Barrackpore

Barrackpore

Overview
Barrackpore or Barrackpur is headquarters of Barrackpore subdivision
Barrackpore subdivision
Barrackpore subdivision , is a subdivision of the North 24 Parganas district in the state of West Bengal, India. It consists of sixteen municipalities , one Cantonment Board ,...

 in North 24 Parganas district
North 24 Parganas district
North 24 Parganas district is a district in southern West Bengal, of eastern India. North 24 Parganas extends in the [tropical zone] from latitude 22º11'6" north to 23º15'2" north and from longitude 88º20' east to 89º5' east...

 in the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

. The town was a military and administrative center under British rule, and was the scene of several acts of rebellion against Britain during the 19th century. It is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority
Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority
Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority is the statutory planning and development authority for the Kolkata Metropolitan Area in the state of West Bengal, India. The organisation was previously known as Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority and still retains the previous logo...

.

The name Barrackpore may have originated from the word the English word barracks
Barracks
Barracks are specialised buildings for permanent military accommodation; the word may apply to separate housing blocks or to complete complexes. Their main object is to separate soldiers from the civilian population and reinforce discipline, training and esprit de corps. They were sometimes called...

 as the site of the first cantonment of the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Barrackpore'
Start a new discussion about 'Barrackpore'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Recent Discussions
Encyclopedia
Barrackpore or Barrackpur is headquarters of Barrackpore subdivision
Barrackpore subdivision
Barrackpore subdivision , is a subdivision of the North 24 Parganas district in the state of West Bengal, India. It consists of sixteen municipalities , one Cantonment Board ,...

 in North 24 Parganas district
North 24 Parganas district
North 24 Parganas district is a district in southern West Bengal, of eastern India. North 24 Parganas extends in the [tropical zone] from latitude 22º11'6" north to 23º15'2" north and from longitude 88º20' east to 89º5' east...

 in the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

. The town was a military and administrative center under British rule, and was the scene of several acts of rebellion against Britain during the 19th century. It is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority
Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority
Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority is the statutory planning and development authority for the Kolkata Metropolitan Area in the state of West Bengal, India. The organisation was previously known as Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority and still retains the previous logo...

.

Origin of name


The name Barrackpore may have originated from the word the English word barracks
Barracks
Barracks are specialised buildings for permanent military accommodation; the word may apply to separate housing blocks or to complete complexes. Their main object is to separate soldiers from the civilian population and reinforce discipline, training and esprit de corps. They were sometimes called...

 as the site of the first cantonment of the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

. Barrackpore was known as `Chanak` and is mentioned by that name in the `Manasa Vijay` written by Bipradas Pipilai(1495).
According to another source which is most acceptable , the name originates from " BARBAKPUR". This is mentioned in "Ain-e-Akbari" written by Abul Fazal(1596–97).

History


The earliest references to the Barrackpore region are found in the writings of the Greek navigators, geographers, chronicles and historians of the 1st century BC to the 3rd century A.D. These authors generally referred to the country of a people variously called the Gangaridae, Gangaridai, Gandaritai etc.

By the 15th and 16th century, Chanak and the other towns in the region became populous river towns. The Statistical Account of Bengal by W.W. Hunter in 1857 mentions the towns and villages of this subdivision on the banks of the Hooghly river as chief trading and marketing centres: "On The Hugli- Calcutta, the chief seat of commerce in India. Baranagar, Dakhineswar, Agarpara, Panihati, Sukchar- Khardah, Barrackpur, Nawabganj, Ichapore, Shyam Nagar, Naihati and Halisahar contain large bazaars for sale of miscellaneous goods."

Under the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

, Bengal was divided into Circar
Circar
The Northern Circars was a former division of British India's Madras Presidency, which consisted of a narrow slip of territory lying along the western side of the Bay of Bengal from 15° 40' to 20° 17' north latitude, in the present-day Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa...

s, or administrative subunits, each of which was ruled over by a Mahal. The name "Barbuckpur", another name for Barrackpore, is associated with a Mahal in the Ain-e-Akbari. From the 17th century, the area was ruled over by a line of Zamindars from the Nona Chandanpukur, Barrackpore.

The first British
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 barrack or cantonment
Cantonment
A cantonment is a temporary or semi-permanent military or police quarters. The word cantonment is derived from the French word canton meaning corner or district, as is the name of the Cantons of Switzerland. In South Asia, the term cantonment also describes permanent military stations...

 in India was built here in 1772, providing the town with its name. After the British crown assumed direct control of India, the sprawling Government House and the Government Estate were built in Barrackpore to provide the viceroy with a suburban residence 15 miles (24.1 km) outside of Calcutta.

Two rebellions against British authority took place in Barrackpore in the 19th century. The first of these was in 1824, led by Sepoy Binda Tiwary. In this rebellion, the mostly high-caste Hindu 47th Bengal Native Infantry refused to board boats to cross the polluting "dark waters" to Burma in the First Anglo-Burmese War. Consequently, British-manned artillery fired upon and "erased" them. In 1857, Barrackpore was the scene of an incident that some credit with starting the Indian rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

; an Indian soldier, Mangal Pandey
Mangal Pandey
Mangal Pandey was a sepoy in the 34th Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry of the English East India Company. He is widely known in India as one of its first freedom fighters...

, attacked his British commander, and was subsequently court-martialled. His regiment was disbanded, an action which offended a number of sepoys and is considered to have contributed to the anger that fueled the rebellion

Geography


Barrackpore is located at 22.76°N 88.37°E. It has an average elevation of 15 metres (49 feet). It is located in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta region in the North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal state. The city is about 23 km from Kolkata (previously Calcutta), and 115 km from the border with Bangladesh. The city is on the eastern bank of the river, Ganges.

Economy


The subdivision is served by road, rail and air transport. Moreover, it enjoys the benefit of the Hooghly river, which flows through the western part of this subdivision. The presence of the river paved the way for the establishment of a large number of industries on its banks early in India's industrial development, including jute
Jute
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, which has been classified in the family Tiliaceae, or more recently in Malvaceae....

, engineering, paper
Paper
Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets....

, and cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

 mills. Barrackpore has also traditionally had a strong small scale cottage industry and handicraft sector.

Agriculture is the main base of the subdivision's economy, with a variety of crops being produced. Floriculture
Floriculture
Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry...

, pisciculture and horticulture
Horticulture
Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation including the process of preparing soil for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic...

 have also flourished to a large extent. Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute has been established at Barrackpore to promote production of fishes mainly in ponds and rivers. A well-developed irrigation system has been constructed in the subdivision to promote agriculture. Low interest loans have also been used to encourage the expansion of farming and the development of agricultural infrastructure.

The primary industry in Barrackpore is jute processing, centered in a number of jute mills on the side of the river. Ishapore Rifle Factory
Ishapore Rifle Factory
The Ishapore Rifle Factory is an Arms manufacturing plant located at Ishapore, in the Indian sub-division of Barrackpore, outside Calcutta in West Bengal....

 is one of the most important arms factories of India, supplying the requirements of the security forces. Mulazore Thermal Power Plant at Shyamnagar
Shyamnagar
Shyamnagar Upazila is a small town and the largest thana of Bangladesh with an area of 1968.24 km². It has many beautiful places including some part of the Sundarban, the largest mangrove forest in the world.-Location:...

 was one of the oldest power plants in India, but was shut down in 2004. Dry cells produced by Exide, and cables produced by Nicco are other noteworthy industrial products.

Barrackpore is also famous for its oldest water treatment plant in the river banks of Hooghly viz., Palta water works spreading over a sprawling strecth of 480 acres (1.9 km²),was the first intake point constructed during 1864-1870 for generation and supply of water and lately due to high demand of water, the Kolkata Municipal Corporation commissioned Indira Gandhi Water Treatment Plant near the same locality to augment the capacity of supply of water to Tallah.

The subdivision also has a strong human resource connected with many colleges and technical institutions, universities. Barrackpore is one of the most developed regions in West Bengal. The literacy rate in the sub-division is above the average standard of the state and district.

Demographics


India census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

, Barrackpur had a population of 144,331. Men constitute 53% of the population and women 47%. Barrackpur has an average literacy rate of 81%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 8% of the population is under 6 years of age. majority of the population is Bengali and Hindu.

Administration


The only Military Cantonment and Police Training Academy in West Bengal are both located in Barrackpore. Barrackpore is also the seat for the Sub-Divisional Court of Northern 24 Parganas District.

Roads and transport


The Barrackpore sub-division is well connected both by road and railways. With the two National Highways, NH-34 and NH-35, and several major State Highways passing through the area, most towns are well connected with Kolkata, its airport and port, and other important urban and commercial centres of the state. The main international airport in West Bengal, Netaji Subhas International Airport at Dum Dum, is located in the sub-division. Transport up and down the Hooghly river is available by ferry.

The Barrackpore Trunk Road (B. T. Road), one of the oldest metal roads in India, connects Barrackpore to Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

. From Shyambazar 45–50 minutes bus ride takes you to Barrackpore Chiriamore. The Ghoshpara Road connects the city of Barrackpore with Kanchrapara
Kanchrapara
Kanchrapara is a city and a municipality under Bijpur police station of Barrackpore subdivision. in North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority.-Geography:...

, a town on the boundary of the subivision, and goes on to link Barrackpore with the adjacent district of Nadia.There several bus routes are available in Barrackpore.Route number 78 and other state owned bus routes connect Barrackpore with Kolkata city.Route number 85 connects Barrackpore with Kanchrapara directly.There are several auto services available for different places which can be availed from Barrackpore station area or from BT road(Near Jayanti Multiplex).

Barrackpore has been serviced by rail since 1862. It takes about 35-40 mins. from Sealdah by suburban train to reach Barrackpore. Located as they are in a suburban region of Kolkata, most municipalities of Barrackpore are connected by local train with Kolkata. The railway line in Sealdah Section extends through this sub-division to Ranaghat
Ranaghat
Ranaghat is a city in the district of Nadia, West Bengal, India. It is situated 74 kilometres north of Calcutta. It is known for its handloom industry, various types of flowers and sweet dishes. The town has spread up along its borders in all corners recently. People from the nearby places do come...

, Bongaon, Dankuni
Dankuni
Dankuni is a fast-growing industrial township near Kolkata, India. The town is part of the Hooghly District, in the state of West Bengal. It is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority....

, Howrah, Burdwan, Bandel
Bandel
Bandel , founded by Portuguese settlers, is a gram panchayat in Chinsurah-Mogra block in Chinsurah subdivision of Hooghly district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is under Chinsurah police station. A major junction station of Eastern Railway, it is 40 km from Howrah station...

. It is part of the Kolkata Suburban Railway
Kolkata Suburban Railway
The Kolkata Suburban Railway is the rail system for the suburbs surrounding the city of Kolkata . Railways such as this are important and heavily-used infrastructure in India....

 system. The Circular and Metro Railways of Kolkata also offer an accessible means of transit to and from the sub-division.

Plans are currently in place to lay double railway line to Hasnabad
Hasnabad
Hasnabad is an administrative division in Basirhat subdivision of North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Hasnabad police station serves this block...

 to improve connectivity. In January 2002 the rail connection to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

 was reopened for goods movement to Benapole.

Accessibility by road is currently being improved by the development of the Barrackpore-Dum Dum Expressway, a project to widen the Jessore Road and widen and strengthen the B. T. Road, and the widening of NH-34 under the North-South Corridor Project.In terms of rail transport, meanwhile, the Metro Rail has proposed to extend its operations to the airport from Dum Dum.Barrackpore has come under the extension planned by the Metro Rail governing body. However,no significant developments have occurred with respect to the extension of the Metro Rail corridor to Barrackpore.

Heritage and culture


Barrackpore was home to a number of significant members of the Indian independence movement, many of whom have memorials in the subdivision. He has a memorial in the subdivision. Another significant leader of the movement who lived in Barrackpore is Rastraguru Surendra Nath Bandyopadhyay, who was called the father of Indian Nationalist Movement. The house of Surendranath at Monirampur of Barrackpore has now been converted to Rastraguru Surendranath Institute and Netaji Open University. Gandhi also spent time in the area, and the famous Gandhi Ghat is located on the west bank of the Hooghly. A Gandhi museum nearby has rare collection of books, articles used by Gandhi.

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya, the author of India's national song "Vande Mataram
Vande Mataram
Vande Mataram is a poem from the famed novel Anandamath which was written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1882. It was written in Bengali and Sanskrit....

", was born at Naihati, in Barrackpore subdivision. "Vande Mataram" is credited to him. Another noted literary figure of the post independence era, Samaresh Basu, also hailed from Naihati. His noted work 'Ganga' vividly depicts the life of the fishermen of the Hooghly (Ganges) rivers.

Earlier in the area's history, noted Bengali author Bharat Chandra Ray Gunakar
Bharatchandra Ray
Bharatchandra Ray was an 18th century Bengali and Sanskrit poet and song composer. He is mostly known for his poetic work, Annadamangal or Annapurnamangal. He is often referred to simply as Bharatchandra.-Early years:...

 lived at Mulajore. He is famous for his "Annadamangal Kavya" written in the medieval period. The subdivision is inhabited by people from a broad range of cultures, with people of various religions, customs, caste
Caste
Caste is an elaborate and complex social system that combines elements of endogamy, occupation, culture, social class, tribal affiliation and political power. It should not be confused with race or social class, e.g. members of different castes in one society may belong to the same race, as in India...

s and states living together. Mandirs, Masjids, Gurdwara
Gurdwara
A Gurdwara , meaning the Gateway to the Guru, is the place of worship for Sikhs, the followers of Sikhism. A Gurdwara can be identified from a distance by tall flagpoles bearing the Nishan Sahib ....

, ashram
Ashram
Traditionally, an ashram is a spiritual hermitage. Additionally, today the term ashram often denotes a locus of Indian cultural activity such as yoga, music study or religious instruction, the moral equivalent of a studio or dojo....

s and churches coexist there. The Durga puja
Durga Puja
Durga puja ; দুর্গা পূজা,ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା,‘Worship of Durga’), also referred to as Durgotsava ; , is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and...

 a festival held annually in the autumn, is the major festival in the area. There is a month-long fair in December–January (Bengali month of Pousha) at the temple of goddess Kali at Shyamnagar on the bank of Ganges.

A famous Kali Sadhak (Saint devoted to Kali), Ramprasad Sen, who authored many religious songs, was born at Halisahar in this subdivision. The towns of Panihati and Khardaha are also famous for having been visited by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was a Vaishnava saint and social reformer in eastern India in the 16th century, believed by followers of Gaudiya Vaishnavism to be the full incarnation of Lord Krishna...

 and Nityananda Prabhu
Nityananda
Image:Panca-tattva Altar.jpg|thumb|This is interactive image-map. Click! on lotus feet. Sri Krishna Chaitanya , Sri Nityananda Prabhu , Sri Advaita Acharya , Sri Gadadhara Pandit , Sri Srivas Pandit...

 some 500 years ago. Annual festivals and melas are held at these places and draw large numbers of devotees. Later on these places were further enriched with presence of Sri Ram Krishna Paramahansa
Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna , born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay , was a famous mystic of 19th-century India. His religious school of thought led to the formation of the Ramakrishna Mission by his chief disciple Swami Vivekananda – both were influential figures in the Bengali Renaissance as well as the Hindu...

, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore , sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped his region's literature and music. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European Nobel laureate by earning the 1913 Prize in Literature...

, and Mahatma Gandhi.

For entertainments, there is one good theatre hall "Sukanta Sadan" (named after the revolutionary poet Sukanta Bhattacharya) in the main town Barrackpore. There are many cinema halls in Barrackpore and its adjacent localities.A new multiplex named jayanti cinema has come up recently. There is a very beautiful park "Sahid Mangal Pandey Uddan" facing the Ganges at Barrackpore. The famous "Gandhi Ghat" is also situated in Barrackpore town, on the bank of Ganges river. "Gandhi Ghat" and its adjacent "Jawahar Udhyan" are very popular place for picnics and short getaway trips.

Education


Barrackpore is home to numerous schools, colleges and Madrasah
Madrasah
Madrasah is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious...

s. The world famous schools of Ramakrishna Mission, Rahara, Ramkrishna Vivekananda mission, Barrackpore, Ramakrishna Mission Baranagar, Barrackpore Govt. High School are situated here. A number of high schools in the district have a history of performing well in national standardized testing. Among the colleges located in Barrackpore are Barrackpore Rastraguru Surendranath College, Mahadevananda Mahavidyalaya, BKC College Bonhooghly, Bhairab ganguly College, and Panihati College. The district also has two engineering colleges, several polytechnic institutes and an international boarding school, Adamas International School.

There are numerous educational institutions in Barrackpore imparting higher education, notable being National Institute of Management & Technology (NIMT). NIMT is affiliated to Sikkim Manipal University and offers graduate and Master degree programs.
This state of the art institute located next to Barrackpore Municipality offers three-year and two-year degree programs in IT, Computers, Management, Journalism & Fashion. Students are offered campus placements at the end of the degree program.

The most popular schools in Barrackpore town are Barrackpore Govt. High School, Monirampur High School, Ramakrishna Vivekananda Mission Vidyabhawan, Debi Prasad Higher Secondary School, Barrackpore Cantonment Girls' High School, Army School, DAV School, 4 Kendriya Vidyalayas ( Near Ichapur Station:Army, Airforce, Rifle Factory and Eastland Estate), Bholananda National Vidyalaya, Manmatha Nath High School, Barrackpore Girls High School, Assembly of Angels, St. Augustine's Day School, Modern School, Modern English Academy, Douglas Memorial Higher Secondary School, Barrackpore Central Model School, Sishu Angan, Assembly of Christ School.

There are two colleges within the city of Barrackpore, namely Barrackpore Rastraguru Surendranath College and Mahadevananda Mahavidyalaya, and few others like P.N. DAS College, Palta within the Barrackpore Sub-Division. A new university known as the West Bengal State University http://www.wbsub.org is already operational at Barasat near Barrackpore. As a consequence of the opening of the new university, the famous Rashtraguru Surendranath College and many other colleges have come under its authority from erstwhile control under Calcutta University.

Healthcare


Barrackpore has one Government Hospital (B.N. Bose Hospital) along B T Road (B.T.- Barrackpore Trunk) and many other in the subdivisions. Major private hospitals in Barrackpore are BMRC, Panacea, Sarada Seva Sadan, Matri Sadan to name a few.

See also

  • Barrackpore I (Community development block)
    Barrackpore I (Community development block)
    Barrackpore I is an administrative division in Barrackpore subdivision of North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Bijpur, Naihati, Jagatdal and Noapara police stations serve this block...

  • Barrackpore II (Community development block)
    Barrackpore II (Community development block)
    Barrackpore II is an administrative division in Barrackpore subdivision of North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Titagarh, Khardah and Ghola police stations serve this block...