Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Amul

Amul

Overview
Amul formed in 1946, is a dairy
Dairy
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting of animal milk—mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffalo, sheep, horses or camels —for human consumption. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or section of a multi-purpose farm that is concerned...

 cooperative
Cooperative
A cooperative is a business organization owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit...

 in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. It is a brand name
Brand
The American Marketing Association defines a brand as a "Name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers."...

 managed by an apex cooperative organisation, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), which today is jointly owned by some 3.1 million milk producers in Gujarat, India.
Amul is based in Anand
Anand, Gujarat
]]Anand is the administrative centre of Anand District in the state of Gujarat, India. It is administered by Anand Municipality. It is part of the region known as Charotar, consisting of Anand and Kheda Districts....

, Gujarat and has been an example of a co-operative organization's success in the long term.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Amul'
Start a new discussion about 'Amul'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Recent Discussions
Encyclopedia
Amul formed in 1946, is a dairy
Dairy
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting of animal milk—mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffalo, sheep, horses or camels —for human consumption. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or section of a multi-purpose farm that is concerned...

 cooperative
Cooperative
A cooperative is a business organization owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit...

 in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. It is a brand name
Brand
The American Marketing Association defines a brand as a "Name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers."...

 managed by an apex cooperative organisation, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), which today is jointly owned by some 3.1 million milk producers in Gujarat, India.
Amul is based in Anand
Anand, Gujarat
]]Anand is the administrative centre of Anand District in the state of Gujarat, India. It is administered by Anand Municipality. It is part of the region known as Charotar, consisting of Anand and Kheda Districts....

, Gujarat and has been an example of a co-operative organization's success in the long term. "Anyone who has seen … the dairy cooperatives in the state of Gujarat, especially the highly successful one known as AMUL, will naturally wonder what combination of influences and incentives is needed to multiply such a model a thousand times over in developing regions everywhere." The Amul Pattern has established itself as a uniquely appropriate model for rural development. Amul has spurred the White Revolution of India, which has made India the largest producer of milk and milk products in the world. It is also the world's biggest vegetarian cheese brand
.

Amul is the largest food brand in India and world's Largest Pouched Milk Brand with an annual turnover of US $2.2 billion (2010-11). Currently Unions making up GCMMF have 3.1 million producer members with milk collection average of 9.10 million litres per day. Besides India, Amul has entered overseas markets such as Mauritius
Mauritius
Mauritius , officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar...

, UAE, USA, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

, Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 and a few South Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

n countries. Its bid to enter Japanese
Japanese people
The are an ethnic group originating in the Japanese archipelago and are the predominant ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide, approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 127 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live in other countries...

 market in 1994 did not succeed, but now it has fresh plans entering the Japanese markets. Other potential markets being considered include Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

.

Dr Verghese Kurien, former chairman of the GCMMF, is recognised as a key person behind the success of Amul. On 10 Aug 2006 Parthi Bhatol
Parthi Bhatol
Parthi Bhatol is the chairman of the Banaskantha Milk Producers' Union. He was elected chairman of the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation , India's largest food marketing company, on 26 April 2006.-References:...

, chairman of the Banaskantha Union, was elected chairman of GCMMF.



History


The Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers' Union
Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers' Union
Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers' Union Limited was the First Co-operative Milk Producers' Union started in Gujarat, formed in Kheda district, whose founding chairman was social worker, Tribhovandas Patel....

 was registered on December 14, 1946 as a response to exploitation of marginal milk producers by traders or agents of existing dairies in the small town named Anand
Anand
*Ananda was one of the principal disciples of the Buddha, Siddhartha GautamaAnand may refer to:-Given name:* Anand Agarawala, Canadian software programmer and creator of BumpTop* Anand Lal Shimpi, founder and editor-in-chief of AnandTech...

 (in Kaira District of Gujarat). Milk Producers had to travel long distances to deliver milk to the only dairy, the Polson Dairy in Anand. Often milk went sour as producers had to physically carry the milk in individual containers, especially in the summer season. These agents arbitrarily decided the prices depending on the production and the season. Milk is a commodity that has to be collected twice a day from each cow/buffalo. In winter, the producer was either left with surplus / unsold milk or had to sell it at very low prices. Moreover, the government at that time had given monopoly rights to Polson Dairy (around that time Polson was the most well known butter brand in the country) to collect milk from Anand and supply it to Bombay city in turn. India ranked nowhere amongst milk producing countries in the world because of its limitations in 1946 British Raj.

Angered by the unfair and manipulative trade practices, the farmers of Kaira District approached Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was an Indian barrister and statesman, one of the leaders of the Indian National Congress and one of the founding fathers of India...

 (who later became the first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of free India) under the leadership of the local farmer leader Tribhuvandas Patel. Sardar Patel advised the farmers to form a Cooperative and supply milk directly to the Bombay Milk Scheme instead of selling it to Polson (who did the same but gave low prices to the producers). He sent Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
Morarji Ranchhodji Desai was an Indian independence activist and the fourth Prime Minister of India from 1977–79. He was the first Indian Prime Minister who did not belong to the Indian National Congress...

 (who later became Prime Minister of India) to organize the farmers. In 1946, the farmers of the area went on a milk strike refusing to be further oppressed. Thus the Kaira District Cooperative was established to collect and process milk in the District of Kaira in 1946. Milk collection was also decentralized, as most producers were marginal farmers who were in a position to deliver 1-2 litres of milk per day. Village level cooperatives were established to organize the marginal milk producers in each of these villages.

The Cooperative was further developed and managed by Dr. V Kurien along with Shri H M Dalaya. The first modern dairy of the Kaira Union was established at Anand. Indigenous research and development and technology development at the Cooperative had led to the successful production of skimmed milk powder from buffalo milk – the first time on a commercial scale anywhere in the world.

The success of the dairy co-operative movement spread rapidly in Gujarat. Within a short span five other district unions – Mehsana, Banaskantha, Baroda, Sabarkantha and Surat were organized. In order to combine forces and expand the market while saving on advertising and avoid a situation where milk cooperatives would compete against each other it was decided to set up an apex marketing body of dairy cooperative unions in Gujarat. Thus, in 1973, the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation was established. The Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. which had established the brand name Amul in 1955 decided to hand over the brand name to GCMMF (AMUL).

Dr. Verghese Kurien
Verghese Kurien
Verghese Kurien is the founder of the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation , an apex cooperative organization that manages the Amul food brand. He is recognised as the man behind the success of the Amul brand.He is credited with being the architect of Operation Flood – the largest dairy...

, the World Food Prize
World Food Prize
The World Food Prize is an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity or availability of food in the world.-The Prize:...

 and the Magsaysay Award winner, was the architect of India’s White Revolution
White Revolution
The White Revolution was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah’s reform program was built especially to strengthen those classes that supported the traditional system...

, which helped India emerge as the largest milk producer in the world.

Impressed with the development of dairy cooperatives in Kaira District and its success, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Srivastava Shastri was the second Prime Minister of the Republic of India and a significant figure in the Indian independence movement.-Early life:...

, the then Prime Minister of India during his visit to Anand in 1964, asked Dr. V Kurien to replicate the Anand type dairy cooperatives all over India. Thus, the National Dairy Developed Board was formed and Operation Flood
Operation Flood
Operation Flood was a rural development programme started by India's National Dairy Development Board in 1970. One of the largest of its kind, the programme objective was to create a nationwide milk grid....

 Programme was launched for replication of the Amul Model all over India.

GCMMF Today


GCMMF is India's largest food products marketing organisation.. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in Gujarat, which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing affordable quality products. GCMMF markets and manages the Amul brand. From mid-1990s Amul has entered areas not related directly to its core business. Its entry into ice cream
Ice cream
Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners...

 was regarded as successful due to the large market share it was able to capture within a short period of time – primarily due to the price differential and the brand name. It also entered the pizza
Pizza
Pizza is an oven-baked, flat, disc-shaped bread typically topped with a tomato sauce, cheese and various toppings.Originating in Italy, from the Neapolitan cuisine, the dish has become popular in many parts of the world. An establishment that makes and sells pizzas is called a "pizzeria"...

 business, where the base and the recipes were made available to restaurant owners who could price it as low as 30 rupees per pizza when the other players were charging upwards of 100 rupees.

Company info


The Gujarat Cooperative milk Marketing Federation Ltd, Anand (GCMMF) is the largest food products marketing organisation of India. It is the apex organization of the Dairy Cooperatives of Gujarat. This State has been a pioneer in organizing dairy cooperatives and our success has not only been emulated in India but serves as a model for rest of the World. Over the last five and a half decades, Dairy Cooperatives in Gujarat have created an economic network that links more than 3.1 million village milk producers with millions of consumers in India These cooperatives collect on an average 9.4 million litres of milk per day from their producer members, more than 70% of whom are small, marginal farmers and landless labourers and include a sizeable population of tribal folk and people belonging to the scheduled castes.

The turnover of GCMMF (AMUL) during 2010-11 was Rs. 97.74  billion. It markets the products, produced by the district milk unions in 30 dairy plants,The farmers of Gujarat own the largest state of the art dairy plant in Asia – Mother Dairy, Gandhinagar, Gujarat – which can handle 2.5 million litres of milk per day and process 100 MTs of milk powder daily.. GCMMF (AMUL)’s Total Quality Management ensures the quality of products right from the starting point (milk producer) through the value chain until it reaches the consumer.

Ever since the movement was launched fifty-five years ago, Gujarat’s Dairy Cooperatives have brought about a significant social and economic change to our rural people. The Dairy Cooperatives have helped in ending the exploitation of farmers and demonstrated that when our rural producers benefit, the community and nation benefits as well.

The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. cannot be viewed simply as a business enterprise. It is an institution created by the milk producers themselves to primarily safeguard their interest economically, socially as well as democratically. Business houses create profit in order to distribute it to the shareholders. In the case of GCMMF the surplus is ploughed back to farmers through the District Unions as well as the village societies. This circulation of capital with value addition within the structure not only benefits the final beneficiary – the farmer – but eventually contributes to the development of the village community. This is the most significant contribution the Amul Model cooperatives has made in building the Nation.

The Three-tier "Amul Model"


The Amul Model is a three-tier cooperative structure. This structure consists of a Dairy Cooperative Society at the village level affiliated to a Milk Union at the District level which in turn is furthler federated into a Milk Federation at the State level. The above three-tier structure was set up in order to delegate the various functions, milk collection is done at the Village Dairy Society, Milk Procurement & Processing at the District Milk Union and Milk & Milk Products Marketing at the State Milk Federation. This helps in eliminating not only internal competition but also ensuring that economies of scale is achieved. As the above structure was first evolved at Amul in Gujarat and thereafter replicated all over the country under the Operation Flood Programme, it is known as the ‘Amul Model’ or ‘Anand Pattern’ of Dairy Cooperatives.

Responsible for Marketing of Milk & Milk Products
Responsible for Procurement & Processing of Milk
Responsible for Collection of Milk
Responsible for Milk Production

3.1 Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS)

The main functions of the VDCS are as follows:
  • Collection of surplus milk from the milk producers of the village & payment based on quality & quantity
  • Providing support services to the members like Veterinary First Aid, Artificial Insemination services, cattle-feed sales, mineral mixture sales, fodder & fodder seed sales, conducting training on Animal Husbandry & Dairying, etc.
  • Selling liquid milk for local consumers of the village
  • Supplying milk to the District Milk Union

Thus, the VDCS in an independent entity managed locally by the milk producers and assisted by the District Milk Union.

3.2 District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union (Milk Union)

The main functions of the Milk Union are as follows:
  • Procurement of milk from the Village Dairy Societies of the District
  • Arranging transportation of raw milk from the VDCS to the Milk Union.
  • Providing input services to the producers like Veterinary Care, Artificial Insemination services, cattle-feed sales, mineral mixture sales, fodder & fodder seed sales, etc.
  • Conducting training on Cooperative Development, Animal Husbandry & Dairying for milk producers and conducting specialised skill development & Leadership Development training for VDCS staff & Management Committee members.
  • Providing management support to the VDCS along with regular supervision of its activities.
  • Establish Chilling Centres & Dairy Plants for processing the milk received from the villages.
  • Selling liquid milk & milk products within the District
  • Process milk into various milk & milk products as per the requirement of State Marketing Federation.
  • Decide on the prices of milk to be paid to milk producers as well on the prices of support services provided to members.


3.3 State Cooperative Milk Federation (Federation)
The main functions of the Federation are as follows:
  • Marketing of milk & milk products processed / manufactured by Milk Unions.
  • Establish distribution network for marketing of milk & milk products.
  • Arranging transportation of milk & milk products from the Milk Unions to the market.
  • Creating & maintaining a brand for marketing of milk & milk products (brand building).
  • Providing support services to the Milk Unions & members like Technical Inputs, management support & advisory services.
  • Pooling surplus milk from the Milk Unions and supplying it to deficit Milk Unions.
  • Establish feeder-balancing Dairy Plants for processing the surplus milk of the Milk Unions.
  • Arranging for common purchase of raw materials used in manufacture / packaging of milk products.
  • Decide on the prices of milk & milk products to be paid to Milk Unions.
  • Decide on the products to be manufactured at various Milk Unions (product-mix) and capacity required for the same.
  • Conduct long-term Milk Production, Procurement & Processing as well as Marketing Planning.
  • Arranging Finance for the Milk Unions and providing them technical know-how.
  • Designing & Providing training on Cooperative Development, Technical & Marketing functions.
  • Conflict Resolution & keeping the entire structure intact.

Today, we have around 176 cooperative dairy Unions formed by 1,25,000 dairy cooperative societies having a total membership of around 13 million farmers on the same pattern, who are processing and marketing milk and milk products profitably, be it Amul in Gujarat or Verka in Punjab, Vijaya in Andhra Pradesh or a Nandini in Karnataka. This entire process has created more than 190 dairy processing plants spread all over India with large investments by these farmers’ institutions. These cooperatives today collect approximately 23 million kgs. of milk per day and pay an aggregate amount of more than Rs.125 billion to the milk producers in a year.

Impact of the "Amul Model"


The effects of Operation Flood Programme are more appraised by the World Bank in its recent evaluation report. It has been proved that an investment of Rs. 20 billion over 20 years under Operation Flood Programme in 70s & 80s has contributed in increase of India’s milk production by 40 Million Metric Tonne (MMT) i.e. from about 20 MMT in pre- Operation Flood period to more than 60 MMT at the end of Operation flood Programme. Thus, an incremental return of Rs. 400 billion annually have been generated by an investment of Rs. 20 billion over a period of 20 years. This has been the most beneficial project funded by the World Bank anywhere in the World. One can continue to see the effect of these efforts as India’s milk production continues to increase and now stands at 90 MMT. Despite this fourfold increase in milk production, there has not been drop in the prices of milk during the period and has continued to grow.

Due to this movement, the country’s milk production tripled between the years 1971 to 1996. Similarly, the per capita milk consumption doubled from 111 gms per day in 1973 to 222 gms per day in 2000. Thus, these cooperatives have not just been instrumental in economic development of the rural society of India but it also has provided vital ingredient for improving health & nutritional requirement of the Indian society. Very few industries of India have such parallels of development encompassing such a large population.

These dairy cooperatives have been responsible in uplifting the social & economic status of the women folk in particular as women are basically involved in dairying while the men are busy with their agriculture. This has also provided a definite source of income to the women leading to their economic emancipation.

The three-tier ‘Amul Model’ has been instrumental in bringing about the White Revolution in the country. As per the assessment report of the World Bank on the Impact of Dairy Development in India, the ‘Anand Pattern’ has demonstrated the following benefits:
  • have multi-dimensional impacts
  • The importance of getting government out of commercial enterprises
  • The importance of market failure in agriculture
  • The power & problems of participatory organisations
  • The importance of policy

Achievements of the "Amul Movement"

  1. The dairy cooperatives have been able to maintain democratic structure at least at the grass-root level with the management committee of the village level unit elected from among the members in majority of the villages.
  2. The dairy cooperatives have also been instrumental in bridging the social divide of caste, creed, race, religion & language at the villages, by offering open and voluntary membership.

Achievements of GCMMF

  • 3.1 million milk producer member families
  • 15,760 village societies
  • 15 District Unions
  • 9.4 million liters of milk procured per day
  • Rs. 150 million disbursed in cash daily
  • GCMMF is the largest cooperative business of small producers with an annual turnover of Rs. 53 billion
  • The Govt. of India has honoured Amul with the “Best of all categories Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award”.
  • Largest milk handling capacity in Asia
  • Largest Cold Chain Network
  • 48 Sales offices, 5000 Wholesale Distributors, 7 lakh retail outlets
  • Export to 37 countries worth Rs. 150 crores
  • Winner of APEDA award for nine consecutive years

Amul Brand Building


GCMMF (AMUL) has the largest distribution network for any FMCG company. It has nearly 50 sales offices spread all over the country, more than 5,000 wholesale dealers and more than 7,00,000 retailers.

AMUL is also the largest exporter of dairy products in the country. AMUL is available today in over 40 countries of the world. AMUL is exporting a wide variety of products which include Whole and Skimmed Milk Powder, Cottage Cheese (Paneer), UHT Milk, Clarified Butter (Ghee) and Indigenous Sweets. The major markets are USA, West Indies, and countries in Africa, the Gulf Region, and [SAARC] SAARCneighbours, Singapore, The Philippines, Thailand, Japan and China.

In September 2007, Amul emerged as the leading Indian brand according to a survey by Synovate to find out Asia's top 1000 Brands.

In 2011, Amul was named the Most Trusted brand in the Food and Beverages sector in The Brand Trust Report
The Brand Trust Report
The Brand Trust Report, India Study, 2011 is published by Trust Research Advisory . The book is a result of a syndicated primary research on Brand Trust that generated 10,00,000 data points and 16,000 unique brands from over 10,000 hours of fieldwork conducted in 9 cities TRA’s study partners in...

, published by Trust Research Advisory.

India's top 20 brands: Amul is No. 1 : Rediff.com

Products


Amul's product range includes milk powders, milk, butter
Butter
Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying...

, ghee
Ghee
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated in South Asia and is commonly used in South Asian cuisine....

, cheese
Cheese
Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms....

, Masti Dahi, Yoghurt, Buttermilk
Buttermilk
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. It also refers to a range of fermented milk drinks, common in warm climates where unrefrigerated fresh milk otherwise sours quickly...

 chocolate
Chocolate
Chocolate is a raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree. Cacao has been cultivated for at least three millennia in Mexico, Central and South America. Its earliest documented use is around 1100 BC...

, ice cream
Ice cream
Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners...

, cream
Cream
Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators"...

, shrikhand
Shrikhand
Shrikhand is an Indian sweet dish made of strained yogurt. It is one of the main desserts in Gujarati cuisine and Maharashtrian cuisine. It is also served with Gujarati thali sometimes as a sweet dish. Preparation of this dish is very simple but it takes some time to process yogurt properly.The...

, paneer
Paneer
Paneer is a fresh cheese common in South Asian cuisine. It is of Indian origin. In eastern parts of India, it is generally called Chhena...

, gulab jamun
Gulab jamun
Gulab jamun is a popular dessert in countries of the Indian Subcontinent such as India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bangladesh. It is made of a dough consisting mainly of milk solids, traditionally, khoya, an Indian milk product is rolled into a ball together with some flour and then deep fried...

s, flavoured milk, basundi, Nutramul brand and others. In January 2006, Amul plans to launch India's first sports drink
Sports drink
A sports drink beverage is designed to help athletes rehydrate when fluids are depleted after training or competition. Electrolyte replacement promotes proper rehydration, which is important in delaying the onset of fatigue during exercise...

 Stamina, which will be competing with Coca Cola's Powerade
Powerade
Powerade is a sports drink manufactured and marketed by The Coca-Cola Company. First introduced in 1988, its primary competitor is PepsiCo's Gatorade...

and PepsiCo
PepsiCo
PepsiCo Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York, United States, with interests in the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products. PepsiCo was formed in 1965 with the merger of the Pepsi-Cola Company...

's Gatorade
Gatorade
Gatorade is a brand of sports-themed food and beverage products, built around its signature product: a line of sports drinks. Gatorade is currently manufactured by PepsiCo, distributed in over 80 countries...

.

In August 2007, Amul introduced Kool Koko, a chocolate milk brand extending its product offering in the milk products segment. Other Amul brands are Amul Kool, a low calorie thirst quenching drink; Masti Butter Milk; Kool Cafe, ready to drink coffee and India's first sports drink Stamina.

Amul's sugar-free Pro-Biotic Ice-cream won The International Dairy Federation Marketing Award for 2007.

Mascot


Since 1967 Amul products' mascot
Mascot
The term mascot – defined as a term for any person, animal, or object thought to bring luck – colloquially includes anything used to represent a group with a common public identity, such as a school, professional sports team, society, military unit, or brand name...

 has been the very recognisable "Amul baby" (a chubby butter girl usually dressed in polka dot
Polka dot
Polka dot is a pattern consisting of an array of filled circles, generally equally sized and spaced relatively closely in relation to their diameters. Polka dots are most commonly seen on children's clothing, toys, and furniture, but they appear in a wide array of contexts...

ted dress) showing up on hoardings and product wrappers with the equally recognisable tagline Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul.The mascot was first used for Amul butter. But in recent years in a second wave of ad campaign for Amul products, she has also been used for other product like ghee
Ghee
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated in South Asia and is commonly used in South Asian cuisine....

 and milk
Milk
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many...

.

Advertising



In 1966, Amul hired Sylvester daCunha, then managing director of the advertising agency AS to design a new ad campaign for Amul Butter. daCunha designed an add campaign as series of hoardings with topical ads, relating to day-to-day issues. The campaign was widely popular and earned a Guiness world record for the longest running ad campaign in the world. Since the 1980s, cartoon artist Bharat Dabholkar has been involved with sketching the Amul ads, who rejected the trend of using celebrities in advertisement campaigns. Dabholkar credited chairman Varghese Kurien with creating a free atmosphere that fostered the development of the ads.

Despite encountering political pressure on several occasions, daCunha's agency has made it a policy of not backing down. Some of the more controversial Amul ads include one commenting on Naxalite uprising in West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

, on the Indian Airlines employees strike, and the one depicting the Amul butter girl wearing a Gandhi cap
Gandhi cap
The Gandhi cap is a white coloured cap, pointed in front and back and having a wide band. It is made out of khadi. It takes its name after the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi, who first popularised its use during the Indian independence movement...



Amul hired DraftFCB+Ulka for the brands of Amul milk, chocolates, paneer, ghee, ice-cream.

In popular culture


The establishment of Amul is also known as White Revolution
Operation Flood
Operation Flood was a rural development programme started by India's National Dairy Development Board in 1970. One of the largest of its kind, the programme objective was to create a nationwide milk grid....

. The White Revolution of India inspired the notable Indian film-maker Shyam Benegal
Shyam Benegal
Shyam Benegal is a prolific Indian director and screenwriter. With his first four feature films Ankur , Nishant Manthan and Bhumika he created a new genre, which has now come to be called the "middle cinema" in India although he himself has expressed dislike in the term preferring his work to...

 to base his film Manthan
Manthan
Manthan was a 1976 Hindi film made by Shyam Benegal, based on a story written jointly by Verghese Kurien and director Shyam Benegal...

 (1976) on it. The film starred Smita Patil
Smita Patil
Smita Patil was an Indian actress of film, television and theatre. Regarded among the finest stage and film actresses of her times, Patil appeared in over 75 Hindi and Marathi films in a career that spanned just over a decade. During her career, she received two National Film Awards and a...

, Girish Karnad
Girish Karnad
Girish Raghunath Karnad is a contemporary writer, playwright, screenwriter, actor and movie director in Kannada language...

, Naseeruddin Shah
Naseeruddin Shah
Naseeruddin Shah is an Indian / Bollywood film actor and director. He is considered to be one of the finest actors of Indian cinema. In 2003, the Government of India honored him with the Padma Bhushan for his contributions towards Indian cinema.-Early life:...

 and Amrish Puri
Amrish Puri
Amrish Singh Puri , ; 22 June 1932 – 12 January 2005 was an iconic theater and film actor from India, who was a key player in the Indian theater movement that picked up steam in the 1960s. He worked with notable playwrights of the time, such as Satyadev Dubey and Girish Karnad...

. The film itself was financed by over five lakh rural farmers in Gujarat who contributed Rs 2 each to the film'š budget. Upon its release, these same farmers went in truckloads to watch 'their' film, making it a commercial success., the film was chosen for the 1977 National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi
National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi
The National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi awards the best regional film in Hindi language. Initially the award was known as the President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in Hindi. The winners in this category are:...

. The Amul success story is taken up as a case study in marketing in many premier management institutes across the world.

The White Revolution ushered an era of plenty from a measly amount of milk production and distribution. Aside from the great measurable success that this project was, it also demonstrated the power of "collective might". A small set of poor farmers of Kheda district in Gujarat had the vision and foresight to act in a way that was good for the society and not for the self alone.

External links