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The translative case
is a grammatical case
In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun is an inflectional form that indicates its grammatical function in a phrase, clause, or sentence. For example, a pronoun may play the role of subject , of direct object , or of possessor...
that indicates a change in state of a noun, with the general sense of "becoming X
" or "change to X
In the Finnish language
Finnish is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland Primarily for use by restaurant menus and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a...
, this is the counterpart of the Essive case
The essive or similaris case carries the meaning of a temporary location or state of being, often equivalent to the English "as a ".In the Finnish language, this case is marked by adding "-na/-nä" to the stem of the noun....
, with the basic meaning of a change of state. It is also used for expressing "in (a language)", "considering it's a (status)" and "by (a time)". Its ending is -ksi
- pitkä "long", venyi pitkäksi "(it) stretched long"
- englanti "English", englanniksi "in English"
- pentu "cub", Se on pennuksi iso "For a cub, it is big"
- musta aukko "black hole", (muuttui/muuntautui) mustaksi aukoksi "(turned into) a black hole"
- kello kuusi "(at) six o' clock", kello kuudeksi "by six o' clock"
Examples in Estonian
Estonian is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1.1 million people in Estonia and tens of thousands in various émigré communities...
- must auk "black hole", (muutus/muundus) mustaks auguks "(turned into) a black hole"
- kell kuus "(at) six o' clock", kella kuueks "by six o' clock"
Examples in Hungarian
Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....
. The ending is -vá / -vé after a vowel; assimilating to the final consonsant otherwise:
- só "salt", Lót felesége sóvá változott "Lot's wife turned into salt"
- fiú "boy; son" fiává fogad "adopt as one's son"
- bolond "fool" bolonddá tett engem "He made a fool out of me."