In

physicsPhysics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

, a wave is a disturbance (an oscillation) that travels through

spaceSpace is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum...

and

timeTime is a part of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify rates of change such as the motions of objects....

, accompanied by the transfer of

energyIn physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

.

Waves travel and the wave motion transfers

energyIn physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

from one point to another, often with no permanent displacement of the particles of the medium—that is, with little or no associated mass transport. They consist, instead, of

oscillationOscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value or between two or more different states. Familiar examples include a swinging pendulum and AC power. The term vibration is sometimes used more narrowly to mean a mechanical oscillation but sometimes...

s or vibrations around almost fixed locations. For example, a cork on

rippling waterA capillary wave is a wave traveling along the phase boundary of a fluid, whose dynamics are dominated by the effects of surface tension.Capillary waves are common in nature and the home, and are often referred to as ripples...

will bob up and down, staying in about the same place while the wave itself moves onwards.

One type of wave is a mechanical wave, which propagates through a medium in which the substance of this medium is deformed. The deformation reverses itself owing to

restoring forceRestoring force, in a physics context, is a variable force that gives rise to an equilibrium in a physical system. If the system is perturbed away from the equilibrium, the restoring force will tend to bring the system back toward equilibrium....

s resulting from its deformation. For example, sound waves propagate via air molecules bumping into their neighbors. This transfers some energy to these neighbors, which will cause a cascade of collisions between neighbouring molecules. When air molecules collide with their neighbors, they also bounce away from them (restoring force). This keeps the molecules from continuing to travel in the direction of the wave.

Another type of wave can travel through a

vacuumIn everyday usage, vacuum is a volume of space that is essentially empty of matter, such that its gaseous pressure is much less than atmospheric pressure. The word comes from the Latin term for "empty". A perfect vacuum would be one with no particles in it at all, which is impossible to achieve in...

, e.g.

electromagnetic radiationElectromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space...

(including visible light, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, gamma rays, X-rays, and radio waves). This type of wave consists of periodic oscillations in electrical and magnetic fields.

A main distinction can be made between transverse and longitudinal waves.

Transverse waveA transverse wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer...

s occur when a disturbance creates oscillations perpendicular (at right angles) to the propagation (the direction of energy transfer).

Longitudinal waveLongitudinal waves, as known as "l-waves", are waves that have the same direction of vibration as their direction of travel, which means that the movement of the medium is in the same direction as or the opposite direction to the motion of the wave. Mechanical longitudinal waves have been also...

s occur when a disturbance sends waves in the same direction as the propagation.

Waves are described by a wave equation which sets out how the disturbance proceeds over time. The mathematical form of this equation varies depending on the type of wave.

## General features

A single, all-encompassing definition for the term

*wave* is not straightforward. A

vibrationVibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.Vibration is occasionally "desirable"...

can be defined as a

*back-and-forth* motion around a reference value. However, a vibration is not necessarily a wave. An attempt to define the necessary and sufficient characteristics that qualify a

phenomenonA phenomenon , plural phenomena, is any observable occurrence. Phenomena are often, but not always, understood as 'appearances' or 'experiences'...

to be called a

*wave* results in a fuzzy border line.

The term

*wave* is often intuitively understood as referring to a transport of spatial disturbances that are generally not accompanied by a motion of the medium occupying this space as a whole. In a wave, the

energyIn physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

of a

vibrationVibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.Vibration is occasionally "desirable"...

is moving away from the source in the form of a disturbance within the surrounding medium . However, this notion is problematic for a

standing waveIn physics, a standing wave – also known as a stationary wave – is a wave that remains in a constant position.This phenomenon can occur because the medium is moving in the opposite direction to the wave, or it can arise in a stationary medium as a result of interference between two waves traveling...

(for example, a wave on a string), where

energyIn physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems...

is moving in both directions equally, or for electromagnetic / light waves in a

vacuumIn everyday usage, vacuum is a volume of space that is essentially empty of matter, such that its gaseous pressure is much less than atmospheric pressure. The word comes from the Latin term for "empty". A perfect vacuum would be one with no particles in it at all, which is impossible to achieve in...

, where the concept of medium does not apply and the inherent interaction of its component is the main reason of it's motion and broadcasting. There are water waves on the ocean surface; light waves emitted by the Sun; microwaves used in microwave ovens;

radio wavesRadio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies from 300 GHz to as low as 3 kHz, and corresponding wavelengths from 1 millimeter to 100 kilometers. Like all other electromagnetic waves,...

broadcast by radio stations; and sound waves generated by radio receivers, telephone handsets and living creatures (as voices).

It may appear that the description of waves is closely related to their physical origin for each specific instance of a wave process. For example,

acousticsAcoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics...

is distinguished from

opticsOptics is the branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behavior of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light...

in that sound waves are related to a mechanical rather than an electromagnetic wave transfer caused by

vibrationVibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.Vibration is occasionally "desirable"...

. Concepts such as

massMass can be defined as a quantitive measure of the resistance an object has to change in its velocity.In physics, mass commonly refers to any of the following three properties of matter, which have been shown experimentally to be equivalent:...

,

momentumIn classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object...

,

inertiaInertia is the resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest, or the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion. It is proportional to an object's mass. The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental principles of classical physics which are used to...

, or

elasticityIn physics, elasticity is the physical property of a material that returns to its original shape after the stress that made it deform or distort is removed. The relative amount of deformation is called the strain....

, become therefore crucial in describing acoustic (as distinct from optic) wave processes. This difference in origin introduces certain wave characteristics particular to the properties of the medium involved. For example, in the case of air:

vorticesA vortex is a spinning, often turbulent,flow of fluid. Any spiral motion with closed streamlines is vortex flow. The motion of the fluid swirling rapidly around a center is called a vortex...

,

radiation pressureRadiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. If absorbed, the pressure is the power flux density divided by the speed of light...

,

shock wavesShock Waves, , is a 1977 horror movie written and directed by Ken Wiederhorn...

etc.; in the case of solids: Rayleigh waves,

dispersionA dispersion is a system in which particles are dispersed in a continuous phase of a different composition . See also emulsion. A dispersion is classified in a number of different ways, including how large the particles are in relation to the particles of the continuous phase, whether or not...

etc.; and so on.

Other properties, however, although they are usually described in an origin-specific manner, may be generalized to all waves. For such reasons, wave theory represents a particular branch of

physicsPhysics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

that is concerned with the properties of wave processes independently from their physical origin. For example, based on the mechanical origin of acoustic waves, a moving disturbance in space–time can exist if and only if the medium involved is neither infinitely stiff nor infinitely pliable. If all the parts making up a medium were rigidly

*bound*, then they would all vibrate as one, with no delay in the transmission of the vibration and therefore no wave motion. This is impossible because it would violate

general relativityGeneral relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916. It is the current description of gravitation in modern physics...

. On the other hand, if all the parts were independent, then there would not be any transmission of the vibration and again, no wave motion. Although the above statements are meaningless in the case of waves that do not require a medium, they reveal a characteristic that is relevant to all waves regardless of origin: within a wave, the

phasePhase in waves is the fraction of a wave cycle which has elapsed relative to an arbitrary point.-Formula:The phase of an oscillation or wave refers to a sinusoidal function such as the following:...

of a vibration (that is, its position within the vibration cycle) is different for adjacent points in space because the vibration reaches these points at different times.

Similarly, wave processes revealed from the study of waves other than sound waves can be significant to the understanding of sound phenomena. A relevant example is

Thomas YoungThomas Young was an English polymath. He is famous for having partly deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphics before Jean-François Champollion eventually expanded on his work...

's principle of interference (Young, 1802, in ). This principle was first introduced in Young's study of

lightLight or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of sight. Visible light has wavelength in a range from about 380 nanometres to about 740 nm, with a frequency range of about 405 THz to 790 THz...

and, within some specific contexts (for example,

scatteringScattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. In conventional use, this also includes deviation of...

of sound by sound), is still a researched area in the study of sound.

### Wave equation

Consider a traveling

transverse waveA transverse wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer...

(which may be a

pulseIn physics, a pulse is a single disturbance that moves through a medium from one point to the next point.-Pulse Reflection:Consider a pulse moving through a medium - perhaps through a rope or a slinky. When the pulse reaches the end of that medium, what happens to it depends on whether the medium...

) on a string (the medium). Consider the string to have a single spatial dimension. Consider this wave as traveling

- in the direction in space. E.g., let the positive direction be to the right, and the negative direction be to the left.
- with constant amplitude
Amplitude is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable with each oscillation within an oscillating system. For example, sound waves in air are oscillations in atmospheric pressure and their amplitudes are proportional to the change in pressure during one oscillation...

- with constant velocity , where is
- independent of wavelength
In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings, and is a...

(no dispersionIn physics and electrical engineering, dispersion most often refers to frequency-dependent effects in wave propagation. Note, however, that there are several other uses of the word "dispersion" in the physical sciences....

)
- independent of amplitude (linear
In mathematics, a linear map or function f is a function which satisfies the following two properties:* Additivity : f = f + f...

media, not nonlinear).

- with constant waveform
Waveform means the shape and form of a signal such as a wave moving in a physical medium or an abstract representation.In many cases the medium in which the wave is being propagated does not permit a direct visual image of the form. In these cases, the term 'waveform' refers to the shape of a graph...

, or shape

This wave can then be described by the two-dimensional functions

- (waveform traveling to the right)
- (waveform traveling to the left)

or, more generally, by

d'Alembert's formula:

representing two component waveforms

and

traveling through the medium in opposite directions. This wave can also be represented by the

partial differential equationIn mathematics, partial differential equations are a type of differential equation, i.e., a relation involving an unknown function of several independent variables and their partial derivatives with respect to those variables...

General solutions are based upon

Duhamel's principleIn mathematics, and more specifically in partial differential equations, Duhamel's principle is a general method for obtaining solutions to inhomogeneous linear evolution equations like the heat equation, wave equation, and vibrating plate equation...

.

### Wave forms

The form or shape of

*F* in d'Alembert's formula involves the argument

*x − vt*. Constant values of this argument correspond to constant values of

*F*, and these constant values occur if

*x* increases at the same rate that

*vt* increases. That is, the wave shaped like the function

*F* will move in the positive

*x*-direction at velocity

*v* (and

*G* will propagate at the same speed in the negative

*x*-direction).

In the case of a periodic function

*F* with period

*λ*, that is,

*F*(

*x + λ* −

*vt*) =

*F*(

*x * −

*vt*), the periodicity of

*F* in space means that a snapshot of the wave at a given time

*t* finds the wave varying periodically in space with period

*λ* (the

wavelengthIn physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings, and is a...

of the wave). In a similar fashion, this periodicity of

*F* implies a periodicity in time as well:

*F*(

*x* −

*v(t + T)*) =

*F*(

*x * −

*vt*) provided

*vT* =

*λ*, so an observation of the wave at a fixed location

*x* finds the wave undulating periodically in time with period

*T = λ*/

*v*.

### Amplitude and modulation

The amplitude of a wave may be constant (in which case the wave is a

*c.w.* or

*continuous wave*A continuous wave or continuous waveform is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency; and in mathematical analysis, of infinite duration. Continuous wave is also the name given to an early method of radio transmission, in which a carrier wave is switched on and off...

), or may be

*modulated* so as to vary with time and/or position. The outline of the variation in amplitude is called the

*envelope* of the wave. Mathematically, the

modulated waveAmplitude modulation is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent...

can be written in the form:

where

is the amplitude envelope of the wave,

is the

*wavenumber*In the physical sciences, the wavenumber is a property of a wave, its spatial frequency, that is proportional to the reciprocal of the wavelength. It is also the magnitude of the wave vector...

and

is the

*phase*Phase in waves is the fraction of a wave cycle which has elapsed relative to an arbitrary point.-Formula:The phase of an oscillation or wave refers to a sinusoidal function such as the following:...

. If the

group velocityThe group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the overall shape of the wave's amplitudes — known as the modulation or envelope of the wave — propagates through space....

(see below) is wavelength-independent, this equation can be simplified as:

showing that the envelope moves with the group velocity and retains its shape. Otherwise, in cases where the group velocity varies with wavelength, the pulse shape changes in a manner often described using an

*envelope equation*.

### Phase velocity and group velocity

There are two velocities that are associated with waves, the

phase velocityThe phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space. This is the speed at which the phase of any one frequency component of the wave travels. For such a component, any given phase of the wave will appear to travel at the phase velocity...

and the

group velocityThe group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the overall shape of the wave's amplitudes — known as the modulation or envelope of the wave — propagates through space....

. To understand them, one must consider several types of waveform. For simplification, examination is restricted to one dimension.

The most basic wave (a form of

plane waveIn the physics of wave propagation, a plane wave is a constant-frequency wave whose wavefronts are infinite parallel planes of constant peak-to-peak amplitude normal to the phase velocity vector....

) may be expressed in the form:

which can be related to the usual sine and cosine forms using

Euler's formulaEuler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the deep relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function...

. Rewriting the argument,

, makes clear that this expression describes a vibration of wavelength

traveling in the

*x*-direction with a constant

*phase velocity* .

The other type of wave to be considered is one with localized structure described by an

envelopeAn envelope detector is an electronic circuit that takes a high-frequency signal as input and provides an output which is the "envelope" of the original signal. The capacitor in the circuit stores up charge on the rising edge, and releases it slowly through the resistor when the signal falls...

, which may be expressed mathematically as, for example:

where now

*A(k*_{1}*)* (the integral is the inverse fourier transform of A(k1)) is a function exhibiting a sharp peak in a region of wave vectors Δ

*k* surrounding the point

*k*_{1} =

*k*. In exponential form:

with

*A*_{o} the magnitude of

*A*. For example, a common choice for

*A*_{o} is a

Gaussian wave packetIn physics, a wave packet is a short "burst" or "envelope" of wave action that travels as a unit. A wave packet can be analyzed into, or can be synthesized from, an infinite set of component sinusoidal waves of different wavenumbers, with phases and amplitudes such that they interfere...

:

where σ determines the spread of

*k*_{1}-values about

*k*, and

*N* is the amplitude of the wave.

The exponential function inside the integral for ψ oscillates rapidly with its argument, say φ(

*k*_{1}), and where it varies rapidly, the exponentials cancel each other out, interfere destructively, contributing little to ψ. However, an exception occurs at the location where the argument φ of the exponential varies slowly. (This observation is the basis for the method of

stationary phase for evaluation of such integrals.) The condition for φ to vary slowly is that its rate of change with

*k*_{1} be small; this rate of variation is:

where the evaluation is made at

*k*_{1} =

*k* because

*A(k*_{1}*)* is centered there. This result shows that the position

*x* where the phase changes slowly, the position where ψ is appreciable, moves with time at a speed called the

*group velocity*:

The group velocity therefore depends upon the

dispersion relationIn physics and electrical engineering, dispersion most often refers to frequency-dependent effects in wave propagation. Note, however, that there are several other uses of the word "dispersion" in the physical sciences....

connecting ω and

*k*. For example, in quantum mechanics the energy of a particle represented as a wave packet is

*E* = ħω = (ħ

*k*)

^{2}/(2

*m*). Consequently, for that wave situation, the group velocity is

showing that the velocity of a localized particle in quantum mechanics is its group velocity. Because the group velocity varies with

*k*, the shape of the wave packet broadens with time, and the particle becomes less localized. In other words, the velocity of the constituent waves of the wave packet travel at a rate that varies with their wavelength, so some move faster than others, and they cannot maintain the same interference pattern as the wave propagates.

## Sinusoidal waves

Mathematically, the most basic wave is the (spatially) one-dimensional

sine waveThe sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It occurs often in pure mathematics, as well as physics, signal processing, electrical engineering and many other fields...

(or

*harmonic wave* or

*sinusoid*) with an amplitude

described by the equation:

where

- is the maximum amplitude
Amplitude is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable with each oscillation within an oscillating system. For example, sound waves in air are oscillations in atmospheric pressure and their amplitudes are proportional to the change in pressure during one oscillation...

of the wave, maximum distance from the highest point of the disturbance in the medium (the crest) to the equilibrium point during one wave cycle. In the illustration to the right, this is the maximum vertical distance between the baseline and the wave.
- is the space coordinate
- is the time coordinate
- is the wavenumber
In the physical sciences, the wavenumber is a property of a wave, its spatial frequency, that is proportional to the reciprocal of the wavelength. It is also the magnitude of the wave vector...

- is the angular frequency
In physics, angular frequency ω is a scalar measure of rotation rate. Angular frequency is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity...

- is the phase
Phase in waves is the fraction of a wave cycle which has elapsed relative to an arbitrary point.-Formula:The phase of an oscillation or wave refers to a sinusoidal function such as the following:...

.

The units of the amplitude depend on the type of wave. Transverse mechanical waves (e.g., a wave on a string) have an amplitude expressed as a

distanceDistance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are. In physics or everyday discussion, distance may refer to a physical length, or an estimation based on other criteria . In mathematics, a distance function or metric is a generalization of the concept of physical distance...

(e.g., meters), longitudinal mechanical waves (e.g., sound waves) use units of pressure (e.g., pascals), and electromagnetic waves (a form of transverse vacuum wave) express the amplitude in terms of its

electric fieldIn physics, an electric field surrounds electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. The electric field depicts the force exerted on other electrically charged objects by the electrically charged particle the field is surrounding...

(e.g., volts/meter).

The

wavelengthIn physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings, and is a...

is the distance between two sequential crests or troughs (or other equivalent points), generally is measured in meters. A

wavenumberIn the physical sciences, the wavenumber is a property of a wave, its spatial frequency, that is proportional to the reciprocal of the wavelength. It is also the magnitude of the wave vector...

, the spatial frequency of the wave in

radianRadian is the ratio between the length of an arc and its radius. The radian is the standard unit of angular measure, used in many areas of mathematics. The unit was formerly a SI supplementary unit, but this category was abolished in 1995 and the radian is now considered a SI derived unit...

s per unit distance (typically per meter), can be associated with the wavelength by the relation

The period

is the time for one complete cycle of an oscillation of a wave. The

frequencyFrequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal frequency.The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency...

is the number of periods per unit time (per second) and is typically measured in

hertzThe hertz is the SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon. One of its most common uses is the description of the sine wave, particularly those used in radio and audio applications....

. These are related by:

In other words, the frequency and period of a wave are reciprocals.

The

angular frequencyIn physics, angular frequency ω is a scalar measure of rotation rate. Angular frequency is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity...

represents the frequency in radians per second. It is related to the frequency or period by

The wavelength

of a sinusoidal waveform traveling at constant speed

is given by:

where

is called the phase speed (magnitude of the

phase velocityThe phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space. This is the speed at which the phase of any one frequency component of the wave travels. For such a component, any given phase of the wave will appear to travel at the phase velocity...

) of the wave and

is the wave's frequency.

Wavelength can be a useful concept even if the wave is not

periodicIn mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods. The most important examples are the trigonometric functions, which repeat over intervals of length 2π radians. Periodic functions are used throughout science to describe oscillations,...

in space. For example, in an ocean wave approaching shore, the incoming wave undulates with a varying

*local* wavelength that depends in part on the depth of the sea floor compared to the wave height. The analysis of the wave can be based upon comparison of the local wavelength with the local water depth.

Although arbitrary wave shapes will propagate unchanged in lossless linear time-invariant systems, in the presence of dispersion the

sine waveThe sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It occurs often in pure mathematics, as well as physics, signal processing, electrical engineering and many other fields...

is the unique shape that will propagate unchanged but for phase and amplitude, making it easy to analyze. Due to the Kramers–Kronig relations, a linear medium with dispersion also exhibits loss, so the sine wave propagating in a dispersive medium is attenuated in certain frequency ranges that depend upon the medium.

The sine function is periodic, so the

sine waveThe sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical function that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation. It occurs often in pure mathematics, as well as physics, signal processing, electrical engineering and many other fields...

or sinusoid has a

wavelengthIn physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings, and is a...

in space and a period in time.

The sinusoid is defined for all times and distances, whereas in physical situations we usually deal with waves that exist for a limited span in space and duration in time. Fortunately, an arbitrary wave shape can be decomposed into an infinite set of sinusoidal waves by the use of Fourier analysis. As a result, the simple case of a single sinusoidal wave can be applied to more general cases. In particular, many media are

linearIn mathematics, a linear map or function f is a function which satisfies the following two properties:* Additivity : f = f + f...

, or nearly so, so the calculation of arbitrary wave behavior can be found by adding up responses to individual sinusoidal waves using the

superposition principleIn physics and systems theory, the superposition principle , also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response at a given place and time caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses which would have been caused by each stimulus individually...

to find the solution for a general waveform. When a medium is nonlinear, the response to complex waves cannot be determined from a sine-wave decomposition.

## Standing waves

A standing wave, also known as a

*stationary wave*, is a wave that remains in a constant position. This phenomenon can occur because the medium is moving in the opposite direction to the wave, or it can arise in a stationary medium as a result of interference between two waves traveling in opposite directions.

The

*sum* of two counter-propagating waves (of equal amplitude and frequency) creates a

*standing wave*. Standing waves commonly arise when a boundary blocks further propagation of the wave, thus causing wave reflection, and therefore introducing a counter-propagating wave. For example when a

violinThe violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which includes the viola and cello....

string is displaced, transverse waves propagate out to where the string is held in place at the

bridgeA bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air.- Explanation :...

and the nut, where the waves are reflected back. At the bridge and nut, the two opposed waves are in antiphase and cancel each other, producing a

nodeA node is a point along a standing wave where the wave has minimal amplitude. For instance, in a vibrating guitar string, the ends of the string are nodes. By changing the position of the end node through frets, the guitarist changes the effective length of the vibrating string and thereby the...

. Halfway between two nodes there is an antinode, where the two counter-propagating waves

*enhance* each other maximally. There is no net

propagation of energyEnergy transfer is the transfer of energy from one body to another.There are a few main ways that energy transfer occurs:*Radiant energy *Heat conduction*Convection*Electrical power transmission*Mechanical work...

over time.

## Physical properties

Waves exhibit common behaviors under a number of standard situations, e.g.,

### Transmission and media

Waves normally move in a straight line (i.e. rectilinearly) through a

*transmission medium*A transmission medium is a material substance that can propagate energy waves...

. Such media can be classified into one or more of the following categories:

- A
*bounded medium* if it is finite in extent, otherwise an *unbounded medium*
- A
*linear medium* if the amplitudes of different waves at any particular point in the medium can be added
- A
*uniform medium* or *homogeneous medium* if its physical properties are unchanged at different locations in space
- An
*anisotropic medium* if one or more of its physical properties differ in one or more directions
- An
*isotropic medium* if its physical properties are the *same* in all directions

### Reflection

When a wave strikes a reflective surface, it changes direction, such that the angle made by the incident wave and line

normalIn geometry, two lines or planes are considered perpendicular to each other if they form congruent adjacent angles . The term may be used as a noun or adjective...

to the surface equals the angle made by the reflected wave and the same normal line.

### Interference

Waves that encounter each other combine through

superpositionIn physics and systems theory, the superposition principle , also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response at a given place and time caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses which would have been caused by each stimulus individually...

to create a new wave called an interference pattern. Important interference patterns occur for waves that are in

phasePhase in waves is the fraction of a wave cycle which has elapsed relative to an arbitrary point.-Formula:The phase of an oscillation or wave refers to a sinusoidal function such as the following:...

.

### Refraction

Refraction is the phenomenon of a wave changing its speed. Mathematically, this means that the size of the

phase velocityThe phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space. This is the speed at which the phase of any one frequency component of the wave travels. For such a component, any given phase of the wave will appear to travel at the phase velocity...

changes. Typically, refraction occurs when a wave passes from one

mediumA transmission medium is a material substance that can propagate energy waves...

into another. The amount by which a wave is refracted by a material is given by the

refractive indexIn optics the refractive index or index of refraction of a substance or medium is a measure of the speed of light in that medium. It is expressed as a ratio of the speed of light in vacuum relative to that in the considered medium....

of the material. The directions of incidence and refraction are related to the refractive indices of the two materials by

Snell's lawIn optics and physics, Snell's law is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water and glass...

.

### Diffraction

A wave exhibits diffraction when it encounters an obstacle that bends the wave or when it spreads after emerging from an opening. Diffraction effects are more pronounced when the size of the obstacle or opening is comparable to the wavelength of the wave.

### Polarization

A wave is polarized if it oscillates in one direction or plane. A wave can be polarized by the use of a polarizing filter. The polarization of a transverse wave describes the direction of oscillation in the plane perpendicular to the direction of travel.

Longitudinal waves such as sound waves do not exhibit polarization. For these waves the direction of oscillation is along the direction of travel.

### Dispersion

A wave undergoes dispersion when either the phase velocity or the

group velocityThe group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the overall shape of the wave's amplitudes — known as the modulation or envelope of the wave — propagates through space....

depends on the wave frequency.

Dispersion is most easily seen by letting white light pass through a

prismIn optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light. The exact angles between the surfaces depend on the application. The traditional geometrical shape is that of a triangular prism with a triangular base and rectangular sides, and in colloquial use...

, the result of which is to produce the spectrum of colours of the rainbow.

Isaac NewtonSir Isaac Newton PRS was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."...

performed experiments with light and prisms, presenting his findings in the

*Opticks*Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. It is about optics and the refraction of light, and is considered one of the great works of science in history...

(1704) that white light consists of several colours and that these colours cannot be decomposed any further.

### Waves on strings

The speed of a wave traveling along a

vibrating stringA vibration in a string is a wave. Usually a vibrating string produces a sound whose frequency in most cases is constant. Therefore, since frequency characterizes the pitch, the sound produced is a constant note....

(

* v *) is directly proportional to the square root of the

tensionIn physics, tension is the magnitude of the pulling force exerted by a string, cable, chain, or similar object on another object. It is the opposite of compression. As tension is the magnitude of a force, it is measured in newtons and is always measured parallel to the string on which it applies...

of the string (

* T *) over the linear mass density (

* μ *):

where the linear density

*μ* is the mass per unit length of the string.

### Acoustic waves

Acoustic or

soundSound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.-Propagation of...

waves travel at speed given by

or the square root of the adiabatic bulk modulus divided by the ambient fluid density (see

speed of soundThe speed of sound is the distance travelled during a unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. In dry air at , the speed of sound is . This is , or about one kilometer in three seconds or approximately one mile in five seconds....

).

### Water waves

- Ripples
In physics and engineering, a ripple tank is a shallow glass tank of water used in schools and colleges to demonstrate the basic properties of waves. It is a specialized form of a wave tank. The ripple tank is usually illuminated from above, so that the light shines through the water. Some small...

on the surface of a pond are actually a combination of transverse and longitudinal waves; therefore, the points on the surface follow orbital paths.
- Sound
Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.-Propagation of...

—a mechanical wave that propagates through gases, liquids, solids and plasmas;
- Inertial waves, which occur in rotating fluids and are restored by the Coriolis effect
In physics, the Coriolis effect is a deflection of moving objects when they are viewed in a rotating reference frame. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation, the deflection is to the left of the motion of the object; in one with counter-clockwise rotation, the deflection is to the right...

;
- Ocean surface wave
In fluid dynamics, wind waves or, more precisely, wind-generated waves are surface waves that occur on the free surface of oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and canals or even on small puddles and ponds. They usually result from the wind blowing over a vast enough stretch of fluid surface. Waves in the...

s, which are perturbations that propagate through water.

### Shock waves

### Other

- Waves of traffic
Traffic waves, also called stop waves or traffic shocks, are travelling disturbances in the distribution of cars on a highway. Traffic waves usually travel backwards in relation to the motion of the cars themselves, or "upstream". The waves can also travel downstream, however, more commonly become...

, that is, propagation of different densities of motor vehicles, and so forth, which can be modeled as kinematic waves

- Metachronal wave
A metachronal rhythm or metachronal wave refers to wavy movements produced by the sequential action of structures such as cilia, segments of worms or legs. These movements produce the appearance of a travelling wave. A Mexican wave is a large scale example of a metachronal wave...

refers to the appearance of a traveling wave produced by coordinated sequential actions.

## Electromagnetic waves

(radio, micro, infrared, visible, uv)

An electromagnetic wave consists of two waves that are oscillations of the

electricIn physics, an electric field surrounds electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. The electric field depicts the force exerted on other electrically charged objects by the electrically charged particle the field is surrounding...

and

magneticA magnetic field is a mathematical description of the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude ; as such it is a vector field.Technically, a magnetic field is a pseudo vector;...

fields. An electromagnetic wave travels in a direction that is at right angles to the oscillation direction of both fields. In the 19th century,

James Clerk MaxwellJames Clerk Maxwell of Glenlair was a Scottish physicist and mathematician. His most prominent achievement was formulating classical electromagnetic theory. This united all previously unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into a consistent theory...

showed that, in

vacuumIn everyday usage, vacuum is a volume of space that is essentially empty of matter, such that its gaseous pressure is much less than atmospheric pressure. The word comes from the Latin term for "empty". A perfect vacuum would be one with no particles in it at all, which is impossible to achieve in...

, the electric and magnetic fields satisfy the

wave equationThe wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves – as they occur in physics – such as sound waves, light waves and water waves. It arises in fields like acoustics, electromagnetics, and fluid dynamics...

both with speed equal to that of the

speed of lightThe speed of light in vacuum, usually denoted by c, is a physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its value is 299,792,458 metres per second, a figure that is exact since the length of the metre is defined from this constant and the international standard for time...

. From this emerged the idea that light is an electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic waves can have different frequencies (and thus wavelengths), giving rise to various types of radiation such as

radio wavesRadio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies from 300 GHz to as low as 3 kHz, and corresponding wavelengths from 1 millimeter to 100 kilometers. Like all other electromagnetic waves,...

, microwaves,

infraredInfrared light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at 0.74 micrometres , and extending conventionally to 300 µm...

, visible light,

ultravioletUltraviolet light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10 nm to 400 nm, and energies from 3 eV to 124 eV...

and X-rays.

## Quantum mechanical waves

The

Schrödinger equationThe Schrödinger equation was formulated in 1926 by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger. Used in physics , it is an equation that describes how the quantum state of a physical system changes in time....

describes the wave-like behavior of particles in

quantum mechanicsQuantum mechanics, also known as quantum physics or quantum theory, is a branch of physics providing a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. It departs from classical mechanics primarily at the atomic and subatomic...

. Solutions of this equation are wave functions which can be used to describe the probability density of a particle. Quantum mechanics also describes particle properties that other waves, such as light and sound, have on the atomic scale and below.

### de Broglie waves

Louis de Broglie postulated that all particles with

momentumIn classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object...

have a wavelength

where

*h* is Planck's constant, and

*p* is the magnitude of the

momentumIn classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object...

of the particle. This hypothesis was at the basis of

quantum mechanicsQuantum mechanics, also known as quantum physics or quantum theory, is a branch of physics providing a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. It departs from classical mechanics primarily at the atomic and subatomic...

. Nowadays, this wavelength is called the de Broglie wavelength. For example, the

electronThe electron is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge. It has no known components or substructure; in other words, it is generally thought to be an elementary particle. An electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton...

s in a

CRTThe cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam onto the fluorescent screen to create the images. The image may represent electrical waveforms , pictures , radar targets and...

display have a de Broglie wavelength of about 10

^{−13} m.

A wave representing such a particle traveling in the

*k*-direction is expressed by the wave function:

where the wavelength is determined by the

wave vectorIn physics, a wave vector is a vector which helps describe a wave. Like any vector, it has a magnitude and direction, both of which are important: Its magnitude is either the wavenumber or angular wavenumber of the wave , and its direction is ordinarily the direction of wave propagation In...

k as:

and the momentum by:

However, a wave like this with definite wavelength is not localized in space, and so cannot represent a particle localized in space. To localize a particle, de Broglie proposed a superposition of different wavelengths ranging around a central value in a

wave packetIn physics, a wave packet is a short "burst" or "envelope" of wave action that travels as a unit. A wave packet can be analyzed into, or can be synthesized from, an infinite set of component sinusoidal waves of different wavenumbers, with phases and amplitudes such that they interfere...

, a waveform often used in

quantum mechanicsQuantum mechanics, also known as quantum physics or quantum theory, is a branch of physics providing a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. It departs from classical mechanics primarily at the atomic and subatomic...

to describe the wave function of a particle. In a wave packet, the wavelength of the particle is not precise, and the local wavelength deviates on either side of the main wavelength value.

In representing the wave function of a localized particle, the

wave packetIn physics, a wave packet is a short "burst" or "envelope" of wave action that travels as a unit. A wave packet can be analyzed into, or can be synthesized from, an infinite set of component sinusoidal waves of different wavenumbers, with phases and amplitudes such that they interfere...

is often taken to have a

Gaussian shape and is called a

*Gaussian wave packet*. Gaussian wave packets also are used to analyze water waves.

For example, a Gaussian wavefunction ψ might take the form:

at some initial time

*t* = 0, where the central wavelength is related to the central wave vector

*k*_{0} as λ

_{0} = 2π /

*k*_{0}. It is well known from the theory of Fourier analysis, or from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (in the case of quantum mechanics) that a narrow range of wavelengths is necessary to produce a localized wave packet, and the more localized the envelope, the larger the spread in required wavelengths. The

Fourier transformIn mathematics, Fourier analysis is a subject area which grew from the study of Fourier series. The subject began with the study of the way general functions may be represented by sums of simpler trigonometric functions...

of a Gaussian is itself a Gaussian. Given the Gaussian:

the Fourier transform is:

The Gaussian in space therefore is made up of waves:

that is, a number of waves of wavelengths λ such that

*k*λ = 2 π.

The parameter σ decides the spatial spread of the Gaussian along the

*x*-axis, while the Fourier transform shows a spread in

wave vectorIn physics, a wave vector is a vector which helps describe a wave. Like any vector, it has a magnitude and direction, both of which are important: Its magnitude is either the wavenumber or angular wavenumber of the wave , and its direction is ordinarily the direction of wave propagation In...

*k* determined by 1/σ. That is, the smaller the extent in space, the larger the extent in

*k*, and hence in λ = 2π/

*k*.

## Gravitational waves

Researchers believe that gravitational waves also travel through space, although gravitational waves have never been directly detected.

Not to be confused with gravity waves, gravitational waves are disturbances in the curvature of

spacetimeIn physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single continuum. Spacetime is usually interpreted with space as being three-dimensional and time playing the role of a fourth dimension that is of a different sort from the spatial dimensions...

, predicted by Einstein's theory of

general relativityGeneral relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916. It is the current description of gravitation in modern physics...

.

## WKB method

In a nonuniform medium, in which the wavenumber

*k* can depend on the location as well as the frequency, the phase term

*kx* is typically replaced by the integral of

*k*(

*x*)

*dx*, according to the WKB method. Such nonuniform traveling waves are common in many physical problems, including the mechanics of the

cochleaThe cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear. It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth, making 2.5 turns around its axis, the modiolus....

and waves on hanging ropes.

## Sources

- Campbell, M. and Greated, C. (1987).
*The Musician’s Guide to Acoustics*. New York: Schirmer Books.. | ref=harv | postscript=. }}..
- Vassilakis, P.N. (2001).
*Perceptual and Physical Properties of Amplitude Fluctuation and their Musical Significance*. Doctoral Dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.

## External links