Canadian Space Agency

Canadian Space Agency

Overview
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is the Canadian government
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada, formally Her Majesty's Government, is the system whereby the federation of Canada is administered by a common authority; in Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or specifically the Queen-in-Council...

 space agency responsible for Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

's space program. It was established in March 1989 by the Canadian Space Agency Act and sanctioned in December 1990. The Chief Executive Officer of the agency is the President who reports to the Minister of Industry
Minister of Industry (Canada)
The Minister of Industry is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for overseeing the federal government's economic development and corporate affairs department, Industry Canada. The Minister of Industry is also the minister responsible for Statistics Canada...

.

The headquarters of the CSA is located at John H. Chapman Space Centre
John H. Chapman Space Centre
The John H. Chapman Space Centre is the headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency. It is located in Longueuil, Quebec, Canada, in the borough of Saint-Hubert.-Location:...

 in Saint-Hubert, Quebec
Saint-Hubert, Quebec
Saint-Hubert is a borough in the city of Longueuil, located in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada. It had been a separate city prior to January 1, 2002, when it along with several other neighbouring south shore municipalities were merged into Longueuil. According to the Quebec Statistics...

. The agency also has offices in Ottawa, Ontario at the David Florida Laboratory
David Florida Laboratory
The David Florida Laboratory is the Canadian Space Agency's spacecraft assembly, integration and testing centre, in Shirleys Bay, just west of Ottawa...

 (which is mainly an engineering installation) and small liaison offices in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

; Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

; Cape Canaveral, Florida
Cape Canaveral, Florida
Cape Canaveral is a city in Brevard County, Florida, United States. The population was 8,829 at the 2000 census. As of 2008, the estimated population according to the U.S. Census Bureau was 10,147...

; and Houston, Texas
Houston, Texas
Houston is the fourth-largest city in the United States, and the largest city in the state of Texas. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city had a population of 2.1 million people within an area of . Houston is the seat of Harris County and the economic center of , which is the ...

.

The agency is a relatively modest federal establishment, with 575 employees and a rotating student population of about 100 interns or summer workers.
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Encyclopedia
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is the Canadian government
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada, formally Her Majesty's Government, is the system whereby the federation of Canada is administered by a common authority; in Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or specifically the Queen-in-Council...

 space agency responsible for Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

's space program. It was established in March 1989 by the Canadian Space Agency Act and sanctioned in December 1990. The Chief Executive Officer of the agency is the President who reports to the Minister of Industry
Minister of Industry (Canada)
The Minister of Industry is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for overseeing the federal government's economic development and corporate affairs department, Industry Canada. The Minister of Industry is also the minister responsible for Statistics Canada...

.

The headquarters of the CSA is located at John H. Chapman Space Centre
John H. Chapman Space Centre
The John H. Chapman Space Centre is the headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency. It is located in Longueuil, Quebec, Canada, in the borough of Saint-Hubert.-Location:...

 in Saint-Hubert, Quebec
Saint-Hubert, Quebec
Saint-Hubert is a borough in the city of Longueuil, located in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada. It had been a separate city prior to January 1, 2002, when it along with several other neighbouring south shore municipalities were merged into Longueuil. According to the Quebec Statistics...

. The agency also has offices in Ottawa, Ontario at the David Florida Laboratory
David Florida Laboratory
The David Florida Laboratory is the Canadian Space Agency's spacecraft assembly, integration and testing centre, in Shirleys Bay, just west of Ottawa...

 (which is mainly an engineering installation) and small liaison offices in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

; Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

; Cape Canaveral, Florida
Cape Canaveral, Florida
Cape Canaveral is a city in Brevard County, Florida, United States. The population was 8,829 at the 2000 census. As of 2008, the estimated population according to the U.S. Census Bureau was 10,147...

; and Houston, Texas
Houston, Texas
Houston is the fourth-largest city in the United States, and the largest city in the state of Texas. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city had a population of 2.1 million people within an area of . Houston is the seat of Harris County and the economic center of , which is the ...

.

The agency is a relatively modest federal establishment, with 575 employees and a rotating student population of about 100 interns or summer workers. Most of the staff is employed at the Chapman Centre.

Steve MacLean
Steven MacLean (astronaut)
Steven Glenwood MacLean is a Canadian astronaut. He is the current President of the Canadian Space Agency, appointed on September 1, 2008....

 was named as president of the Canadian Space Agency on September 2, 2008.

History, mission and mandate


The origins of the Canadian upper atmosphere and space program may be traced back to the end of the Second World War. Between 1945 and 1960, Canada undertook a number of small launcher and satellite related projects under the aegis of defence research, including the development of the Black Brant rocket
Black Brant (rocket)
The Black Brant is a Canadian-designed sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Over 800 Black Brants of various versions have been launched since they were first produced in 1961, and the type remains one of the most popular sounding rockets ever built...

 as well as series of advanced studies examining both orbital rendezvous and re-entry. In 1957, scientists and engineers at the Canadian Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment (DRTE) under the leadership of John H. Chapman embarked on a project initially known simply as S-27 or the Topside Sounder Project. This work would soon lead to the development of Canada's first satellite known as Alouette 1
Alouette 1
Alouette 1 was Canada's first satellite, and the first satellite constructed by a country other than the USSR or the United States. Occasionally, Alouette 1 is misrepresented as the third satellite successfully put in orbit, rather than being from the third country to have one of its own in space,...

.

With the launch of Alouette 1
Alouette 1
Alouette 1 was Canada's first satellite, and the first satellite constructed by a country other than the USSR or the United States. Occasionally, Alouette 1 is misrepresented as the third satellite successfully put in orbit, rather than being from the third country to have one of its own in space,...

 in September 1962 Canada became the third country to put a man-made satellite into space. At the time, Canada only possessed upper atmospheric launch capabilities, and therefore Alouette 1 was sent aloft by the American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

) from Vandenberg AFB in California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

. The technical excellence of the satellite, which lasted for ten years instead of the expected one, prompted the further study of the ionosphere
Ionosphere
The ionosphere is a part of the upper atmosphere, comprising portions of the mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere...

 with the Canadian designed US launched, international ISIS
ISIS (satellite)
ISIS I and II were the third and fourth satellites that were launched in a series of Canadian satellites sent up to study the ionosphere. After the success of Canada's Alouette 1, Canada and the United States decided to jointly launch three more satellites which they called the ISIS program...

 program. This undertaking was designated an International Milestone of Electrical Engineering by IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a non-profit professional association headquartered in New York City that is dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence...

 in 1993. The launch of Anik
Anik (satellite)
The Anik satellites are geostationary communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for television in Canada. In Inuktitut, Anik means "little brother".-The Satellites:-Anik A:...

 A-1 in 1972, made Canada the first country in the world to establish its own domestic geostationary communication satellite network.
These and other space related activities in the 1980s compelled the Canadian government to promulgate the Canadian Space Agency Act which established the Canadian Space Agency. The Act received royal assent
Royal Assent
The granting of royal assent refers to the method by which any constitutional monarch formally approves and promulgates an act of his or her nation's parliament, thus making it a law...

 on May 10, 1990 and came into force on December 14, 1990.

The mandate of the Canadian Space Agency is to promote the peaceful use and development of space, to advance the knowledge of space through science and to ensure that space science and technology provide social and economic benefits for Canadians. The Canadian Space Agency's mission statement says that the agency is committed to leading the development and application of space knowledge for the benefit of Canadians and humanity.

Presidents



  • March 1, 1989 - 1992 - Larkin Kerwin
    Larkin Kerwin
    John Larkin Kerwin, was a Canadian physicist.Born in Québec City, he studied physics at Saint Francis Xavier University and obtained his Masters degree in physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His received his D.Sc. from Université Laval. He was Chairman of the Department of...

  • May 4, 1992 - July 15, 1994 - Dr. Roland Doré
  • November 21, 1994 - William MacDonald (Mac) Evans
  • September 28, 2001 - Marc Garneau
    Marc Garneau
    Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, CC CD FCASI MP is a Canadian retired military officer, former astronaut, engineer and politician.Garneau was the first Canadian in space taking part in three flights aboard NASA Space shuttles...

  • April 12, 2007 - Larry J. Boisvert
    Laurier J. Boisvert
    Laurier Larry J. Boisvert was the President of the Canadian Space Agency from April 12 to December 31, 2007, at which time he resigned from that position. He previously worked at Telesat from 1972 until his retirement in 2006....

  • January 1, 2008-September 2, 2008 - Guy Bujold
    Guy Bujold
    Guy Bujold, is the former President and CEO of CANARIE Inc, and former President of the Canadian Space Agency, appointed January 1, 2008. He was succeeded on September 2, 2008, by Steve MacLean....

  • September 2, 2008–present Steven MacLean
    Steven MacLean (astronaut)
    Steven Glenwood MacLean is a Canadian astronaut. He is the current President of the Canadian Space Agency, appointed on September 1, 2008....


Canadian space program



The Canadian Space Program is administered by the Canadian Space Agency. Canada has contributed technology, expertise and personnel to the world space effort, especially in collaboration with NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

 and ESA.

There have been three recruiting campaigns for astronauts for the CSA. The first, in 1983, led to the selection of Roberta Bondar
Roberta Bondar
Roberta Bondar,is OC, O.Ont, FRCP, FRSC is Canada's first female astronaut and the first neurologist in space. Following more than a decade as NASA's head of space medicine, Bondar became a consultant and speaker in the business, scientific and medical communities.-Education:Roberta Bondar had...

, Marc Garneau
Marc Garneau
Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, CC CD FCASI MP is a Canadian retired military officer, former astronaut, engineer and politician.Garneau was the first Canadian in space taking part in three flights aboard NASA Space shuttles...

, Robert Thirsk
Robert Thirsk
Robert Brent "Bob" Thirsk is a Canadian engineer and physician, and a former Canadian Space Agency astronaut. He holds the Canadian records for the longest space flight and the most time spent in space .-Personal life:Thirsk is from New Westminster, British Columbia and is married to Brenda...

, Kenneth Money
Kenneth Money
Kenneth Money is the Senior Scientist at the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine in Toronto. He has published over one hundred science articles and authored six different topics in the World Book Encyclopedia.-Education:Money attended North Toronto Collegiate Institute for high...

, Bjarni Tryggvason and Steve MacLean
Steven MacLean (astronaut)
Steven Glenwood MacLean is a Canadian astronaut. He is the current President of the Canadian Space Agency, appointed on September 1, 2008....

. The second, in 1992, selected Chris Hadfield
Chris Hadfield
Chris Austin "Chris" Hadfield, O.Ont, MSC, CD is a Canadian astronaut from the Canadian Space Agency who was the first Canadian to walk in space. Hadfield has flown two space shuttle missions, STS-74 in 1995 and STS-100 in 2001. He has served as CAPCOM for both Space Shuttle and International...

, Julie Payette
Julie Payette
Julie Payette, OC, CQ is a Canadian engineer and a Canadian Space Agency astronaut. Payette has completed two spaceflights, STS-96 and STS-127, logging more than 25 days in space...

, Dafydd Williams
Dafydd Williams
Dafydd Rhys "Dave" Williams is a Canadian physician and a retired CSA astronaut. He had two spaceflights, both of which were Space Shuttle missions. His first spaceflight, STS-90 in 1998, was a 16-day mission aboard Space Shuttle Columbia dedicated to neuroscience research...

 and Mike Mackay. On May 13, 2009 it was announced after the completion of a third selection process that two new astronauts, Jeremy Hansen
Jeremy Hansen
Jeremy Roger Hansen, CD is a Canadian astronaut with the Canadian Space Agency . He was selected to join the CSA in the 2009 CSA selection along with David Saint-Jacques...

 of Ailsa Craig
North Middlesex, Ontario
North Middlesex is a municipality in Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada.The restructured municipality of North Middlesex was incorporated on January 1, 2001. This amalgamation joined five municipalities — the townships of East Williams, West Williams and McGillivray, the town of Parkhill and the...

, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 and David Saint-Jacques
David Saint-Jacques
David Saint-Jacques is a Canadian astronaut with the Canadian Space Agency . He was selected to join the CSA in the 2009 CSA selection along with Jeremy Hansen....

, of Quebec City
Quebec City
Quebec , also Québec, Quebec City or Québec City is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec and is located within the Capitale-Nationale region. It is the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal, which is about to the southwest...

 had been chosen. As of January 2011 there have been 16 space flights by Canadians.

In addition to its astronauts, some of the most notable Canadian technological contributions to space exploration include the Canadarm on the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
The Space Shuttle was a manned orbital rocket and spacecraft system operated by NASA on 135 missions from 1981 to 2011. The system combined rocket launch, orbital spacecraft, and re-entry spaceplane with modular add-ons...

, as well as the Canadarm2 and the rest of the Mobile Servicing System
Mobile Servicing System
The Mobile Servicing System , better known by its primary component Canadarm2, is a robotic system and associated equipment on the International Space Station...

 on the International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

. The Canadarm and Canadarm2 employ the Advanced Space Vision System
Advanced Space Vision System
The Advanced Space Vision System is a computer vision system designed primarily for International Space Station assembly...

 which allows more efficient use of the robotic arms. Another Canadian technology of note is the Orbiter Boom Sensor System
Orbiter Boom Sensor System
The Orbiter Boom Sensor System is a 50-foot boom carried on board NASA's Space Shuttles. The boom can be grappled by the Canadarm and serves as an extension of the arm, doubling its length to a combined total of 100 feet...

, which is an extension of the Canadarm used to inspect the Space Shuttle's thermal Protection System
Space shuttle thermal protection system
The Space Shuttle thermal protection system is the barrier that protects the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing heat of atmospheric reentry...

 for damage while in orbit.

Canadians in space


Nine Canadians have participated in 13 NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

 manned missions and two Soyuz
Soyuz programme
The Soyuz programme is a human spaceflight programme that was initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon...

 ones:
Name Launch
Vehicle
Launch vehicle
In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from the Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad and other infrastructure....

Mission Launch date International
Space Station Expedition
Notes
Marc Garneau
Marc Garneau
Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, CC CD FCASI MP is a Canadian retired military officer, former astronaut, engineer and politician.Garneau was the first Canadian in space taking part in three flights aboard NASA Space shuttles...

Challenger
Space Shuttle Challenger
Space Shuttle Challenger was NASA's second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia having been the first. The shuttle was built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division in Downey, California...

STS-41-G
STS-41-G
STS 41-G was the 13th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program and the sixth flight of Space Shuttle Challenger. Challenger launched on 5 October 1984, and conducted the second shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center on 13 October...

1984, October 5 First Canadian in space
Roberta Bondar
Roberta Bondar
Roberta Bondar,is OC, O.Ont, FRCP, FRSC is Canada's first female astronaut and the first neurologist in space. Following more than a decade as NASA's head of space medicine, Bondar became a consultant and speaker in the business, scientific and medical communities.-Education:Roberta Bondar had...

Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery is one of the retired orbiters of the Space Shuttle program of NASA, the space agency of the United States, and was operational from its maiden flight, STS-41-D on August 30, 1984, until its final landing during STS-133 on March 9, 2011...

STS-42
STS-42
STS-42 was a Space Shuttle Discovery mission with the Spacelab module. Liftoff which was originally scheduled for 8:45 EST 22 January 1992, but the launch was delayed due to weather constraints. Discovery successfully lifted off an hour later at 9:52 EST . The main goal of the mission was to study...

1992, January 22 First Canadian woman in space
Steven MacLean
Steven MacLean (astronaut)
Steven Glenwood MacLean is a Canadian astronaut. He is the current President of the Canadian Space Agency, appointed on September 1, 2008....

Columbia
Space Shuttle Columbia
Space Shuttle Columbia was the first spaceworthy Space Shuttle in NASA's orbital fleet. First launched on the STS-1 mission, the first of the Space Shuttle program, it completed 27 missions before being destroyed during re-entry on February 1, 2003 near the end of its 28th, STS-107. All seven crew...

STS-52
STS-52
-Mission parameters:*Mass:**Orbiter landing with payload: **Payload: *Perigee: *Apogee: *Inclination: 28.5°*Period: 90.6 min-Mission highlights:...

1992, October 22
Chris Hadfield
Chris Hadfield
Chris Austin "Chris" Hadfield, O.Ont, MSC, CD is a Canadian astronaut from the Canadian Space Agency who was the first Canadian to walk in space. Hadfield has flown two space shuttle missions, STS-74 in 1995 and STS-100 in 2001. He has served as CAPCOM for both Space Shuttle and International...

Atlantis
Space Shuttle Atlantis
The Space Shuttle Atlantis is a retired Space Shuttle orbiter in the Space Shuttle fleet belonging to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration , the spaceflight and space exploration agency of the United States...

STS-74
STS-74
STS-74 was a Space Shuttle Atlantis mission to the Mir space station. It was the fourth mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program, and it carried out the second docking of a space shuttle to Mir. Atlantis lifted off for the mission on 12 November 1995 from Kennedy Space Center launch pad 39A,...

1995, November 12 Expedition 34
Expedition 34
Expedition 34 is scheduled to be the thirty-fourth expedition to the International Space Station.-Crew:Source: NASA-External links:*...

 (forthcoming), Expedition 35
Expedition 35
Expedition 35 is the 35th long-duration mission to the International Space Station . The expedition will start in March 2013, when the Expedition 34 crew departs from the ISS. This will mark the first time a Canadian astronaut - Colonel Chris Hadfield - will be in command of the station...

 (commander; forthcoming)
Only Canadian to visit Mir
Mir
Mir was a space station operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, at first by the Soviet Union and then by Russia. Assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996, Mir was the first modular space station and had a greater mass than that of any previous spacecraft, holding the record for the...

; first Canadian ISS commander
Marc Garneau
Marc Garneau
Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, CC CD FCASI MP is a Canadian retired military officer, former astronaut, engineer and politician.Garneau was the first Canadian in space taking part in three flights aboard NASA Space shuttles...

Endeavour
Space Shuttle Endeavour
Space Shuttle Endeavour is one of the retired orbiters of the Space Shuttle program of NASA, the space agency of the United States. Endeavour was the fifth and final spaceworthy NASA space shuttle to be built, constructed as a replacement for Challenger...

STS-77
STS-77
STS-77 was the 77th Space Shuttle mission and the 11th mission of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission began from launch pad 39B from Kennedy Space Center, Florida on 19 May 1996 lasting 10 days and 40 minutes and completing 161 revolutions before landing on runway 33.-Crew:-Mission...

1996, May 19 First Canadian to return to space
Robert Thirsk
Robert Thirsk
Robert Brent "Bob" Thirsk is a Canadian engineer and physician, and a former Canadian Space Agency astronaut. He holds the Canadian records for the longest space flight and the most time spent in space .-Personal life:Thirsk is from New Westminster, British Columbia and is married to Brenda...

Columbia STS-78
STS-78
STS-78 was the fifth dedicated Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission for the Space Shuttle program, flown partly in preparation for the International Space Station project...

1996, June 20
Bjarni Tryggvason Discovery STS-85
STS-85
STS-85 was a Space Shuttle Discovery mission to perform multiple space science packages. It was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 7 August 1997.-Crew:-Crew notes:...

1997, August 7
Dafydd Williams
Dafydd Williams
Dafydd Rhys "Dave" Williams is a Canadian physician and a retired CSA astronaut. He had two spaceflights, both of which were Space Shuttle missions. His first spaceflight, STS-90 in 1998, was a 16-day mission aboard Space Shuttle Columbia dedicated to neuroscience research...

Columbia STS-90
STS-90
-Backup crew:-Mission parameters:*Mass:**Orbiter landing with payload: **Payload: *Perigee: *Apogee: *Inclination: 39.0°*Period: 89.7 min-Mission highlights:...

1998, April 17
Julie Payette
Julie Payette
Julie Payette, OC, CQ is a Canadian engineer and a Canadian Space Agency astronaut. Payette has completed two spaceflights, STS-96 and STS-127, logging more than 25 days in space...

Discovery STS-96
STS-96
STS-96 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station flown by Space Shuttle Discovery, and the first shuttle flight to dock with the International Space Station. The shuttle carried the Spacehab module in the payload, filled with cargo for station outfitting...

1999, May 27 First Canadian to visit International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

 (ISS mission)
Marc Garneau Endeavour STS-97
STS-97
STS-97 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour. The crew installed the first set of solar arrays to the ISS, prepared a docking port for arrival of the Destiny Laboratory Module, and delivered supplies for the station's crew.-Crew:-Mission...

2000, November 30 ISS mission, Return to space (third visit)
Chris Hadfield Endeavour STS-100
STS-100
STS-100 was a Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station flown by Space Shuttle Endeavour. STS-100 installed the ISS Canadarm2 robotic arm.- Crew :- Mission parameters :* Mass:** Orbiter liftoff:...

2001, April 19 ISS mission, Return to space (second visit), First spacewalk by a Canadian
Steven MacLean Atlantis STS-115
STS-115
Note:The P3/P4 Truss segment and batteries were so heavy that the crew count was reduced from seven to six.-Crew notes:...

2006, September 9 ISS mission, Return to space (second visit), Canadian Spacewalk
Dafydd Williams Endeavour STS-118
STS-118
- Crew notes :Astronaut Clayton Anderson originally was slated to be launched to the ISS on this mission, but was moved to STS-117. His replacement was Alvin Drew....

2007, August 27 ISS mission, Return to space (second visit), Canadian Spacewalk
Robert Thirsk Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-FG
The Soyuz-FG launch vehicle is an improved version of the Soyuz-U, from the R-7 family of rockets, designed and constructed by TsSKB-Progress in Samara...

Soyuz TMA-15
Soyuz TMA-15
Soyuz TMA-15 was a manned spaceflight to the International Space Station. Part of the Soyuz programme, it transported three members of the Expedition 20 crew to the space station. TMA-15 was the 102nd manned flight of a Soyuz spacecraft, since Soyuz 1 in 1967. The Soyuz spacecraft remain docked to...

 (Союз ТМА-15)
2009, May 27 Expedition 20
Expedition 20
Expedition 20 was the twentieth long-duration flight to the International Space Station. The expedition marked the first time a six-member crew inhabited the station...

, Expedition 21
Expedition 21
Expedition 21 was the 21st long-duration mission to the International Space Station . The expedition began on 30 September 2009, with Frank de Winne becoming the first ESA astronaut to command a space mission....

Return to space (second visit), First flight on a Russian launch vehicle by a Canadian, first Canadian on a permanent ISS crew
Julie Payette
Julie Payette
Julie Payette, OC, CQ is a Canadian engineer and a Canadian Space Agency astronaut. Payette has completed two spaceflights, STS-96 and STS-127, logging more than 25 days in space...

Endeavour STS-127
STS-127
STS-127 was a NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station . It was the twenty-third flight of . The primary purpose of the STS-127 mission was to deliver and install the final two components of the Japanese Experiment Module: the Exposed Facility , and the Exposed Section of the...

2009, July 15 ISS mission, First Canadian woman to return to space, First time two Canadians were in space simultaneously (with Thirsk), Largest gathering (13) of humans in space, as 7 STS-127 arrivals join 6 already on ISS, Largest gathering (5) of nationalities in space, as USA, Russia, Japan, Canada, and Belgium have astronauts together on ISS
Guy Laliberté
Guy Laliberté
Guy Laliberté, OC, CQ is a Canadian entrepreneur, philanthropist, poker player, space tourist and the current CEO of Cirque du Soleil...

Soyuz
Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz , Union) is a series of spacecraft initially designed for the Soviet space programme by the Korolyov Design Bureau in the 1960s, and still in service today...

Soyuz TMA-16
Soyuz TMA-16
The Soyuz TMA-16 was a manned flight to and from the International Space Station . It transported two members of the Expedition 21 crew and a Canadian entrepreneur from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to the ISS. TMA-16 was the 103rd flight of a Soyuz spacecraft, the first flight launching...

 (Союз ТМА-16)
2009, September 30 First Canadian space tourist


Note: Two former Canadian astronauts never flew in space; Michael McKay resigned due to medical reasons and Kenneth Money
Kenneth Money
Kenneth Money is the Senior Scientist at the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine in Toronto. He has published over one hundred science articles and authored six different topics in the World Book Encyclopedia.-Education:Money attended North Toronto Collegiate Institute for high...

 resigned in 1992, eight years after his selection.

Canadian satellites


Name Launched Retired Purpose
Alouette 1
Alouette 1
Alouette 1 was Canada's first satellite, and the first satellite constructed by a country other than the USSR or the United States. Occasionally, Alouette 1 is misrepresented as the third satellite successfully put in orbit, rather than being from the third country to have one of its own in space,...

September 29, 1962 1972 Explore the ionosphere
Ionosphere
The ionosphere is a part of the upper atmosphere, comprising portions of the mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere...

Alouette 2
Alouette 2
Alouette 2 was a Canadian research satellite launched at 04:48 UTC on November 29, 1965 by a Thor Agena rocket with Explorer 31 from the Western test range at Vandenberg AFB in California...

November 29, 1965 August 1, 1975 Explore the ionosphere
Ionosphere
The ionosphere is a part of the upper atmosphere, comprising portions of the mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere...

ISIS-I
ISIS (satellite)
ISIS I and II were the third and fourth satellites that were launched in a series of Canadian satellites sent up to study the ionosphere. After the success of Canada's Alouette 1, Canada and the United States decided to jointly launch three more satellites which they called the ISIS program...

January 30, 1969 1990 Explore the ionosphere
Ionosphere
The ionosphere is a part of the upper atmosphere, comprising portions of the mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere...

ISIS-II
ISIS (satellite)
ISIS I and II were the third and fourth satellites that were launched in a series of Canadian satellites sent up to study the ionosphere. After the success of Canada's Alouette 1, Canada and the United States decided to jointly launch three more satellites which they called the ISIS program...

April 1, 1971 1990 Explore the ionosphere
Ionosphere
The ionosphere is a part of the upper atmosphere, comprising portions of the mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. It plays an important part in atmospheric electricity and forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere...

Hermes
Hermes Communications Technology Satellite
The Communications Technology Satellite, also known as Hermes was an experimental high-power direct broadcast communications satellite. It was a joint effort of Canada's Department of Communications, who designed and managed it, NASA who launched it and provided a traveling wave guide, the European...

January 17, 1976 November, 1979 Experimental communications satellite
Communications satellite
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications...

RADARSAT-1
RADARSAT-1
Radarsat-1 is Canada's first commercial Earth observation satellite.-Mission:It was launched at 14h22 UTC on November 4, 1995 from Vandenberg AFB in California, into a sun-synchronous orbit above the Earth with an altitude of 798 kilometers and inclination of 98.6 degrees...

November 4, 1995 Still in use Commercial Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc....

MOST
Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope
The Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope, better known simply as MOST, is Canada's first and only space telescope. It is also the smallest space telescope in the world...

June 30, 2003 Still in use Space telescope
SCISAT-1
SCISAT-1
SCISAT-1 is a Canadian satellite designed to make observations of the Earth's atmosphere. Its most important instrument is an optical Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the ACE-FTS Instrument...

August 12, 2003 Still in use Observe the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention , and reducing temperature extremes between day and night...

RADARSAT-2
RADARSAT-2
Radarsat-2 is an Earth observation satellite that was successfully launched December 14, 2007 for the Canadian Space Agency by Starsem, using a Soyuz FG launch vehicle, from Kazakhstan's Baikonur Cosmodrome....

December 14, 2007 Still in use Commercial Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellite
Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc....

CASSIOPE
CASSIOPE
CASSIOPE is a hybrid satellite project of the Canadian Space Agency. Planned for launch in an elliptical polar orbit in 2011, it will carry a commercial communications system called Cascade and a scientific experiment package called ePOP...

Scheduled for 2011 CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer


Additionally, there are some commercial satellites launched by the telecommunications company Telesat Canada
Telesat Canada
Telesat Canada is a Canadian satellite communications company founded on May 2, 1969. The company is headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario as well as having offices in the United States and Brazil.On October 5, 2007 Loral Space & Communications Inc...

. These are the 13 Anik
Anik (satellite)
The Anik satellites are geostationary communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for television in Canada. In Inuktitut, Anik means "little brother".-The Satellites:-Anik A:...

 satellites (3 of which are still in use), the 3 Nimiq
Nimiq
The Nimiq satellites are a fleet of geostationary telecommunications satellites owned by the Telesat and used by satellite television providers including Bell TV and EchoStar . 'Nimiq' is an Inuit word used for an object or a force which binds things together. A contest in 1998 was held to choose...

 satellites (all currently used by Bell TV), and a satellite called M-Sat 1 launched April 20, 1996 at 22h36 UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is one of several closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. Computer servers, online services and other entities that rely on having a universally accepted time use UTC for that purpose...

.

Further, technology/research satellites have been launched by the University of Toronto, including the CanX series.

Cooperation with other national agencies


The CSA has several formal and informal partnerships and collaborative programs or agreements with space agencies in other countries, such as NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

, ESA
European Space Agency
The European Space Agency , established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 18 member states...

, JAXA
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
The , or JAXA, is Japan's national aerospace agency. Through the merger of three previously independent organizations, JAXA was formed on October 1, 2003, as an Independent Administrative Institution administered by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the...

 and ISRO.

Since January 1, 1979 Canada has had the special status of a cooperating state with the ESA, paying for the privilege and also investing in working time and providing scientific instruments which are placed on European probes. On June 21, 2000 the accord was renewed for a fourth period, this time for 10 years. By virtue of this accord Canada takes part in ESA deliberative bodies and decision-making and in ESA's programmes and activities. Canadian firms can bid for and receive contracts to work on programmes. The accord has a provision specifically ensuring a fair industrial return to Canada. The head of the Canadian delegation to ESA is the president of the Canadian Space Agency. As of February 2009, there are currently 30 Canadians that are employed as staff members at ESA. (Distributed over various ESA sites: 20 at ESTEC; 4 at ESOC; 4 at ESA HQ; 2 at ESRIN).

The CSA visited the China National Space Administration
China National Space Administration
The China National Space Administration is the national space agency of the People's Republic of China responsible for the national space program. It is responsible for planning and development of space activities...

 in October 2005 to explore the possibility of placing Canadian designed scientific instruments aboard two Chinese satellites. There was also speculation about China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 in the future perhaps wanting the Canadarm2 technology for its planned space station
Space station
A space station is a spacecraft capable of supporting a crew which is designed to remain in space for an extended period of time, and to which other spacecraft can dock. A space station is distinguished from other spacecraft used for human spaceflight by its lack of major propulsion or landing...

, but as of October 22, 2005, the CNSA has not raised the possibility.

Canadian participation in international satellite projects

Name Country Agency Date Canadian Contribution Notes
CloudSat USA NASA 1998 Radar Components
Earth Observing System (EOS) USA NASA 1999 MOPITT (measurements of pollution in the troposphere)

Future programmes


With the successful launching of Radarsat 2 in December 2007 and near completion of Canada's C$1.4 billion contribution to the ISS the agency in early 2008 found itself with no major follow-on projects. This fact was highlighted by Marc Garneau, Canada's first astronaut and former head of the CSA who in the fall of 2007 called upon the Canadian government to develop and institute a space policy for Canada.

A modest step has been taken to resolve this problem. In November 2008, the Agency signed a $40 million 16-month contract with MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. of Vancouver to begin the design of the RADARSAT Constellation (3 satellite) earth observation mission. In August 2010 further funding was awarded for detailed design work scheduled for completion by 2012. Launch of the three satellites is scheduled for 2014-15. Also in the 2009 Federal budget, the agency was awarded funding for the preliminary design of robotic Lunar/Martian rovers.

However a number of initiatives are without funding. The CSA is the lead agency for the Polar Communication and Weather mission (PCW) which involves the planned launch of two satellites in polar orbit to provide Canadian authorities with improved weather information and communications capabilities in the high arctic. Launch of the two satellites is proposed to take place in 2016. Funding for further development of the mission has yet to be approved.

In November 2012, Canadian Astronaut Chris Hadfield will launch aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to reach the International Space Station (ISS) where he will live and work for six months as part of the crew of Expedition 34/35. During the second half of his mission Hadfield will become the first Canadian Commander of the ISS—a milestone for Canadian space exploration. In addition to overseeing operations as Commander, he will carry out scientific experiments, operate Canadarm2 and perform various robotics tasks. This mission marks the last provided by NASA as "compensation" for Canada's contribution to the Shuttle and ISS programmes. After this mission, the CSA will have to pay NASA for any flights for Canadian astronauts. There is at present no funding for further missions by Canadian astronauts.

The CSA has been researching locations in Cape Breton
Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. It likely corresponds to the word Breton, the French demonym for Brittany....

, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the most populous province in Atlantic Canada. The name of the province is Latin for "New Scotland," but "Nova Scotia" is the recognized, English-language name of the province. The provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the...

 and Fort Churchill
Fort Churchill (rocket launch site)
Fort Churchill is a rocket launching complex located in Churchill, Manitoba. The site has been used on and off since the mid-1950s for sub-orbital launches of various sounding rockets during several major studies...

, Manitoba
Manitoba
Manitoba is a Canadian prairie province with an area of . The province has over 110,000 lakes and has a largely continental climate because of its flat topography. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy; other...

 for a possible launch site for the CSA. This would allow the CSA the ability to launch satellites and future spacecraft, for the first time, into orbit without the reliance of other "outside" facilities. There is as of yet no funding for these activities.

The Agency is without overall government direction and the support of the government of Canada is grudging at best. As of 2009 funding remained stagnant at about C$350,000,000 a year. Revenues for the 2009-2010 FY stood at C$328,000,000.

Locations

  • John H. Chapman Space Centre
    John H. Chapman Space Centre
    The John H. Chapman Space Centre is the headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency. It is located in Longueuil, Quebec, Canada, in the borough of Saint-Hubert.-Location:...

     - Longueuil
    Longueuil
    Longueuil is a city in the province of Quebec, Canada. It is the seat of the Montérégie administrative region and sits on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River directly across from Montreal. The population as of the Canada 2006 Census totaled 229,330, making it the third largest city in...

    , Quebec
    Quebec
    Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

  • David Florida Laboratory
    David Florida Laboratory
    The David Florida Laboratory is the Canadian Space Agency's spacecraft assembly, integration and testing centre, in Shirleys Bay, just west of Ottawa...

     - Ottawa
    Ottawa
    Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

    , Ontario
    Ontario
    Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

  • Fort Churchill
    Fort Churchill (rocket launch site)
    Fort Churchill is a rocket launching complex located in Churchill, Manitoba. The site has been used on and off since the mid-1950s for sub-orbital launches of various sounding rockets during several major studies...

     - Manitoba
    Manitoba
    Manitoba is a Canadian prairie province with an area of . The province has over 110,000 lakes and has a largely continental climate because of its flat topography. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy; other...

  • Canadian Space Agency Building - Innovation Place Research Park
    Innovation Place Research Park
    Innovation Place is the registered business name of the Saskatchewan Opportunities Corporation , a crown corporation in Saskatchewan. SOCO operates a network of three research parks: one located near the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, the second near the University of Regina...

     - Saskatoon
    Saskatoon
    Saskatoon is a city in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. Residents of the city of Saskatoon are called Saskatonians. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344....

    , Saskatchewan
    Saskatchewan
    Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....



A number of launch facilities have been used by the CSA to launch their payload:
  • Baikonur Cosmodrome
    Baikonur Cosmodrome
    The Baikonur Cosmodrome , also called Tyuratam, is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility. It is located in the desert steppe of Kazakhstan, about east of the Aral Sea, north of the Syr Darya river, near Tyuratam railway station, at 90 meters above sea level...

     in Kazakhstan
    Kazakhstan
    Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

     (leased to Russian Federal Space Agency
    Russian Federal Space Agency
    The Russian Federal Space Agency , commonly called Roscosmos and abbreviated as FKA and RKA , is the government agency responsible for the Russian space science program and general aerospace research. It was previously the Russian Aviation and Space Agency .Headquarters of Roscosmos are located...

     and Russian Space Forces)
  • Vandenberg Air Force Base
    Vandenberg Air Force Base
    Vandenberg Air Force Base is a United States Air Force Base, located approximately northwest of Lompoc, California. It is under the jurisdiction of the 30th Space Wing, Air Force Space Command ....

     in California
    California
    California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

     (USAF)
  • Cape Canaveral
    Cape Canaveral
    Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it lies east of Merritt Island, separated from it by the Banana River.It is part of a region known as the...

     in Florida
    Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

     (NASA
    NASA
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

    )
  • Plesetsk Cosmodrome
    Plesetsk Cosmodrome
    Plesetsk Cosmodrome is a Russian spaceport, located in Arkhangelsk Oblast, about 800 km north of Moscow and approximately 200 km south of Arkhangelsk.-Overview:...

     in Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

     (Russian Federal Space Agency
    Russian Federal Space Agency
    The Russian Federal Space Agency , commonly called Roscosmos and abbreviated as FKA and RKA , is the government agency responsible for the Russian space science program and general aerospace research. It was previously the Russian Aviation and Space Agency .Headquarters of Roscosmos are located...

    )

See also

  • List of space agencies
  • Timeline of space travel by nationality
  • Canadian government scientific research organizations
    Canadian government scientific research organizations
    Expenditures by federal and provincial organizations on scientific research and development accounted for about 10% of all such spending in Canada in 2006...

  • Canadian university scientific research organizations
    Canadian university scientific research organizations
    Expenditures by Canadian universities on scientific research and development accounted for about 40% of all spending on scientific research and development in Canada in 2006....

  • Canadian industrial research and development organizations
    Canadian industrial research and development organizations
    Expenditures by Canadian corporations on research and development accounted for about 50% of all spending on scientific research and development in Canada in 2007....

  • Canadian Geospace Monitoring
    Canadian Geospace Monitoring
    Canadian Geospace Monitoring is a Canadian space science program that was initiated in 2005. CGSM is funded primarily by the Canadian Space Agency, and consists of networks of imagers, meridian scanning photometers, riometers, magnetometers, digital ionosondes, and High Frequency SuperDARN radars...

  • Science and technology in Canada
    Science and technology in Canada
    Science and technology in Canada consists of three distinct but closely related phenomena:* the diffusion of technology in Canada,* scientific research in Canada* innovation, invention and industrial research in Canada...


External links