The 85-mm antitank gun D-48
was a Soviet
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....
85-mm calibre antitank gun used after World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...
. It was designed as the replacement for the 100 mm field gun M1944 (BS-3). Distinguishing features of the D-48 include a very long barrel
A gun barrel is the tube, usually metal, through which a controlled explosion or rapid expansion of gases are released in order to propel a projectile out of the end at a high velocity....
and a pepper-pot Muzzle brake
Muzzle brakes and recoil compensators are devices that are fitted to the muzzle of a firearm or cannon to redirect propellant gases with the effect of countering both recoil of the gun and unwanted rising of the barrel during rapid fire...
. The D-48 was itself replaced in the 1960s by the T-12 antitank gun
2A19 or T-12 is a Soviet smoothbore 100-mm anti-tank gun, which served as the main Eastern Bloc towed anti-tank gun from 1955 until the late 1980s.-History:The T-12 entered service in 1955, replacing the BS-3 100 mm field gun...
The gun was designed by the F. F. Petrov Design Bureau on the basis of the D-44 85-mm divisional gun
The 85-mm divisional gun D-44 was a Soviet divisional 85-mm calibre field artillery gun used after World War II. It was designed as the replacement for the 76 mm divisional gun M1942 . The gun is no longer in front-line service with the Russian Ground Forces, although some 200 of the Chinese Type...
and production of the D-48 began in 1953 at the No. 75 factory in Yurga
Yurga is a town in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia, located on the Tom River. Population: It was founded in 1886. Work settlement status was granted to it in 1942; town status was granted in 1949....
. The D-48 used the breechblock
A breechblock is the part of the firearm action that closes the breech of a weapon at the moment of firing....
from the BS-3 100-mm field gun in order to achieve a rate of fire of 15 rounds per minute at maximum cadence. The gun can transition from march to combat order in about two minutes.
The D-48N was a version with an APN 2-77 or 3-77 infrared imaging device fitted for night combat. A licensed version of the D-48 was produced in China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...
as the Type 60.
The gun fires a high velocity armor-piercing
An armor-piercing shell is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor. From the 1860s to 1950s, a major application of armor-piercing projectiles was to defeat the thick armor carried on many warships. From the 1920s onwards, armor-piercing weapons were required for anti-tank missions...
tracer (HVAP-T) BR-372 Projectile
A projectile is any object projected into space by the exertion of a force. Although a thrown baseball is technically a projectile too, the term more commonly refers to a weapon....
at 1040 meters per second and can penetrate 185mm of armor
Armour or armor is protective covering used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or a vehicle through use of direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or action...
at a range of 1000 meters at an angle of obliquity of 90 degrees. The 3BK-7 high explosive antitank (HEAT) projectile can penetrate 192mm of armor at an angle of obliquity of 60 degrees. The effective range of armor-piercing shells for the D-48 is 1,230 meters (HVAP-T) or 940 meters (HEAT). Additionally, the D-48 antitank gun is capable of firing a 9.66 kilogram OF-372 high explosive projectile to a direct fire range of 1,200 meters or an indirect fire range of 18.97 kilometers. The Ammunition
Ammunition is a generic term derived from the French language la munition which embraced all material used for war , but which in time came to refer specifically to gunpowder and artillery. The collective term for all types of ammunition is munitions...
for the D-48 was developed by necking down 100-mm ammunition in order to achieve higher muzzle velocities.
The gun is towed by a URAL-375D
The Ural-375D is a general purpose 4.5 ton 6x6 truck, produced at the Ural Automotive Plant in the Russian SFSR since 1961. The ZIL-157 was the standard Soviet truck until it was replaced by the Ural-375D, which became the standard Soviet truck in 1979. The Ural-375D was soon replaced by the...
truck or an AT-P tractor with a maximum towing speed over asphalt roadway of about 60km/h. The tires on the D-48 are those of the ZIS-5 truck.
Designs with auxiliary power units were also investigated but never developed beyond prototype stage.
| Performance of D-48 and comparable weapons
| Effectiveness against rolled homogeneous armor
|| Muzzle Velocity, meters per second
|| Penetration in mm
| 85 mm D-48 (firing BR-372)
|| 185 (at 90º, range 1000 meters)
| 8.8 cm PaK 43 (firing PzGr 40/43)
|| 193 (at 60º, range 1000 meters)
| 90 mm M3 (firing M304)
|| 195 (at 60º, range 914 meters)
| These data are not directly comparable as various measurement methods are used.
They are, however, illustrative of the relative performance of the weapons.
Use by other nations
The D-48 has been exported to Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Congo, India, North Korea, Mongolia, Mozambique, Romania, Somalia, Sudan, and Vietnam.