promoted in 1359. The lectures were held in the colleges, of which the oldest was named for the king the Carolinum, established in 1366. In 1372 the Faculty of Law became an independent university.

In 1402 Jerome of Prague
Jerome of Prague
Jerome of Prague was one of the chief followers and most devoted friends of John Hus.-Biography:...

 in Oxford
Oxford
The city of Oxford is the county town of Oxfordshire, England. The city, made prominent by its medieval university, has a population of just under 165,000, with 153,900 living within the district boundary. It lies about 50 miles north-west of London. The rivers Cherwell and Thames run through...

 copied out the Dialogus and Trialogus of John Wycliffe
John Wycliffe
John Wycliffe was an English Scholastic philosopher, theologian, lay preacher, translator, reformer and university teacher who was known as an early dissident in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century. His followers were known as Lollards, a somewhat rebellious movement, which preached...

. The dean of the philosophical faculty, Jan Hus
Jan Hus
Jan Hus , often referred to in English as John Hus or John Huss, was a Czech priest, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague...

, translated Trialogus into the Czech language
Czech language
Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers; it is the majority language in the Czech Republic and spoken by Czechs worldwide. The language was known as Bohemian in English until the late 19th century...

. In 1403 the university forbade its members to follow the teachings of Wycliffe, but his doctrine continued to gain in popularity.

In Western Schism
Western Schism
The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. Two men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope. Driven by politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance . The simultaneous claims to the papal chair...

, the Bohemian natio took the side of king Wenceslaus and supported the Council of Pisa
Council of Pisa
The Council of Pisa was an unrecognized ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409 that attempted to end the Western Schism by deposing Benedict XIII and Gregory XII...

 (1409). The other nationes of the university declared their support for the side of Pope Gregory XII
Pope Gregory XII
Pope Gregory XII , born Angelo Correr or Corraro, Pope from 1406 to 1415, succeeded Pope Innocent VII on 30 November 1406....

, thus the vote was 1:3 against the Bohemians. Hus and other Bohemians, though, took advantage of Wenceslaus' opposition to Gregory. By the Decree of Kutná Hora
Decree of Kutná Hora
The Decree of Kutná Hora or Decree of Kuttenberg was issued in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, by King Wenceslas IV to give members of the Bohemian university nation a decisive voice in the affairs of the Charles University in Prague....

  on 18 January 1409, the king subverted the university constitution by granting the Bohemian masters three votes. Only a single vote was left for all other three nationes combined, compared to one vote per each natio before. The result of this coup was the emigration of foreign (mostly German) professors and students, founding the University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
The University of Leipzig , located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the oldest universities in the world and the second-oldest university in Germany...

 in May 1409. Before that, in 1408, the university had about 200 doctors and magisters, 500 bachelors, and 30,000 students; it now lost a large part of this number, accounts of the loss varying from 5000 to 20,000 including 46 professors. In the autumn of 1409, Hus was elected rector of the now Czech-dominated rump university.

Thus, the Prague university lost the largest part of its students and faculty. From then on the university declined to a merely regional institution with a very low status. Soon, in 1419, the faculties of theology and law disappeared, and only the faculty of arts remained in existence.

Protestant academy (1419–1622)


The faculty of arts became a centre of the Hussite
Hussite
The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus , who became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation...

 movement, and the chief doctrinal authority of the Utraquists. No degrees were given in the years 1417–30; at times there were only eight or nine professors. Emperor Sigismund
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund of Luxemburg KG was King of Hungary, of Croatia from 1387 to 1437, of Bohemia from 1419, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last Emperor of the House of Luxemburg. He was also King of Italy from 1431, and of Germany from 1411...

, son of Charles IV, took what was left into his personal property and some progress was made. The emperor Ferdinand I called the Jesuits to Prague and in 1562 they opened an academy—the Clementinum
Clementinum
The Clementinum is a historic complex of buildings in Prague. Until recently the complex hosted the National, University and Technical libraries, the City Library also being located nearby on Mariánské Náměstí. The Technical library and the Municipal library have moved to the Prague National...

. From 1541 till 1558 the Czech humanist Mattheus Collinus (1516–1566) was a professor of Greek language. Some progress was made again when the emperor Rudolph II
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Rudolf II was Holy Roman Emperor , King of Hungary and Croatia , King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria...

 took up residence in Prague. In 1609 the obligatory celibacy of the professors was abolished. In 1616 the Jesuit Academy became a university. (It could award academic degrees.)

Jesuits were expelled 1618–1621 during the early stages of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

, which was started in Prague by anti-Catholic and anti-Imperial Bohemians. By 1622 the Jesuits had a predominant influence over the emperor. An Imperial decree of 19 September 1622 gave the Jesuits supreme control over the entire school system of Bohemia, Moravia
Moravia
Moravia is a historical region in Central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, and one of the former Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Silesia. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region...

 and Silesia
Silesia
Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts also in the Czech Republic, and Germany.Silesia is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław...

. The last four professors at the Carolinum resigned and all of the Carolinum and nine colleges went to the Jesuits. The right of handing out degrees, of holding chancellorships and of appointing the secular professors was also granted to the Jesuits.

Charles-Ferdinand University (1622–1882)



Cardinal Ernst Adalbert von Harrach
Ernst Adalbert von Harrach
thumb|200px|right|Count Ernst Adalbert von Harrach upon his appointment as [[Archbishop of Prague]].Count Ernst Adalbert von Harrach was an Austrian Catholic Cardinal who was appointed Archbishop of Prague and Prince-Bishop of Trento...

 actively opposed union of the university with another institution and the withdrawal of the archiepiscopal right to the chancellorship and prevented the drawing up of the Golden Bull for the confirmation of the grant to Jesuits. Cardinal Ernst funded the Collegium Adalbertinum and in 1638 emperor Ferdinand III
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand III was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.-Life:...

 limited the teaching monopoly enjoyed by the Jesuits. He took from them the rights, properties and archives of the Carolinum making the university once more independent under an imperial protector. During the last years of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

 the Charles Bridge
Charles Bridge
The Charles Bridge is a famous historic bridge that crosses the Vltava river in Prague, Czech Republic. Its construction started in 1357 under the auspices of King Charles IV, and finished in the beginning of the 15th century...

 in Prague was courageously defended by students of the Carolinum and Clementinum
Clementinum
The Clementinum is a historic complex of buildings in Prague. Until recently the complex hosted the National, University and Technical libraries, the City Library also being located nearby on Mariánské Náměstí. The Technical library and the Municipal library have moved to the Prague National...

. Since 1650 those who received any degrees took an oath to maintain the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
The Immaculate Conception of Mary is a dogma of the Roman Catholic Church, according to which the Virgin Mary was conceived without any stain of original sin. It is one of the four dogmata in Roman Catholic Mariology...

 of the Blessed Virgin
, renewed annually.

On 23 February 1654 emperor Ferdinand III
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand III was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.-Life:...

 merged Carolinum and Clementinum and created a single university with four faculties—Charles-Ferdinand University. Carolinum had at that time only the faculty of arts, as the only faculty surviving the period of the Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars involved the military actions against and amongst the followers of Jan Hus in Bohemia in the period 1419 to circa 1434. The Hussite Wars were notable for the extensive use of early hand-held gunpowder weapons such as hand cannons...

. Starting from this time the university designated itself Charles-Ferdinand University (Universitas Carolo Ferdinandea). The dilapidated Carolinum was rebuilt in 1718 at the expense of the state.

The rebuilding and the bureaucratic reforms of universities in the Habsburg monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

 in 1752 and 1754 deprived the university of many of its former privileges. In 1757 a Dominican and an Augustinian were appointed to give theological instruction. However, there was a gradual introduction of enlightened reforms, and this process culminated at the end of the century when even non-Catholics were granted the right to study. On 29 July 1784 German replaced Latin as the language of instruction. For the first time Protestants were allowed, and soon after Jews. The university acknowledged the need of a Czech language and literature chair. Emperor Leopold II
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II , born Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard, was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa...

 established it by a courtly decree on 28 October 1791. On 15 May 1792 Franz Martin Pelzel (1734–1801) was named the professor of the chair. He started his lectures on 13 March 1793.

In the revolution of 1848, German and Czech students fought for the addition of the Czech language at the Charles-Ferdinand University as a language of lectures. Due to the demographic changes of the 19th century, Prague ceased to have a German-language majority around 1860. By 1863, 22 lecture courses were held in Czech, the remainder (out of 187) in German. In 1864, Germans suggested the creation of a separate Czech university. Czech professors rejected this because they did not wish to lose the continuity of university traditions.

Split into Czech and German universities


The Czechs were not satisfied with bilingual status and proposed restitution of nationes, but on ethnic principle: German and Czech. Germans vetoed it and proposed a split of the University. After long negotiations the Carolo-Ferdinandea was divided into a German Charles-Ferdinand University and a Czech Charles-Ferdinand University when the Viennese parliament adopted the act and the emperor sanctioned it on 28 February 1882. Each section was entirely independent of the other and enjoyed the same status. The two universities shared medical and scientific institutes, the old insignia, aula, library, and botanical garden, but common facilities were administrated by the German University. The first rector of the Czech University became Václav Vladivoj Tomek.

In 1890 Royal and Imperial Czech Charles Ferdinand University had 112 teachers and 2,191 students and the Royal and Imperial German Charles Ferdinand University had 146 teachers and 1,483 students. Both universities had three faculties and the Theological Faculty remained the common until 1891 when it was divided as well. In the winter semester of 1909-10 the German Charles-Ferdinand University (Karl-Ferdinands Universität) had 1778 students; these were divided into: 58 theological students, for both the secular priesthood and religious orders; 755 law students; 376 medical; 589 philosophical. Among the students were about 80 women. The professors were divided as follows: theology, 7 regular professors, 1 assistant professor, 1 docent; law, 12 regular professors, 2 assistant professors, 4 docents; medicine, 15 regular professors, 19 assistant, 30 docents; philosophy, 30 regular professors, 8 assistant, 19 docents, 7 lecturers. The Czech Charles-Ferdinand University (Universita Karlo-Ferdinandova) in the winter semester of 1909-10 included 4319 students; of these 131 were theological students belonging both to the secular and regular clergy; 1962 law students; 687 medical; 1539 philosophical; 256 students were women. The professors were divided as follows: theological faculty, 8 regular professors, 2 docents; law, 12 regular, 7 assistant professors, 12 docents; medicine, 16 regular professors, 22 assistant, 24 docents; philosophy, 29 regular, 16 assistant, 35 docents, 11 lecturers.

The highpoint of the German University was the era preceding the First World War, when it was home to world-renowned scientists such as physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach
Ernst Mach
Ernst Mach was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves...

, Moritz Winternitz, Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

. In addition, the German-language students included prominent individuals such as future writers Max Brod
Max Brod
Max Brod was a German-speaking Czech Jewish, later Israeli, author, composer, and journalist. Although he was a prolific writer in his own right, he is most famous as the friend and biographer of Franz Kafka...

, Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka was a culturally influential German-language author of short stories and novels. Contemporary critics and academics, including Vladimir Nabokov, regard Kafka as one of the best writers of the 20th century...

, and Johannes Urzidil
Johannes Urzidil
Johannes Urzidil was a Czech-German writer, poet, historian, and journalist. Born in Prague, he died in Rome....

.

Even before the Austro-Hungarian Empire was abolished in late 1918, to be succeeded by Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

, Czech politicians demanded that the insignia of 1348 were exclusively to be kept by the Czech university. The Act No. 197/1919 Sb. z. a n. established the Protestant theological faculty, but not as a part of the Charles University which is since 10 May 1990 Charles University faculty. In 1920 the so-called Lex Mareš (No. 135/1920 Sb. z. a n.) was issued, named for its initiator professor of physiology František Mareš
František Mareš
František Mareš was a Czechoslovak professor of physiology and philosophy, and nationalist politician. He was rector of the Charles University in 1920-21, and member of the National Democrats.-Life:...

, determining that the Czech university was to be the successor to the original university. Dropping the Habsburg name Ferdinand, it designated itself Charles University, while the German university was not named.

In 1921 the Germans considered moving their university to Liberec
Liberec
Liberec is a city in the Czech Republic. Located on the Lusatian Neisse and surrounded by the Jizera Mountains and Ještěd-Kozákov Ridge, it is the fifth-largest city in the Czech Republic....

  in northern Bohemia. In 1930, about 42,000 inhabitants of Prague spoke German as their native language, while millions lived in northern Bohemia near the border to Germany.
In October 1932, after Naegle's death, the Czechs started again a controversy over the insignia. Ethnic tensions intensified, although some professors of the German University were members of the Czechoslovak government. Any agreement to use the insignia for both the universities was rejected. On 21 November 1934, the German University had to hand over the insigniae to the Czechs. The German University senate sent a delegation to Minister of Education Krčmář to protest the writ. At noon on 24 November 1934 several thousand students of the Czech University protested before the German university building. The Czech rector Karel Domin
Karel Domin
Karel Domin was a Czech botanist and politician.After gymnasium school studies in Příbram, he studied botany at the Charles University in Prague, and graduated in 1906. In 1916 he was named as professor of botany. Domin specialised in phytogeography, geobotany and plant taxonomy...

 gave a speech to urge the crowd to attack, while the outnumbered German students tried to resist. Under the threat of violence, on 25 November 1934 rector Otto Grosser (1873–1951) handed over the insigniae. These troubles of 1934 harmed relationship between the two universities and ethnics.

The tides turned in 1938, when following the Munich agreement
Munich Agreement
The Munich Pact was an agreement permitting the Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland. The Sudetenland were areas along Czech borders, mainly inhabited by ethnic Germans. The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe without...

, German troops entered the border areas of Czechoslovakia (the so-called Sudetenland
Sudetenland
Sudetenland is the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the northern, southwest and western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by ethnic Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia being within Czechoslovakia.The...

), as did Polish and Hungarian troops elsewhere. On 15 March 1939 Germans forced Czecho-Slovakia to split apart and the Czech lands were occupied by Nazis as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was the majority ethnic-Czech protectorate which Nazi Germany established in the central parts of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia in what is today the Czech Republic...

. Reichsprotektor Konstantin von Neurath
Konstantin von Neurath
Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath was a German diplomat remembered mostly for having served as Foreign minister of Germany between 1932 and 1938...

 handed the historical insigniae to the German University which was officially named as Deutsche Karls-Universität in Prag. Since 1 September 1939 the German University was subordinated to the Reichsministry of Education in Berlin and on 4 November 1939 it was proclaimed to be Reichsuniversität.

On 28 October 1939 during a demonstration, Jan Opletal
Jan Opletal
Jan Opletal was a student of the Medical Faculty of the Charles University in Prague, who was killed in an anti-Nazi demonstration during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia....

 was shot. His burial on 15 November 1939 became a demonstration as well. On 17 November 1939 (now marked as International Students' Day
International Students' Day
International Students' Day is an international observance of student community, held annually on November 17.Taking the day differently than its original meaning, a number of universities mark it, sometimes on a day other than November 17, for a nonpolitical celebration of the multiculturalism of...

) the Czech University and all other Czech higher-education institutions were closed for 3 years, but remained closed until the end of the War. Nine student leaders were executed and about 1,200 Czech students were interned in Sachsenhausen
Sachsenhausen concentration camp
Sachsenhausen or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May, 1945. After World War II, when Oranienburg was in the Soviet Occupation Zone, the structure was used as an NKVD...

 and not released until 1943. About 20 or 35 interned students died in the camp. On 8 May 1940 the Czech University was officially renamed into Czech Charles University by the government regulation 188/1940 Coll.

The World War II marks the end of the coexistence of the two universities in Prague. The remainders of the German University transferred to Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 and continues its existence as Collegium Carolinum
Collegium Carolinum
Collegium Carolinum may refer to* the historic building of the Charles University in Prague* TU Braunschweig in Germany was founded in 1745 as Collegium Carolinum* a former scientific society in Kassel, founded 1709...

.

Present-day university (since 1945)


Although the university began to recover rapidly after 1945, it did not enjoy academic freedom
Academic freedom
Academic freedom is the belief that the freedom of inquiry by students and faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment.Academic freedom is a...

 for long. After the communist coup in 1948, the new regime started to arrange purges and repress all forms of disagreement with the official ideology, and continued to do so for the next four decades, with the second wave of purges during the "normalization
Normalization (Czechoslovakia)
In the history of Czechoslovakia, normalization is a name commonly given to the period 1969 to about 1987. It was characterized by initial restoration of the conditions prevailing before the reform period led by Alexander Dubček , first of all, the firm rule of the Communist Party of...

" period in the beginning of the 1970s. Only in the late 1980s did the situation start to improve; students organized various activities and several peaceful demonstrations in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
The Revolutions of 1989 were the revolutions which overthrew the communist regimes in various Central and Eastern European countries.The events began in Poland in 1989, and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and...

 abroad. This initiated the "Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
The Velvet Revolution or Gentle Revolution was a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that took place from November 17 – December 29, 1989...

" in 1989, in which both students and faculty of the university played a large role. Václav Havel
Václav Havel
Václav Havel is a Czech playwright, essayist, poet, dissident and politician. He was the tenth and last President of Czechoslovakia and the first President of the Czech Republic . He has written over twenty plays and numerous non-fiction works, translated internationally...

—a writer, dramatist and philosopher—was recruited from the independent academic community and appointed president of the republic in December 1989.

Organisation


Today, Charles University comprises 17 faculties:
  • Catholic Theological Faculty
  • Protestant Theological Faculty
  • Hussite Theological
    Czechoslovak Hussite Church
    The Czechoslovak Hussite Church is a Christian Church which separated from the Roman Catholic Church after World War I in former Czechoslovakia. It traces its tradition back to the Hussite reformers and acknowledges Jan Hus as its predecessor...

     Faculty
  • Faculty of Law
    Law
    Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

  • 1st Faculty of Medicine
    Medicine
    Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

  • 2nd Faculty of Medicine
    Medicine
    Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

  • 3rd Faculty of Medicine
    Medicine
    Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

  • Faculty of Medicine
    Medicine
    Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

     in Plzeň
  • Faculty of Medicine
    Medicine
    Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

     in Hradec Králové
    Hradec Králové
    Hradec Králové is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia. The city's economy is based on food-processing technology, photochemical, and electronics manufacture. Traditional industries include musical instrument manufacturing – the best known being PETROF pianos...

  • Faculty of Pharmacy
    Pharmacy
    Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

     in Hradec Králové
    Hradec Králové
    Hradec Králové is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia. The city's economy is based on food-processing technology, photochemical, and electronics manufacture. Traditional industries include musical instrument manufacturing – the best known being PETROF pianos...

  • Faculty of Arts (and Philosophy)
    Philosophy
    Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...

  • Faculty of Science
    Science
    Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

  • Faculty of Mathematics
    Mathematics
    Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

     and Physics
    Physics
    Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

  • Faculty of Education
    Education
    Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

  • Faculty of Social Sciences
    Social sciences
    Social science is the field of study concerned with society. "Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural sciences usually exclusive of the administrative or managerial sciences...

  • Faculty of Physical Education
    Physical education
    Physical education or gymnastics is a course taken during primary and secondary education that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting....

     and Sport
    Sport
    A Sport is all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants. Sport may be competitive, where a winner or winners can be identified by objective means, and may require a degree...

  • Faculty of Humanities
    Humanities
    The humanities are academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences....


Notable alumni

Undivided, before 1882 Czech University
(1882–1939 and 1945–present)
German University
(1882–1945)
  • Bernard Bolzano
    Bernard Bolzano
    Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano , Bernard Bolzano in English, was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian, Catholic priest and antimilitarist of German mother tongue.-Family:Bolzano was the son of two pious Catholics...

     (1781–1848), mathematician and philosopher
  • Josef Dobrovský
    Josef Dobrovský
    Josef Dobrovský was a Bohemian philologist and historian, one of the most important figures of the Czech national revival.- Life & Work :...

     (1753–1829), philologist and historian
  • Jan Evangelista Purkyně
    Jan Evangelista Purkyne
    Jan Evangelista Purkyně was a Czech anatomist and physiologist. He was one of the best known scientists of his time. His son was the painter Karel Purkyně...

     (1787–1869), physiologist
  • Anton Gindely
    Anton Gindely
    Anton Gindely was a Bohemian historian, a son of an ethnic-German father from Hungary and a Czech mother, born in Prague.He studied in Prague and in Olomouc, and, after travelling extensively in search of historical material, became professor of history at the German Charles-Ferdinand University...

     (1829–1892)
  • Jan Hus
    Jan Hus
    Jan Hus , often referred to in English as John Hus or John Huss, was a Czech priest, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague...

     (1369–1415), religious thinker and reformer
  • Karel Hynek Mácha
    Karel Hynek Mácha
    Karel Hynek Mácha was a Czech romantic poet.- Biography :Mácha grew up in Prague, the son of a foreman at a mill. He learned Latin and German in school...

     (1810–1836), poet and writer
  • Jan Marek Marci
    Jan Marek Marci
    Jan Marek Marci , or Johannes Marcus Marci, was a Bohemian doctor and scientist, rector of the University of Prague, and official physician to the Holy Roman Emperors...

     (1595–1677), physician
  • Agustín Stahl
    Agustín Stahl
    Dr. Agustín Stahl , was a medical doctor and the first renowned Puerto Rican scientist, with diverse interests in the fields of ethnology, botany and zoology. He advocated Puerto Rico's independence from Spain....

     (1842–1917), scientist
  • Ferdinand Stoliczka
    Ferdinand Stoliczka
    Ferdinand Stoliczka was a Moravian palaeontologist who worked in India on paleontology, geology and various aspects of zoology. He died of high altitude sickness during an expedition across the Himalayas.-Early life:Stoliczka was born at the lodge Zámeček near Kroměříž in Moravia...

     (1838–1874), paleontologist
  • Nikola Tesla
    Nikola Tesla
    Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer...

     (1856–1943), inventor, physicist
  • Matthias of Trakai
    Matthias of Trakai
    Matthias of Trakai or of Vilnius was a Lithuanian Roman Catholic clergyman, the first Bishop of Samogitia from its establishment in 1417 until 1422 and the fifth Bishop of Vilnius from 4 May 1422 until 9 May 1453 and an ex-officio member of the Council of Lords.-Biography:Matthias graduated the...

     (c. 1370–1453), Bishop of Vilnius
  • Václav Bělohradský
    Václav Belohradský
    Václav Bělohradský is one of the most famous contemporary Czech philosophers and sociologists. A graduate in philosophy and Czech from Charles University, Prague, he has lived in Italy since 1970, where he is currently Professor of Political Sociology at the University of Trieste. He is said to be...

     (b. 1944) philosopher
  • Edvard Beneš
    Edvard Beneš
    Edvard Beneš was a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, Minister of Foreign Affairs and the second President of Czechoslovakia. He was known to be a skilled diplomat.- Youth :...

     (1884–1948), sociologist, second president of Czechoslovakia
  • Adalbert Czerny
    Adalbert Czerny
    Adalbert Czerny Adalbert Czerny Adalbert Czerny (25 March 1863 – 3 October 1941 was a German pediatrician and is considered co-founder of modern pediatrics. Several children's diseases were named after him.-Education and career:...

     (1863–1941), pediatrician
  • Vincenz Czerny
    Vincenz Czerny
    Vincenz Czerny was an Austrian-German surgeon whose main contributions were in the fields of oncological and gynecological surgery.Czerny was born in Trutnov, Bohemia, Austro-Hungarian Empire...

  • Karel Čapek
    Karel Capek
    Karel Čapek was Czech writer of the 20th century.-Biography:Born in 1890 in the Bohemian mountain village of Malé Svatoňovice to an overbearing, emotional mother and a distant yet adored father, Čapek was the youngest of three siblings...

     (1890–1938), writer
  • Eduard Čech
    Eduard Cech
    Eduard Čech was a Czech mathematician born in Stračov, Bohemia . His research interests included projective differential geometry and topology. In 1921–1922 he collaborated with Guido Fubini in Turin...

     (1893–1960), mathematician
  • Karl Deutsch
    Karl Deutsch
    Karl Wolfgang Deutsch was a Czech social and political scientist from a German speaking family. His work focused on the study of war and peace, nationalism, co-operation and communication...

  • Stanislav Grof
    Stanislav Grof
    Stanislav Grof is a psychiatrist, one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology and a pioneering researcher into the use of non-ordinary states of consciousness for purposes of analyzing, healing, and obtaining growth and insight into the human psyche...

     (b. 1931), transpersonal psychologist
  • Karl I of Austria
    Karl I of Austria
    Charles I of Austria or Charles IV of Hungary was the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary, the last King of Bohemia and Croatia and the last King of Galicia and Lodomeria and the last monarch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine...

     (1887–1922), last emperor of Austria and the last king of Bohemia
  • Jaroslav Heyrovský
    Jaroslav Heyrovský
    Jaroslav Heyrovský was a Czech chemist and inventor. Heyrovský was the inventor of the polarographic method, father of the electroanalytical method, and recipient of the Nobel Prize in 1959...

     (1890–1967), chemist, Nobel laureate
  • Miroslav Holub
    Miroslav Holub
    Miroslav Holub was a Czech poet and immunologist.Miroslav Holub's work was heavily influenced by his experiences as an Immunologist, writing many poems using his scientific knowledge to poetic effect. His work is almost always unrhymed, so lends itself easily to translation...

     (1923–1998), writer and immunologist
  • Bohumil Hrabal
    Bohumil Hrabal
    Bohumil Hrabal was a Czech writer, regarded as one of the best writers of the 20th century.- Life and work :...

     (1914–1997), writer
  • Jan Janský
    Jan Janský
    Prof. MUDr. Jan Janský was a Czech serologist, neurologist and psychiatrist. He is credited with the first classification of blood into the four types of the ABO blood group system.Janský studied medicine at Charles University in Prague. From 1899 he worked in a psychiatric clinic in Prague...

     (1873–1921), discoverer of blood types
  • Jan Kavan
    Jan Kavan
    Jan Kavan is a Czech diplomat and politician.-Biography:Kavan was born in London, the son of a Czech diplomat, Pavel Kavan, and a British teacher, Rosemary Kavan. His father was arrested and tried in a Czech show trial in the 1950s; his mother later wrote a memoir, Love and Freedom.He is a member...

     (b. 1946), politician and diplomat
  • Luboš Kohoutek
    Luboš Kohoutek
    Luboš Kohoutek is a Czech astronomer.Kohoutek has been interested with astronomy since high school. He studied physics and astronomy at universities in Brno and Prague...

     (b. 1935), astronomer
  • Jaromír Korčák (1895–1989), geographer, demographer and statistician
  • Henry Kucera
    Henry Kucera
    Henry Kučera, born Jindřich Kučera was a Czech linguist who was a pioneer in corpus linguistics and linguistic software....

     (b. 1925), linguist/cognitive scientist
  • Martin Kukučín
    Martin Kukucín
    Martin Kukučín was a Slovak prose writer, dramatist and publicist. He was the most notable representative of Slovak literary realism, and considered to be one of the founders of modern Slovak prose....

     (1860–1928), Slovak
    Slovakia
    The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

     writer
  • Milan Kundera
    Milan Kundera
    Milan Kundera , born 1 April 1929, is a writer of Czech origin who has lived in exile in France since 1975, where he became a naturalized citizen in 1981. He is best known as the author of The Unbearable Lightness of Being, The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, and The Joke. Kundera has written in...

     (b. 1929), writer
  • Lyubomir Miletich
    Lyubomir Miletich
    Lyubomir Miletich was a leading Bulgarian linguist, ethnographer, dialectologist and historian, as well as the chairman of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences from 1926 to his death....

     (1863–1937), Bulgarian academician
  • George Placzek
    George Placzek
    Georg Placzek was a Czech physicist.Born in Brno, Moravia, Placzek studied physics in Prague and Vienna. He worked with Hans Bethe, Edward Teller, Rudolf Peierls, Werner Heisenberg, Victor Weisskopf, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr, Lev Landau, Edoardo Amaldi, Emilio Segrè, Leon van Hove and many other...

     (1905–1955), physicist
  • Jan Stráský
    Jan Stráský
    Jan Stráský is a Czech politician.Stráský studied philosophy and political economy at the Charles University in Prague. During the 1960s-'80s he worked at the Central bank of Czechoslovakia...

     (b. 1940), politician
  • Ota Šik
    Ota Šik
    Ota Šik was a Czech economist and politician. He was the man behind the New Economic Model and was one of the key figures in the Prague Spring.-Early years:...

     (1919–2004), economist
  • Vavro Šrobár (1867–1950), Czechoslovak physician and politician of Slovak origin
  • Peter Tomka
    Peter Tomka
    Peter Tomka , is a Slovak diplomat and has served as a Judge on the International Court of Justice since 2003.-Early life and education:...

     (b. 1956), International Court of Justice Judge
  • Ivana Trump
    Ivana Trump
    Ivana Trump is a former Olympic athlete, socialite, and fashion model noted for her marriage to mogul Donald Trump.-Early years:...

     (b. 1949), Socialite and Entrepreneur.
  • Vladislav Vančura
    Vladislav Vancura
    Vladislav Vančura was one of the most important Bohemian writers of the 20th century...

     (1891–1942), writer
  • count Jan Benovsky slovak Feldmarshall and later war minister
  • Max Brod
    Max Brod
    Max Brod was a German-speaking Czech Jewish, later Israeli, author, composer, and journalist. Although he was a prolific writer in his own right, he is most famous as the friend and biographer of Franz Kafka...

     (1884–1968), writer
  • Karl Deutsch
    Karl Deutsch
    Karl Wolfgang Deutsch was a Czech social and political scientist from a German speaking family. His work focused on the study of war and peace, nationalism, co-operation and communication...

  • Viktor Fischl (1912–2006), poet and diplomat
  • Karl Hermann Frank
    Karl Hermann Frank
    Karl Hermann Frank was a prominent Sudeten German Nazi official in Czechoslovakia prior to and during World War II and an SS-Obergruppenführer...

  • Franz Hofmeister
    Franz Hofmeister
    Franz Hofmeister was an early protein scientist, and is famous for his studies of salts that influence the solubility and conformational stability of proteins...

  • Felix Weltsch
    Felix Weltsch
    Felix Weltsch , Dr. jur et phil., was a German-speaking Jewish librarian, philosopher, author, editor, publisher and journalist...

  • Max Wertheimer
    Max Wertheimer
    - External links :* * * * *...

     (1880–1943), psychologist
  • Franz Kafka
    Franz Kafka
    Franz Kafka was a culturally influential German-language author of short stories and novels. Contemporary critics and academics, including Vladimir Nabokov, regard Kafka as one of the best writers of the 20th century...

     (1883–1924), writer
  • Egon Erwin Kisch
    Egon Erwin Kisch
    Egon Erwin Kisch was a Czechoslovak writer and journalist, who wrote in German. Known as the The raging reporter from Prague, Kisch was noted for his development of literary reportage and his opposition to Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime.- Biography :Kisch was born into a wealthy, German-speaking...

     (1885–1948), writer and journalist
  • Wilhelm Klein
    Wilhelm Klein
    Wilhelm Klein was a Hungarian-Austrian archeologist.He was born in Karánsebes, Krassó-Szörény County, Kingdom of Hungary Wilhelm Klein (November 28, 1850, Karánsebes (today Caransebeş), , Hungary - 1924) was a Hungarian-Austrian archeologist.He was born in Karánsebes, Krassó-Szörény County,...

  • Paul Kornfeld
    Paul Kornfeld (playwright)
    Paul Kornfeld was a Czech-born German-language Jewish writer whose expressionist plays and scholarly treatises on the theory of drama earned him a specialized niche in influencing contemporary intellectual discourse....

  • Johannes Urzidil
    Johannes Urzidil
    Johannes Urzidil was a Czech-German writer, poet, historian, and journalist. Born in Prague, he died in Rome....

     (1896–1970), writer and journalist
  • August Leopold von Reuss
    August Leopold von Reuss
    August Leopold von Reuss was an Austrian ophthalmologist who was a native of Bilin, Bohemia. He was the son of geologist August Emanuel von Reuss , and father to pediatrician August von Reuss ....

  • Rainer Maria Rilke
    Rainer Maria Rilke
    René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke , better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian–Austrian poet. He is considered one of the most significant poets in the German language...

  • Hermann Grab
    Hermann Grab
    Hermann Grab was a Bohemian writer of German language.-Early years:Hermann was born into a wealthy aristocratic family of Jewish origin in Prague, Bohemian Kingdom . Although his parents were formally Jewish, Hermann as his brother were educated as Catholics...

  • Erich Heller
    Erich Heller
    Erich Heller was a British essayist, known particularly for his critical studies in German-language philosophy and literature of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.- Biography :...

  • Friedrich Hopfner
    Friedrich Hopfner
    Friedrich Hopfner was an Austrian geodesist, geophysicist and planetary scientist.As an officer of the Austro-Hungarian Empire he began his scientific work at the Bureau of Meteorology...

  • Arthur Mahler
    Arthur Mahler
    Arthur Mahler was a Czech-Austrian archeologist. He was a cousin of composer Gustav Mahler....

  • Karl I of Austria
    Karl I of Austria
    Charles I of Austria or Charles IV of Hungary was the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary, the last King of Bohemia and Croatia and the last King of Galicia and Lodomeria and the last monarch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine...

     (1887–1922), last emperor of Austria, last king of Bohemia
  • Ferdinand Blumentritt
    Ferdinand Blumentritt
    Ferdinand Blumentritt , was a teacher, secondary school principal in Litoměřice, lecturer, and author of articles and books on the Philippines and its ethnography...

  • Johann Böhm
    Johann Böhm
    Johann Böhm was a Bohemian German chemist who focused on photochemistry and radiography. The aluminum-containing mineral boehmite was named after him....

  • Carl Ferdinand Cori
    Carl Ferdinand Cori
    Carl Ferdinand Cori was a Czech biochemist and pharmacologist born in Prague who, together with his wife Gerty Cori and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, received a Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of how glycogen – a derivative of glucose – is broken down and...

     (1896–1984), biochemist, Nobel laureate
  • Gerty Cori
    Gerty Cori
    Gerty Theresa Cori was an American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.Cori was born in Prague...

     (1896–1957), biochemist, Nobel laureate
  • Carl Friedrich Heinrich Credner
    Carl Friedrich Heinrich Credner
    Carl Friedrich Heinrich Credner was a German geologist from Waltershausen near Gotha. He was the father of Carl Hermann Credner.Credner investigated the geology of the Thuringian Forest, of which he published a map in 1846...


  • Notable academics

    undivided before 1882 Czech University
    (1882–1939 and 1945–present)
    German University
    (1882–1945)
    • Jan Gebauer
      Jan Gebauer
      Jan Gebauer was a significant Czech expert on Czech studies and one of the most renowned Czech scientists of all times. His scientific work was influenced by the methods of positivism.-Biography:...

    • Anton Gindely
      Anton Gindely
      Anton Gindely was a Bohemian historian, a son of an ethnic-German father from Hungary and a Czech mother, born in Prague.He studied in Prague and in Olomouc, and, after travelling extensively in search of historical material, became professor of history at the German Charles-Ferdinand University...

    • Jan Hus
      Jan Hus
      Jan Hus , often referred to in English as John Hus or John Huss, was a Czech priest, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague...

       – religious thinker and reformer
    • Jan Jesenius
      Jan Jesenius
      Jan Jesenius was a Slovak physician, politician and philosopher...

       – physician and politician of Slovak origin
    • František Josef Studnička
      František Josef Studnicka
      František Josef Studnička was a Czech mathematician and popular pedagogue at Charles University in Prague. He was also an active contributor to astronomy and meteorology. He was known as the author of several textbooks and popular articles....

    • Johannes Vodnianus Campanus
      Johannes Vodnianus Campanus
      Jan Campanus Vodňanský was a Czech humanist, composer, pedagogue, poet, and dramatist. He was born in Vodňany , in southern Bohemia...

       – author, playwright
    • Stanislav Vydra
      Stanislav Vydra
      Stanislav Vydra was a Bohemian Jesuit priest, writer, mathematician.-Life:...

  • Bohuslav Balcar
    Bohuslav Balcar
    Bohuslav Balcar is a Czech mathematician. He is a senior researcher at the Center for Theoretical Study , and a professor at Charles University in Prague. His research interests are mainly related to foundations of mathematics....

  • Václav Bělohradský
    Václav Belohradský
    Václav Bělohradský is one of the most famous contemporary Czech philosophers and sociologists. A graduate in philosophy and Czech from Charles University, Prague, he has lived in Italy since 1970, where he is currently Professor of Political Sociology at the University of Trieste. He is said to be...

  • Edvard Beneš
    Edvard Beneš
    Edvard Beneš was a leader of the Czechoslovak independence movement, Minister of Foreign Affairs and the second President of Czechoslovakia. He was known to be a skilled diplomat.- Youth :...

  • Eduard Čech
    Eduard Cech
    Eduard Čech was a Czech mathematician born in Stračov, Bohemia . His research interests included projective differential geometry and topology. In 1921–1922 he collaborated with Guido Fubini in Turin...

  • Karel Domin
    Karel Domin
    Karel Domin was a Czech botanist and politician.After gymnasium school studies in Příbram, he studied botany at the Charles University in Prague, and graduated in 1906. In 1916 he was named as professor of botany. Domin specialised in phytogeography, geobotany and plant taxonomy...

  • Miroslav Fiedler
    Miroslav Fiedler
    Miroslav Fiedler is a Czech mathematician known for his contributions tolinear algebra, graph theory and algebraic graph theory....

  • Jan Gebauer
    Jan Gebauer
    Jan Gebauer was a significant Czech expert on Czech studies and one of the most renowned Czech scientists of all times. His scientific work was influenced by the methods of positivism.-Biography:...

  • František Graus
    Frantisek Graus
    František Graus was a Czech historian whose work focused on the social and economic history of medieval Europe, particularly the history of social movements and of ethnic and religious minorities.-Life and Academic Career:...

  • Eva Hajičová
    Eva Hajicová
    Eva Hajičová is a Czech linguist, specializing in topic–focus articulation and corpus linguistics. In 2006, she was awarded the ACL Lifetime Achievement Award.- External links :* *...

  • Václav Hampl
    Václav Hampl
    Václav Hampl is a Czech physiologist and, since 2006, rector of Charles University in Prague.Hampl was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1962 and received a PhD from the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in 1990. He did postgraduate work at the University of Minnesota Medical School and, since...

  • Miroslav Hroch
    Miroslav Hroch
    Prof. Miroslav Hroch is a Czech historian and political theorist and a professor at the Charles University in Prague....

  • Bedřich Hrozný
    Bedrich Hrozný
    Bedřich Hrozný was a Czech orientalist and linguist. He deciphered the ancient Hittite language, identified it as an Indo-European language and laid the groundwork for the development of Hittitology. Though of Czech origin, he published his work in German or French.Hrozný was born in Lysá nad...

  • Vojtěch Jarník
    Vojtech Jarník
    Vojtěch Jarník was a Czech mathematician.His main area of work was in number theory and mathematical analysis; he proved a number of results on lattice point problems. He also developed the graph theory algorithm known as Prim's algorithm....

     – mathematician
  • Konstantin Josef Jireček
    Konstantin Josef Jirecek
    Konstantin Josef Jireček , son of Josef Jireček, was a Czech historian, diplomat and slavist.He entered the Bulgarian service in 1879, and in 1881 became minister of education at Sofia...

  • Erazim Kohák
    Erazim Kohák
    Erazim Kohák is a Czech philosopher and writer. His early education was in Prague. After communists took over Czechoslovakia in 1948, his family escaped to the United States....

  • Karel Kosík
    Karel Kosík
    Karel Kosík was a Czech Neomarxist philosopher. In his most famous philosophical work Dialectics of the Concrete Kosík presents an original synthesis of Martin Heidegger's version of phenomenology and the ideas of Young Marx...

  • Jan Blahoslav Lášek
  • Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
    Tomáš Masaryk
    Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk , sometimes called Thomas Masaryk in English, was an Austro-Hungarian and Czechoslovak politician, sociologist and philosopher, who as an eager advocate of Czechoslovak independence during World War I became the founder and first President of Czechoslovakia, also was...

     – philosopher, politician, 1st president of Czechoslovakia
  • Vilém Mathesius
    Vilém Mathesius
    Vilém Mathesius was a Czech linguist and literary historian, a scholar of English and Czech literature. His cousin was Bohumil Mathesius....

  • Josef Matoušek
    Josef Matoušek
    Josef Matoušek was a Czech historian and associate professor.In November 1939 he participated in preparations for Jan Opletal's funeral. He was arrested by the Gestapo on 17 November 1939 and was executed the same day without trial....

  • Jan Mukařovský
    Jan Mukarovský
    Jan Mukařovský was a Czech literary and aesthetic theorist.He was professor at the Charles University of Prague. He is well known for his association with early structuralism as well as with the Prague Linguistic Circle, and for his development of the ideas of Russian formalism...

     – literary theorist
    Literary theory
    Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature. However, literary scholarship since the 19th century often includes—in addition to, or even instead of literary theory in the strict sense—considerations of...

    , linguist
    Linguistics
    Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context....

  • Alois Musil
    Alois Musil
    Alois Musil was an Austro-Hungarian and Czech theologist, orientalist, explorer and writer.Musil was the oldest son born into the family of a poor farmer...

     – orientalist
  • Milan Nakonečný
    Milan Nakonecný
    Milan Nakonečný is Czech psychologist and historian. During the normalization, Nakonečný was banned from teaching and publishing...

  • Jan Patočka
    Jan Patocka
    Jan Patočka is considered one of the most important contributors to Czech philosophical phenomenology, as well as one of the most influential central European philosophers of the 20th century...

     – philosopher
  • Josef Ladislav Píč
    Josef Ladislav Píc
    Josef Ladislav Píč was Czech archaeologist and paleontologist, one of founders of modern Czech archaeology....

  • Antonín Rezek
    Antonín Rezek
    Antonín Rezek was a renowned Czech political historian, specialized in political and religious history of the 16th to 18th century.-Life :...

  • Stanislav Segert
    Stanislav Segert
    Stanislav Segert was a prominent scholar of Semitic languages and one of the foremost authorities on North-West Semitic languages.-Life:...

  • Petr Sgall
    Petr Sgall
    Petr Sgall is a Czech linguist. He specializes in dependency grammar, topic–focus articulation and Common Czech.- Biography :...

  • František Josef Studnička
    František Josef Studnicka
    František Josef Studnička was a Czech mathematician and popular pedagogue at Charles University in Prague. He was also an active contributor to astronomy and meteorology. He was known as the author of several textbooks and popular articles....

  • Vojtěch Šafařík
    Vojtech Šafarík
    Vojtěch Šafařík was a Czech chemist, specializing in inorganic chemistry. He wrote many popular textbooks as well as making over 20,000 observations of variable stars.The crater Šafařík on the Moon is named after him.- External links :*...

  • František Šmahel
    František Šmahel
    František Šmahel is a Czech historian of medieval political and intellectual history, known for his works about Hussitism, Universities in the Middle Ages, Humanism, and Monarch representation in the Middle Ages....

  • Pavel Tichý
    Pavel Tichý
    Pavel Tichý was a Czech logician, philosopher and mathematician.He worked in the field of intensional logic and founded Transparent Intensional Logic, an original theory of the logical analysis of natural languages – the theory is devoted to the problem of saying exactly what it is that we learn,...

  • Dušan Třeštík
    Dušan Treštík
    Dušan Třeštík was one of the greatest Czech historians. He specialized in medieval history of the Czech lands and theory of history....

  • Petr Vopěnka
    Petr Vopenka
    Petr Vopěnka is a Czech mathematician. In the early seventies, he established the Alternative Set Theory , which he subsequently developed in a series of articles and monographs...

  • Ivan Wilhelm
    Ivan Wilhelm
    Ivan Wilhelm is Czech nuclear physicist and former rector of Charles University in Prague.Wilhelm graduated at Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering of Czech Technical University in Prague in Nuclear physics. Until 1967 he also lectured there. In 1967 Wilhelm was sent to the study...

  • Friedrich Adler
  • Alfred Amonn
    Alfred Amonn
    Alfred Amonn was an Austrian economist .He taught as a professor at the Czernowitz University , German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague , Tokyo University , University of Berne .- Literary works :* Objekt und Grundbegriffe der theoretischen Nationalökonomie,...

  • Gustav Becking
    Gustav Becking
    Gustav Becking was a German musicologist who studied with Wolf and Hugo Riemann. Becking did his doctorate in 1920. He worked as a professor at Utrecht from 1929, in Prague from 1930 according to the The New Grove....

  • Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

     – theoretical physicist
  • Gerhard Gentzen
    Gerhard Gentzen
    Gerhard Karl Erich Gentzen was a German mathematician and logician. He had his major contributions in the foundations of mathematics, proof theory, especially on natural deduction and sequent calculus...

  • Felix Haurowitz – biochemist
  • Heinrich Hilgenreiner
    Heinrich Hilgenreiner
    - Biography :Born in Prague, and raised in a German family in Bohemia , he served as a medical officer in the First World War. After the War, he became a professor of the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague and Director of the Kinderklinik...

  • Otto Kahler
    Otto Kahler
    Otto Kahler was an Austrian physician. Born and trained in Prague, he is best known for describing multiple myeloma, a hematological malignancy, which is called "Kahler's disease" in his honor in several countries...

  • Gustav Karl Laube
    Gustav Karl Laube
    Gustav Karl Laube was a Bohemian German geologist and paleontologist.In 1871 Laube became professor mineralogy and geology of the technical university in Prague, in 1876 professor of geology and paleontology at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague.He was active in geological research...

  • Ernst Mach
    Ernst Mach
    Ernst Mach was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves...

     – theoretical physicist
  • Günther von Mannagetta und Lërchenau Beck
    Günther von Mannagetta und Lërchenau Beck
    Günther Ritter Beck von Mannagetta und Lerchenau was a prominent Austrian botanist.- Life :...

  • Hans Petersson
    Hans Petersson
    Hans Petersson was a German mathematician. He introduced the Petersson inner product and is also known for the Ramanujan–Petersson conjecture.-References:...

  • Josef Pfitzner
    Josef Pfitzner
    Josef Pfitzner was a politician of Nazi Germany and a writer.- Bio :Josef Pfitzner was born in Petrovice , Austrian Silesia. He was a German historian and politician and was Professor at the German University of Prague. Early on, he was attracted to Nazism and belonged to the branch of Austrian...

  • Ernst Pringsheim
    Ernst Pringsheim, Sr.
    Ernst Pringsheim, Sr., Ernst Pringsheim sen. was a German physicist.-Literary works:* Ueber das Radiometer. Berlin: Lange, 1882. Berlin, Universität, Dissertation, 1882....

  • Ernst Pringsheim, Jr.
    Ernst Pringsheim, Jr.
    Ernst Pringsheim, Jr., Ernst Georg Pringsheim jun., or Ernst Georg Pringsheim was a German Natural scientist and plant physiologist .He taught as a professor for biochemistry and botany, in the University of Berlin, University of Prague, and Cambridge...

  • Zdenko Stary – biochemist
  • Samuel Friedrich Stein
    Samuel Friedrich Stein
    Samuel Friedrich Nathaniel Ritter von Stein was a German entomologist chiefly interested in Diptera.Born in Niemegk near Potsdam, Brandenburg, in 1850, Stein became a Professor at the Forest and Agriculture Institute in Tharandt in Sachsen , 20 km south-west of Dresden. This was one of the...

  • Moritz Winternitz
  • Alfred Woltmann
    Alfred Woltmann
    Alfred Woltmann was a German art historian. He was born at Charlottenburg, studied at Berlin and Munich, and was appointed professor of art history successively at the Polytechnicum in Karlsruhe and at the universities of Prague and Strasbourg...


  • Leadership

    • Prof. RNDr. Václav Hampl
      Václav Hampl
      Václav Hampl is a Czech physiologist and, since 2006, rector of Charles University in Prague.Hampl was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1962 and received a PhD from the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in 1990. He did postgraduate work at the University of Minnesota Medical School and, since...

      , DrSc., followed Prof. Ing. Ivan Wilhelm
      Ivan Wilhelm
      Ivan Wilhelm is Czech nuclear physicist and former rector of Charles University in Prague.Wilhelm graduated at Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering of Czech Technical University in Prague in Nuclear physics. Until 1967 he also lectured there. In 1967 Wilhelm was sent to the study...

      , CSc. on the position of rector of Charles University on 1 February 2006.

    See also

    • List of Charles University rectors
    • List of medieval universities
    • Medieval university
      Medieval university
      Medieval university is an institution of higher learning which was established during High Middle Ages period and is a corporation.The first institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of...

    • Prague
      Prague
      Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

    • Záviš von Zap

    Further reading

    • Chad Bryant: Prague in Black. Nazi Rule and Czech Nationalism. Harvard Press
    • František Kavka: The Caroline University of Prague. A short history
    • Peter Demetz: Prague in Black and Gold. Scenes from the Life of European City

    External links