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Stirling

Stirling

Overview
Stirling is a city
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 and former ancient burgh
Burgh
A burgh was an autonomous corporate entity in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town. This type of administrative division existed from the 12th century, when King David I created the first royal burghs. Burgh status was broadly analogous to borough status, found in the rest of the United...

 in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

, and is at the heart of the wider Stirling council area
Stirling (council area)
Stirling is one of the 32 unitary local government council areas of Scotland, and has a population of about 87,000 . It was created under the Local Government etc Act 1994 with the boundaries of the Stirling district of the former Central local government region, and it covers most of the former...

. The city is clustered around a large fortress
Stirling Castle
Stirling Castle, located in Stirling, is one of the largest and most important castles, both historically and architecturally, in Scotland. The castle sits atop Castle Hill, an intrusive crag, which forms part of the Stirling Sill geological formation. It is surrounded on three sides by steep...

 and medieval old-town beside the River Forth
River Forth
The River Forth , long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland.The Forth rises in Loch Ard in the Trossachs, a mountainous area some west of Stirling...

. Historically it was strategically important as the "Gateway to the Highlands", with its position near the boundary between the Scottish Lowlands
Scottish Lowlands
The Scottish Lowlands is a name given to the Southern half of Scotland.The area is called a' Ghalldachd in Scottish Gaelic, and the Lawlands ....

 and Highlands
Scottish Highlands
The Highlands is an historic region of Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to as the "Scottish Highlands". It was culturally distinguishable from the Lowlands from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands...

, and its crossing of the Forth, the nearest to the river mouth.

Once the capital of Scotland, Stirling contains the Great Hall (restored 1999) and the Renaissance Palace (restoration completed 2011) within the Castle that rivalled any building in Europe at the time.
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Encyclopedia
Stirling is a city
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 and former ancient burgh
Burgh
A burgh was an autonomous corporate entity in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town. This type of administrative division existed from the 12th century, when King David I created the first royal burghs. Burgh status was broadly analogous to borough status, found in the rest of the United...

 in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

, and is at the heart of the wider Stirling council area
Stirling (council area)
Stirling is one of the 32 unitary local government council areas of Scotland, and has a population of about 87,000 . It was created under the Local Government etc Act 1994 with the boundaries of the Stirling district of the former Central local government region, and it covers most of the former...

. The city is clustered around a large fortress
Stirling Castle
Stirling Castle, located in Stirling, is one of the largest and most important castles, both historically and architecturally, in Scotland. The castle sits atop Castle Hill, an intrusive crag, which forms part of the Stirling Sill geological formation. It is surrounded on three sides by steep...

 and medieval old-town beside the River Forth
River Forth
The River Forth , long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland.The Forth rises in Loch Ard in the Trossachs, a mountainous area some west of Stirling...

. Historically it was strategically important as the "Gateway to the Highlands", with its position near the boundary between the Scottish Lowlands
Scottish Lowlands
The Scottish Lowlands is a name given to the Southern half of Scotland.The area is called a' Ghalldachd in Scottish Gaelic, and the Lawlands ....

 and Highlands
Scottish Highlands
The Highlands is an historic region of Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to as the "Scottish Highlands". It was culturally distinguishable from the Lowlands from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands...

, and its crossing of the Forth, the nearest to the river mouth.

Once the capital of Scotland, Stirling contains the Great Hall (restored 1999) and the Renaissance Palace (restoration completed 2011) within the Castle that rivalled any building in Europe at the time. Stirling also has its medieval parish church, The Church of the Holy Rude, where King James VI was crowned King of Scots on 29 July 1567. The Holy Rude still functions as living church with a service every Sunday.

Stirling is a centre for local government, higher education, retail, and light industry. Its population in 2008 was 33,710, for Stirling itself, the wider urban area including Bridge of Allan
Bridge of Allan
Bridge of Allan is a town in Stirling council area in Scotland, just north of the city of Stirling. It was formerly administered by Stirlingshire and Central Regional Council....

 and Bannockburn
Bannockburn
Bannockburn is a village immediately south of the city of Stirling in Scotland. It is named after the Bannock Burn, a burn running through the village before flowing into the River Forth.-History:...

 has a population of 45,750. This makes it the smallest city in Scotland: indeed it is smaller than many of Scotland's larger towns.

One of the principal royal strongholds of the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland was a Sovereign state in North-West Europe that existed from 843 until 1707. It occupied the northern third of the island of Great Britain and shared a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England...

, Stirling was created a Royal burgh
Royal burgh
A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh which had been founded by, or subsequently granted, a royal charter. Although abolished in 1975, the term is still used in many of the former burghs....

 by King David I
David I of Scotland
David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians and later King of the Scots...

 in 1130, which it remained until 1975, when the county of Stirlingshire
Stirlingshire
Stirlingshire or the County of Stirling is a registration county of Scotland, based around Stirling, the former county town. It borders Perthshire to the north, Clackmannanshire and West Lothian to the east, Lanarkshire to the south, and Dunbartonshire to the south-west.Until 1975 it was a county...

 was absorbed into Central Region
Central Region, Scotland
Central Region was a local government region of Scotland from 1975 to 1996. It is now divided into the council areas of Falkirk, Stirling, and Clackmannanshire, which had previously been districts within Central...

. In 2002, as part of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states known as the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize,...

's Golden Jubilee
Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II
The Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II was the international celebration marking the 50th anniversary of the accession of Elizabeth II to the thrones of seven countries, upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952, and was intended by the Queen to be both a commemoration of her 50...

, Stirling was granted city status
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

.

History



Stirling was originally a Stone Age
Stone Age
The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years , during which humans and their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporary genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus, widely used exclusively stone as their hard material in the...

 settlement as shown by the Randolphfield standing stones and Kings Park prehistoric carvings that can still be found south of the town. The city has been strategically significant since at least the Roman occupation of Britain
Roman Britain
Roman Britain was the part of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire from AD 43 until ca. AD 410.The Romans referred to the imperial province as Britannia, which eventually comprised all of the island of Great Britain south of the fluid frontier with Caledonia...

, due to its naturally defensible crag and tail
Crag and tail
A crag is a rocky hill or mountain, generally isolated from other high ground. Crags are formed when a glacier or ice sheet passes over an area that contains a particularly resistant rock formation...

 hill (latterly the site of Stirling Castle), and its commanding position at the foot of the Ochil Hills
Ochil Hills
The Ochil Hills is a range of hills in Scotland north of the Forth valley bordered by the towns of Stirling, Alloa, Kinross and Perth. The only major roads crossing the hills pass through Glen Devon/Glen Eagles and Glenfarg, the latter now largely replaced except for local traffic by the M90...

 on the border between the Lowlands and Highlands
Scottish Highlands
The Highlands is an historic region of Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to as the "Scottish Highlands". It was culturally distinguishable from the Lowlands from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands...

, at the lowest crossing point of the River Forth. It remained the river's lowest crossing until the construction of the Kincardine Bridge
Kincardine Bridge
The Kincardine Bridge is a road bridge crossing the Firth of Forth from Falkirk council area to Kincardine-on-Forth, Fife, Scotland.-History:The bridge was constructed between 1932 and 1936, designed by Donald Watson...

 further downstream in the 1930s. It is supposed that Stirling is the fortress of Iuddeu or Urbs Giudi where Oswiu of Northumbria
Oswiu of Northumbria
Oswiu , also known as Oswy or Oswig , was a King of Bernicia. His father, Æthelfrith of Bernicia, was killed in battle, fighting against Rædwald, King of the East Angles and Edwin of Deira at the River Idle in 616...

 was besieged by Penda of Mercia
Penda of Mercia
Penda was a 7th-century King of Mercia, the Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is today the English Midlands. A pagan at a time when Christianity was taking hold in many of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Penda took over the Severn Valley in 628 following the Battle of Cirencester before participating in the...

 in 655, as recorded in Bede
Bede
Bede , also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede , was a monk at the Northumbrian monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth, today part of Sunderland, England, and of its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow , both in the Kingdom of Northumbria...

 and contemporary annals.

A ford, and later bridge, of the River Forth at Stirling brought wealth and strategic influence, as did its port. The town was chartered as a royal burgh by King David
David I of Scotland
David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians and later King of the Scots...

 in the 12th century, with charters later reaffirmed by later monarchs (the town then referred to as Strivelyn). Major battles during the Wars of Scottish Independence
Wars of Scottish Independence
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the independent Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries....

 took place at the Stirling Bridge
Battle of Stirling Bridge
The Battle of Stirling Bridge was a battle of the First War of Scottish Independence. On 11 September 1297, the forces of Andrew Moray and William Wallace defeated the combined English forces of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey and Hugh de Cressingham near Stirling, on the River Forth.-The main...

 in 1297 and at the nearby village of Bannockburn
Battle of Bannockburn
The Battle of Bannockburn was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence...

 in 1314 involving William Wallace
William Wallace
Sir William Wallace was a Scottish knight and landowner who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence....

 and Robert the Bruce respectively. There were also several Sieges of Stirling Castle
Sieges of Stirling Castle
There have been at least sixteen sieges of Stirling Castle, a strategically important fortification in Stirling, Scotland. Stirling is located at the crossing of the River Forth, making it a key location for access to the north of Scotland...

 in the conflict, notably in 1304.

The origin of the name Stirling is uncertain, but folk etymology suggests that it originates in either a Scots or Gaelic term meaning the place of battle, struggle or strife. Other sources suggest that it originates in a Brythonic
Brythonic languages
The Brythonic or Brittonic languages form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family, the other being Goidelic. The name Brythonic was derived by Welsh Celticist John Rhys from the Welsh word Brython, meaning an indigenous Briton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael...

 name meaning "dwelling place of Melyn". The town has two Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 mottoes, which appeared on the earliest burgh seal of which an impression of 1296 is on record:
Hic Armis Bruti Scoti Stant Hic Cruce Tuti (The Britons stand by force of arms, The Scots are by this cross preserved from harms) and
Continet Hoc in Se Nemus et Castrum Strivilinse (The Castle and Wood of Stirling town are in the compass of this seal set down.)

Standing near the castle, the Church of the Holy Rude
The Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling
The Church of the Holy Rude is the second oldest building in Stirling, Scotland, after Stirling Castle. The church was founded in 1129 during the reign of David I as the parish church of Stirling....

 is one of the town's most historically important buildings. Founded in 1129 it is the second oldest building in the city after Stirling castle. It was rebuilt in the 15th century after Stirling suffered a catastrophic fire in 1405, and is reputed to be the only surviving church in the United Kingdom apart from Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

 to have held a coronation. On 29 July 1567 the infant son of Mary, Queen of Scots, was crowned James VI of Scotland
James I of England
James VI and I was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603...

 here. Musket shot marks that may come from Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader who overthrew the English monarchy and temporarily turned England into a republican Commonwealth, and served as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland....

's troops during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms are clearly visible on the tower and apse. Another important historical religious site in the area is the ruins of Cambuskenneth Abbey
Cambuskenneth Abbey
Cambuskenneth Abbey is a ruined Augustinian monastery located on an area of land enclosed by a meander of the River Forth near Stirling in Scotland. The abbey is largely reduced to its foundations. The neighbouring modern village of Cambuskenneth is named after it.Cambuskenneth Abbey was founded...

, the resting place of King James III of Scotland
James III of Scotland
James III was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. James was an unpopular and ineffective monarch owing to an unwillingness to administer justice fairly, a policy of pursuing alliance with the Kingdom of England, and a disastrous relationship with nearly all his extended family.His reputation as the...

 and his queen, Margaret of Denmark. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, the Battle of Stirling
Battle of Stirling (1648)
The second Battle of Stirling was fought on the 12 September 1648 during the Scottish Civil War of the 17th century.-Background:The Battle of Stirling in 1648 was part of the War of the Three Kingdoms. By this time, the Presbyterian Covenanter movement had defeated the Scottish Royalists, who...

 also took place in the centre of Stirling on 12 September 1648.

The fortifications continued to play a strategic military role during the 18th century Jacobite Rising
Jacobite rising
The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746. The uprisings were aimed at returning James VII of Scotland and II of England, and later his descendants of the House of Stuart, to the throne after he was deposed by...

s. In 1715, the Earl of Mar
Duke of Mar
The Jacobite title of Duke of Mar was conferred on John Erskine, 6th/23rd Earl of Mar by the Jacobite pretender James III and VIII. He was created Duke of Mar, Marquess Erskine or Marquess of Stirling, Earl of Kildrummie, Viscount of Garioch and Lord Alloa, Ferriton and Forrest in the notional...

 failed to take control of the castle. On 8 January 1746, the army of Bonnie Prince Charlie seized control of the town but failed to take the Castle. On their consequent retreat northwards, they blew up the church of St. Ninians where they had been storing munitions; only the tower survived and can be seen to this day.

Economically, the city's port supported overseas trade, including tea trade with India and timber trade with the Baltic. The coming of the railways in 1848 started the decline of the river trade, not least because a railway bridge downstream restricted access for shipping. By the mid 20th century the port had ceased to operate.

Famous residents have included Mary, Queen of Scots; King James VI of Scotland; Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman GCB was a British Liberal Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1908 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 1899 to 1908. He also served as Secretary of State for War twice, in the Cabinets of Gladstone and Rosebery...

; documentary film pioneer John Grierson
John Grierson
John Grierson was a pioneering Scottish documentary maker, often considered the father of British and Canadian documentary film. According to popular myth, in 1926, Grierson coined the term "documentary" to describe a non-fiction film.-Early life:Grierson was born in Deanston, near Doune, Scotland...

; film music composer Muir Mathieson
Muir Mathieson
James Muir Mathieson was a Scottish conductor and composer. Mathieson was almost always described as a "Musical Director" on a large number of British films.-Career:...

; animation pioneer Norman McLaren
Norman McLaren
Norman McLaren, CC, CQ was a Scottish-born Canadian animator and film director known for his work for the National Film Board of Canada...

; TV presenter Kirsty Young
Kirsty Young
Kirsty Jackson Young is a Scottish television presenter and radio presenter. She is the main presenter of Crimewatch and Desert Island Discs. She is married to millionaire club owner Nick Jones.- Career :...

; and footballers Billy Bremner
Billy Bremner
William John "Billy" Bremner was a Scottish professional footballer, most noted for his captaincy of the Leeds United team of the 1960s and 1970s. He has since been voted Leeds United's greatest player of all time and has a statue outside the South East corner of Elland Road...

 (captain of Leeds United
Leeds United A.F.C.
Leeds United Association Football Club are an English professional association football club based in Beeston, Leeds, West Yorkshire, who play in the Football League Championship, the second tier of the English football league system...

 and Scotland
Scotland national football team
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. Scotland are the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside England, whom they played in the world's first international football match in 1872...

) and Frank Beattie
Frank Beattie
Frank Beattie was a Scottish association football player and manager. He spent his entire senior playing career with Kilmarnock, making 422 league appearances between 1954 and 1972. He was captain of Kilmarnock when they won the Scottish League Championship in 1965...

 (captain of Kilmarnock
Kilmarnock F.C.
Kilmarnock Football Club is a Scottish football team based in the town of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. Founded in 1869, "Killie" is the oldest club currently in the Scottish Premier League. Home matches are played at Rugby Park...

).

The Barnwell brothers, Frank
Frank Barnwell
Captain Frank Sowter Barnwell OBE AFC FRAeS BSc was an aeronautical engineer, who performed the first powered flight in Scotland and later went on to a career as an aircraft designer.-History:...

 and Harold
Harold Barnwell
Harold Barnwell was an aircraft pioneer. He was born in Lewisham, Kent, the son of Richard Barnwell, a director of the Clyde shipbuilder, Fairfields. Barnwell was brought up at Elcho House in Balfron, Stirlingshire, and educated Fettes College in Edinburgh...

, worked at Grampian Motors in Causewayhead, and in 1909 they designed and flew the first powered aircraft in Scotland. Frank Barnwell
Frank Barnwell
Captain Frank Sowter Barnwell OBE AFC FRAeS BSc was an aeronautical engineer, who performed the first powered flight in Scotland and later went on to a career as an aircraft designer.-History:...

 went on to design aircraft including the Bristol Blenheim
Bristol Blenheim
The Bristol Blenheim was a British light bomber aircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company that was used extensively in the early days of the Second World War. It was adapted as an interim long-range and night fighter, pending the availability of the Beaufighter...

. A small monument to the brothers' pioneering achievement has been erected at Causewayhead roundabout.

Stirling is also famous for its many hauntings, like the Green Lady of the Castle, seen by many a Soldier and "The Settle Inn" near the Castle which is one of the most haunted places in Scotland. Other haunted pubs include "The Golden Lion" and "The Albion Bar" - named after the local football team Stirling Albion.

Geography



Governance


In terms of local government
Local government
Local government refers collectively to administrative authorities over areas that are smaller than a state.The term is used to contrast with offices at nation-state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government...

, the city of Stirling is a part of the wider Stirling Council area
Stirling (council area)
Stirling is one of the 32 unitary local government council areas of Scotland, and has a population of about 87,000 . It was created under the Local Government etc Act 1994 with the boundaries of the Stirling district of the former Central local government region, and it covers most of the former...

, which governs on matters of local administration as set out by the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994. Elections to the council take place every four years. The Council is currently controlled by the Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
The Scottish National Party is a social-democratic political party in Scotland which campaigns for Scottish independence from the United Kingdom....

. The Provost
Provost (civil)
A provost is the ceremonial head of many Scottish local authorities, and under the name prévôt was a governmental position of varying importance in Ancien Regime France.-History:...

 of Stirling is Fergus Wood.

In terms of national government, Stirling forms part of county constituency
United Kingdom constituencies
In the United Kingdom , each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly.Within the United Kingdom there are now five bodies with members elected by constituencies:...

 of Stirling constituency of the House of Commons
Stirling (UK Parliament constituency)
Stirling is a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election.-Boundaries:...

, electing one Member of Parliament
Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

 (MP) to the House of Commons of the parliament of the United Kingdom by first past the post system. Anne McGuire
Anne McGuire
Anne Catherine McGuire is a British Labour Party politician, who has been the Member of Parliament for Stirling since 1997.-Early life:...

 of the Labour Party
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

 is the MP for Stirling constituency of the House of Commons
Stirling (UK Parliament constituency)
Stirling is a county constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election.-Boundaries:...

.

For the purposes of the Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
The Scottish Parliament is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland, located in the Holyrood area of the capital, Edinburgh. The Parliament, informally referred to as "Holyrood", is a democratically elected body comprising 129 members known as Members of the Scottish Parliament...

, Stirling forms part of the Stirling constituency of the Scottish Parliament
Stirling (Scottish Parliament constituency)
Stirling is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election...

 constituency. The Stirling Scottish Parliament (or Holyrood) constituency created in 1999 is one of nine within the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region. Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament
Member of the Scottish Parliament
Member of the Scottish Parliament is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament.-Methods of Election:MSPs are elected in one of two ways:...

 (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional members to produce a form of proportional representation. The constituency is represented by Bruce Crawford
Bruce Crawford
Bruce Crawford is the Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Parliamentary Business and Government Strategy in the Scottish Government and Scottish National Party Member of the Scottish Parliament for Stirling.-Background:...

, MSP
Member of the Scottish Parliament
Member of the Scottish Parliament is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament.-Methods of Election:MSPs are elected in one of two ways:...

 of the Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
The Scottish National Party is a social-democratic political party in Scotland which campaigns for Scottish independence from the United Kingdom....

.

As Scotland comprises a single European Parliament Constituency
Scotland (European Parliament constituency)
Scotland constitutes a single constituency of the European Parliament. For 2009 it elects 6 MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.- Boundaries :...

, Stirling participates in electing seven MEP
Member of the European Parliament
A Member of the European Parliament is a person who has been elected to the European Parliament. The name of MEPs differ in different languages, with terms such as europarliamentarian or eurodeputy being common in Romance language-speaking areas.When the European Parliament was first established,...

s using the D'Hondt method
D'Hondt method
The d'Hondt method is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. The method described is named after Belgian mathematician Victor D'Hondt who described it in 1878...

 of proportional representation
Proportional representation
Proportional representation is a concept in voting systems used to elect an assembly or council. PR means that the number of seats won by a party or group of candidates is proportionate to the number of votes received. For example, under a PR voting system if 30% of voters support a particular...

 every four years.

Geography



Stirling is renowned as the Gateway to the Highlands and is generally regarded as occupying a strategic position at the point where the flatter, largely undulating Scottish Lowlands meet the rugged slopes of the Highlands
Scottish Highlands
The Highlands is an historic region of Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to as the "Scottish Highlands". It was culturally distinguishable from the Lowlands from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands...

 along the Highland Boundary Fault
Highland Boundary Fault
The Highland Boundary Fault is a geological fault that traverses Scotland from Arran and Helensburgh on the west coast to Stonehaven in the east...

. The starkness of this contrast is evidenced by the many hills and mountains of the lower Highlands such as Ben Vorlich
Ben Vorlich (Loch Lomond)
Ben Vorlich is a Scottish mountain situated between the northernmost section of Loch Lomond and Loch Sloy...

 and Ben Ledi
Ben Ledi
Ben Ledi is a mountain in Perthshire, Scotland. It is 879 m high, and is classified as a Corbett. By road it lies about eight kilometres north-west of Callander, near the village of Kilmahog...

 which can be seen to the northwest of the city. On the other hand, the Carse of Stirling
Carse
In Scottish geography, a Carse is an area of low-lying, typically alluvial and fertile land occupying certain Scottish river valleys, such as that of the River Forth.-Carse of Forth :...

, stretching to the west and east of the city, is one of the flattest and most agriculturally productive expanses of land in the whole of Scotland.

The land surrounding Stirling has been most affected by glacial erosion and deposition. The city itself has grown up around its castle which stands atop an ancient quartz-dolerite
Quartz-dolerite
An intrusive rock, similar to dolerite, but with an excess of quartz. Dolerite is similar in composition to basalt, which is eruptive , and gabbro, which is plutonic. The differing crystal sizes are due to the different rate of cooling, basalt cools quickly and has a very fine structure, while...

 sill
Sill (geology)
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or even along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock. The term sill is synonymous with concordant intrusive sheet...

, a major defensive position which was at the lowest crossing point on the River Forth. Stirling stands on the Forth at the point where the river widens and becomes tidal. To the east of the city the Ochil Hills
Ochil Hills
The Ochil Hills is a range of hills in Scotland north of the Forth valley bordered by the towns of Stirling, Alloa, Kinross and Perth. The only major roads crossing the hills pass through Glen Devon/Glen Eagles and Glenfarg, the latter now largely replaced except for local traffic by the M90...

 dominate the skyline with the highest peak in the range being Ben Cleuch
Ben Cleuch
Ben Cleuch is a mountain in Scotland.It is the highest point in the Ochil Hills, and the highest point in Clackmannanshire. It is high....

, although Dumyat
Dumyat
Dumyat is a hill at the western extremity of the Ochil Hills in central Scotland. The name is thought to originate from Dun of the Maeatae....

 is more noticeable from Stirling. The Ochils meet the flat carse
Carse
In Scottish geography, a Carse is an area of low-lying, typically alluvial and fertile land occupying certain Scottish river valleys, such as that of the River Forth.-Carse of Forth :...

 (floodplain
Floodplain
A floodplain, or flood plain, is a flat or nearly flat land adjacent a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and experiences flooding during periods of high discharge...

) of the River Forth to the east of the distinctive geographical feature of Abbey Craig
Abbey Craig
The Abbey Craig is the hill upon which the Wallace Monument stands, at Causewayhead, just to the north of Stirling, Scotland.The Abbey Craig is part of a complex quartz-dolerite intrusion or sill within carboniferous strata, at the western edge of the Central Coal Field, known as the Stirling Sill...

, a crag and tail
Crag and tail
A crag is a rocky hill or mountain, generally isolated from other high ground. Crags are formed when a glacier or ice sheet passes over an area that contains a particularly resistant rock formation...

 hill upon which stands the 220 ft (67m) high Wallace National Monument
Wallace Monument
The National Wallace Monument is a tower standing on the summit of Abbey Craig, a hilltop near Stirling in Scotland. It commemorates Sir William Wallace, the 13th century Scottish hero....

.

The climate of Stirling differs little from that of much of the rest of central Scotland. The warm Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...

 air current from the Atlantic Ocean is the predominant influence, with a prevailing southwesterly wind.

Top of the Town


Top of the Town consists of Broad Street, Castle Wynd, Ballengeich Pass, Lower Castle Hill Road, and St Mary's Walk. These streets all lead up to Stirling Castle and are the favourite haunt of tourists who stop off at the Old Town Jail, Argyll's Lodgings and the castle. Ballengeich Pass leads to the graveyard at Ballengeich and the Castle Wynd winds past the old graveyard.
The Top of the Town from Broad Street upwards is renowned for its unique cobblestoned roads, and cars can be heard rattling over the cobblestones on the way down. Craft shops and tourist focused shops are evident on the way up and once at the top one is treated to a panoramic view of Stirling, without having to pay to get into the castle.

Other areas

  • Bannockburn
    Bannockburn
    Bannockburn is a village immediately south of the city of Stirling in Scotland. It is named after the Bannock Burn, a burn running through the village before flowing into the River Forth.-History:...

  • Braehead
  • Broomridge
    Broomridge
    Broomridge is a district in the south of the city of Stirling, Scotland, located north of Bannockburn and east of St. Ninians. It is home to Bannockburn High School and is also served by Braehead Primary School in the neighbouring district of Braehead....

  • Cambusbarron
    Cambusbarron
    Cambusbarron is a village in Stirling, Scotland. In the 2001 census, it had a population of 3,224. There is evidence of settlement at the site since the Bronze Age, and several forts dating from the Iron Age have been found near the village...

  • Cambuskenneth
    Cambuskenneth
    Cambuskenneth is a village in the city of Stirling, located in central Scotland. It has a population of 250 and is the site of the historic Cambuskenneth Abbey. It is situated by the River Forth and the only road access to the village is along Ladysneuk Road from Alloa Road in Causewayhead...

  • Causewayhead
  • Cornton
    Cornton
    Cornton is a district of the city of Stirling on the North Bank of the River Forth in central Scotland.It is amongst the oldest of Stirling settlements originating in Pre-Roman times and servicing the ford marked by the Causewayhead Road...

  • Cowie
    Cowie, Stirling
    Cowie is a village in the Stirling council area of Scotland. It lies on the minor B9124 road approximately 4 miles south-east of Stirling and about a mile north of the A9 road. The United Kingdom Census 2001 recorded the population as 2387....

  • Fallin
    Fallin, Stirling
    Fallin is a village in the Stirling council area of Scotland. It lies on the A905 road 3 miles east of Stirling on a bend in the River Forth. The United Kingdom Census 2001 recorded the population as 2710....

  • Kings Park
  • Raploch
    Raploch
    The Raploch is a district of the city of Stirling, which lies to the south of the River Forth in central Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to by people from outside the area as "Raploch"....

  • Riverside
  • St. Ninians
  • Torbrex

Demography


The city of Stirling had a population of 33,710, in 2008, the wider urban area including Bridge of Allan and Bannockburn had a population of 45,750. The entire Stirling Council area had a population of 88,400 in 2008. The city is reputed to be the third fastest growing area of Scotland in terms of population. According to the 2001 census, 52.7% of the population was female compared to 47.2% male. Stirling had both a smaller proportion of under 16s, at 16.7% compared to the Scottish average of 19.2%, and a smaller proportion of those of pensionable age - 17.8% - compared to the Scottish average of 18.6%. The highest proportion of the population, at 24.3%, was concentrated in the 16-29 age group. Stirling also had a higher proportion of non-Scottish born residents at 16.5%, compared to the Scottish average of 12.8%. The population was also slightly younger than the Scottish average of 37 - the median
Median
In probability theory and statistics, a median is described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to...

 age for males was 34; and the median age for females was 36, to the national average of 39. The population peaks and troughs significantly when the students come and go from the city.

Economy



At the centre of a large rural agricultural hinterland that encompasses some of the flattest and most productive land in Scotland, Stirling principally functioned as a market town
Market town
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the medieval period, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city...

, symbolised by its Mercat cross
Mercat cross
A mercat cross is a market cross found in Scottish cities and towns where trade and commerce was a part of economic life. It was originally a place where merchants would gather, and later became the focal point of many town events such as executions, announcements and proclamations...

, with farmers coming to sell their products and wares in the large agricultural market that was held in the town. Today, agriculture still plays a part in the economic life of Stirling, given its focus at the heart of a large rural area, but to a much lesser extent than previously.

With Stirling's development as a market town and its location as the focus of transport and communications in the region, it has developed a substantial retail
Retail
Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

 sector serving a wide range of surrounding communities as well as the city itself. Primarily centred on the city centre, there are a large number of chain stores, as well as the Thistles
Thistles Centre
The Thistles Shopping Centre is located in Stirling, Scotland. The shopping centre caters for over 500 000 sq ft of retail, providing 87 units in total, since opening in 1977.-Thistles Marches:...

 shopping centre
Shopping mall
A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping arcade, shopping precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area — a modern, indoor version...

. However this has been augmented by out-of-town developments such as the Springkerse Retail Park on the city bypass to the east of Stirling, and the development of a large Sainsbury's in the Raploch
Raploch
The Raploch is a district of the city of Stirling, which lies to the south of the River Forth in central Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to by people from outside the area as "Raploch"....

.

A major new regeneration project
Urban renewal
Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of...

 on the site of the former port area and the 40 acres (161,874.4 m²) former Ministry of Defence site, adjacent to Stirling Railway Station
Stirling railway station, Scotland
Stirling railway station is a railway station located in Stirling, Scotland.- History :Stirling was first connected to the Scottish Central Railway in 1848. Lines were operated by the Stirling and Dunfermline Railway and the Forth and Clyde Junction Railway...

, is currently underway. Known as Forthside, it has the aim of developing a new waterfront district linked to the railway station via a new pedestrian bridge. The development comprises retail, residential and commercial elements, including a conference centre, hotel and Vue
Vue (cinema)
Vue Entertainment , formerly known as SBC International Cinemas, is a cinema company in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. The company was formed in May 2003 when SBC acquired 36 Warner Village cinemas. There are now 69 Vue cinemas, with 654 screens totaling 140,500 seats, including the rebranded...

 multiplex cinema, that will ultimately expand the city centre area, linking it to the River Forth, which has been cut off from the city centre area since the construction of the A9 bypass under the railway station in the 1960s. For the first time in 100 years, local people will have access to the banks of the River Forth in the city centre with landscaped public areas, footpaths, cycleways and an improved public transport network.

In the service sector, financial services
Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...

 as well as tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 are the biggest employers. The financial services and insurance company Prudential
Prudential plc
Prudential plc is a multinational financial services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.Prudential's largest division is Prudential Corporation Asia, which has over 15 million customers across 13 Asian markets and is a top-three provider of life insurance in mainland China, Hong...

 have a large and well-established base at Craigforth on the outskirts of Stirling. In terms of tourism, the presence of such historical monuments as Stirling Castle, the National Wallace Monument and other nearby attractions like Blair Drummond Safari Park
Blair Drummond Safari Park
Blair Drummond Safari Park is Scotland's only African Safari Park. Located near Stirling the park is one of the major attractions of the area. The safari park is overlooked by Blair Drummond House, built in 1868–1872 by J. C. Walker, and is spread over ....

, the key role which Stirling has played in Scottish history
History of Scotland
The history of Scotland begins around 10,000 years ago, when humans first began to inhabit what is now Scotland after the end of the Devensian glaciation, the last ice age...

, as well as the scenery of the area, has bolstered Stirling's position as an important tourist destination in Scotland.

The University of Stirling
University of Stirling
The University of Stirling is a campus university founded by Royal charter in 1967, on the Airthrey Estate in Stirling, Scotland.-History and campus development:...

 and Stirling Council are two of the biggest employers in the area. Knowledge related industries, research and development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

 as well as life sciences
Life sciences
The life sciences comprise the fields of science that involve the scientific study of living organisms, like plants, animals, and human beings. While biology remains the centerpiece of the life sciences, technological advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have led to a burgeoning of...

 have clustered around the university in the Stirling University Innovation Park, close to its main campus. Other public sector agencies that are major employers in the city include Central Scotland Police
Central Scotland Police
Central Scotland Police is the territorial police force responsible for the Scottish council areas of Stirling, Falkirk and Clackmannanshire . The headquarters of the force are at Randolphfield House in Stirling....

, Scottish Prison Service
Cornton Vale (HM Prison)
Cornton Vale is a women's prison in Stirling, operated by the Scottish Prison Service. Built in 1975, Cornton Vale comprises a total of 217 cells in its 5 houses. It took only convicted women and girls from 1975 until 1978. In 1978 Parliament passed the necessary legislation to allow females to be...

, NHS Forth Valley
NHS Forth Valley
NHS Forth Valley is one of the fourteen regions of NHS Scotland. It provides healthcare services in the Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and Stirling area. NHS Forth Valley is headquartered in Castle Business Park, Stirling....

 and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency
Scottish Environment Protection Agency
The Scottish Environment Protection Agency is Scotland’s environmental regulator. Its main role is to protect and improve Scotland's environment...

.

Stirling is home to national construction companies Ogilvie Group, chaired by Duncan Ogilvie, who is listed in the Times Rich List as being worth £35 million.

A Bank of Scotland
Bank of Scotland
The Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial and clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland. With a history dating to the 17th century, it is the second oldest surviving bank in what is now the United Kingdom, and is the only commercial institution created by the Parliament of Scotland to...

 survey in 2009 found that workers in Stirling had the highest average earnings of £716 a week.

Transport


Public transport to districts within the city and to the surrounding towns, like Bridge of Allan
Bridge of Allan
Bridge of Allan is a town in Stirling council area in Scotland, just north of the city of Stirling. It was formerly administered by Stirlingshire and Central Regional Council....

 and Alloa
Alloa
Alloa is a town and former burgh in Clackmannanshire, set in the Central Lowlands of Scotland. It lies on on the north bank of the Firth of Forth close to the foot of the Ochil Hills, east of Stirling and north of Falkirk....

, is almost completely provided by buses operated principally by the First Group
FirstGroup plc
FirstGroup plc is a public transport company, registered in Scotland at its headquarters in Aberdeen, operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, Sweden, Canada and the United States...

, although there are also railway links to Bridge of Allan
Bridge of Allan railway station
Bridge of Allan railway station is located between Stirling and Dunblane on the Highland Main Line, Glasgow to Aberdeen Line and Edinburgh to Dunblane Line.-History:...

, Dunblane
Dunblane railway station
Dunblane railway station serves the town of Dunblane in central Scotland.- Facilities :It has three platforms, one which serves as a terminus for trains from Glasgow and Edinburgh, one which serves trains heading north to , , and Inverness...

, and, since 2008, Alloa. At the heart of Scotland's Central Belt
Central Belt
The Central Belt of Scotland is a common term used to describe the area of highest population density within Scotland. Despite the name, it is not geographically central but is nevertheless situated at the 'waist' of Scotland on a conventional map and the term 'central' is used in many local...

, Stirling has direct road connections to the major cities of Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

, via the M80 motorway
M80 motorway
The M80 is a motorway in central Scotland, running through Glasgow, North Lanarkshire, Falkirk and Stirling and links the M8, the M73 and M9 motorways. Following completion in 2011, this road is long. From 1992 - 2011, the road was in two sections; the southern section, Glasgow to Stepps and the...

, and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

, via the M9 motorway, as well as inter-city rail
Inter-city rail
Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional trains.There is no precise definition of inter-city rail. Its meaning may vary from country to country...

 links from Stirling Railway Station
Stirling railway station, Scotland
Stirling railway station is a railway station located in Stirling, Scotland.- History :Stirling was first connected to the Scottish Central Railway in 1848. Lines were operated by the Stirling and Dunfermline Railway and the Forth and Clyde Junction Railway...

. Transport infrastructure in the area has been further improved with the completion of the Upper Forth Crossing
Upper Forth Crossing
The Clackmannanshire Bridge is a road bridge over the Firth of Forth in Scotland which opened to traffic on Wednesday 19 November 2008. Prior to 1 October 2008 the bridge was referred to as the upper Forth crossing while the name was chosen....

 and the Stirling-Alloa-Kincardine rail link
Stirling-Alloa-Kincardine rail link
The Stirling-Alloa-Kincardine rail link was a project to re-open of railway line between the towns of Stirling, Alloa and Kincardine in Scotland, United Kingdom. The route opened to rail traffic in March 2008.- Background :...

, and there is an on-going (2010) upgrade of the A80 Trunk road
Trunk road
A trunk road, trunk highway, or strategic road is a major road—usually connecting two or more cities, ports, airports, and other things.—which is the recommended route for long-distance and freight traffic...

 to Motorway standards. The City of Stirling is home to a large number of commuters
Commuting
Commuting is regular travel between one's place of residence and place of work or full time study. It sometimes refers to any regular or often repeated traveling between locations when not work related.- History :...

, with 12,000 residents commuting to work in other areas, with 13,800 workers also travelling in to the city.

Sports and recreation


Stirling is home to professional league teams in football, rugby and cricket. The senior football team, Stirling Albion play in the Scottish Football League Second Division
Scottish Football League Second Division
The Scottish Football League Second Division is the second highest division of the Scottish Football League and the third highest overall in the Scottish football league system....

 at their home ground of the Doubletree Dunblane Stadium. In July 2010, the Stirling Albion Supporters' Trust successfully took over the running of the club buying out the long serving chairman, Peter McKenzie after 14 months of campaigning. This has made Stirling Albion, the first fully owned community club in the history of British football, after previous attempts made by Manchester United, Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

 and Rangers
Rangers F.C.
Rangers Football Club are an association football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, who play in the Scottish Premier League. The club are nicknamed the Gers, Teddy Bears and the Light Blues, and the fans are known to each other as bluenoses...

. Stirling County currently play in the Scottish Premiership Division One.

The athletics team Central Athletic Club based at University of Stirling. Stirling Wanderers Hockey Club have also moved to a brand new (international standard) pitch at Forthbank for season 2008/09. Next to this pitch there is also the ground of Stirling County Cricket Club, whose pavilion captured an architectural award in June 2009, three years after its opening.

Footballers Billy Bremner
Billy Bremner
William John "Billy" Bremner was a Scottish professional footballer, most noted for his captaincy of the Leeds United team of the 1960s and 1970s. He has since been voted Leeds United's greatest player of all time and has a statue outside the South East corner of Elland Road...

 and Duncan Ferguson were born in Stirling, as were rugby internationals Kenny Logan
Kenny Logan
Kenny Logan is a rugby union footballer who played wing for London Scottish.- Career :As a schoolboy, Logan had football trials as a goalkeeper for Dundee United and Hearts. He left school at 16 and began his rugby career with Stirling County, making his senior debut at 17.In 1996, he joined Wasps...

, Allister Hogg
Allister Hogg
Allister Hogg is a Scottish Rugby Union player who plays rugby union at either flanker or number eight for Newcastle Falcons and formely for Scotland.-Career:...

 and Alison McGrandles, jockey
Jockey
A jockey is an athlete who rides horses in horse racing or steeplechase racing, primarily as a profession. The word also applies to camel riders in camel racing.-Etymology:...

 Willie Carson
Willie Carson
William Fisher Hunter Carson, OBE is a retired jockey in thoroughbred horse racing.-Life and career:Best known as "Miserable Willie", Carson was born in Stirling, Scotland. In 1957 he was apprenticed to Captain Gerald Armstrong at his stables at Tupgill, North Yorkshire...

, and cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

er Dougie Brown
Dougie Brown
Douglas Robert Brown is a former Scottish cricketer, currently employed as a coach for Warwickshire C.C.C.. He is an all-rounder who has represented both England and Scotland at One Day International level...

.

Stirling is also a major centre of sports training and education in Scotland. The Scottish Institute of Sport
Scottish Institute of Sport
The Scottish Institute of Sport is the national sports development body in Scotland. It is part of sportscotland, a publicly owned company which is partly funded by the UK's National Lottery.The SIS was established in 1998...

 is headquartered in a purpose built facility on the campus of Stirling University which opened in 2002. Also at the university in the state of the art Scottish National Swimming Academy as well as the Gannochy National Tennis centre which is seen as a tennis centre of excellence.

Furthermore, the university itself has its own dedicated Sports Studies department and was ranked amongst the best in the United Kingdom for its provision of sports facilities, with the maximum 5 star award, shared by 16 other universities in the UK. Stirling University also currently hosts the Scottish men's lacrosse champions.

Stirling and its surrounding area has a number of 9 and 18 hole golf course
Golf course
A golf course comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, fairway, rough and other hazards, and a green with a flagstick and cup, all designed for the game of golf. A standard round of golf consists of playing 18 holes, thus most golf courses have this number of holes...

s, the largest of which is the Stirling Golf Course, located in the Kings Park area of the city. The Peak, a new Sports Village, was opened in April 2009 to cater for a range of sporting activities.

Education


The University of Stirling opened in 1967 on a greenfield site outside the town. Currently there are 11,544 students studying at the university, of which 8,443 are undergraduates and 3101 are postgraduates. There are 80 nationalities represented on the university campus, with 19% of students coming from overseas. It has grown into a major research centre, with a large science park
Science park
A research park, science park, or science and technology park is an area with a collection of buildings dedicated to scientific research on a business footing. There are many approximate synonyms for "science park", including research park, technology park, technopolis and biomedical park...

 - Innovation Park, located immediately adjacent to the main university campus. Innovation Park has grown since its initiation in 1993, and is now home to 40 companies engaging in various forms of research and development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

. In January 2008 it was announced that students from Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 would be able to gain degrees in retail from the University of Stirling in a tie-up with the country's Nanyang Polytechnic
Nanyang Polytechnic
Nanyang Polytechnic is a Singaporean polytechnic located in Ang Mo Kio next to Yio Chu Kang MRT Station, Singapore.-History:*Established 1 April 1992...

 (NYP).

Stirling is also home to part of the wider Forth Valley College
Forth Valley College
Forth Valley College is a college in Scotland. It was formed in 2005 by the merger of Falkirk College of Further & Higher Education and Clackmannan College.-Campuses:The four main campuses of Forth Valley College are:*Falkirk*Stirling*Alloa*Raploch...

 which was formed on 1 August 2005 from the merger of Falkirk
Falkirk
Falkirk is a town in the Central Lowlands of Scotland. It lies in the Forth Valley, almost midway between the two most populous cities of Scotland; north-west of Edinburgh and north-east of Glasgow....

, Stirling and Clackmannan
Clackmannan
Clackmannan District 1975-96From 1975, Clackmannan was the name of a small town and local government district in the Central region of Scotland, corresponding to the traditional county of Clackmannanshire, which was Scotland's smallest...

 colleges.

There are four main high schools in Stirling itself - Stirling High School
Stirling High School
Stirling High School is a state high school for 11-18 year olds run by Stirling Council in Stirling, Scotland. It is one of seven high schools in the Stirling district, and currently has approximately 972 pupils attending...

, with a school roll of 964 pupils, Wallace High School
Wallace High School, Stirling
Wallace High School in Causewayhead, Stirling, Scotland.It was founded in 1971 to serve northern and north-eastern Stirling. The University of Stirling is in close proximity, and the school has formed strong links with the institution. Wallace High School is one of seven secondary schools in the...

 with 958 pupils, St Modan's High School
St Modan's High School
St Modan's RC High School is an S1-S6 Catholic High School in Stirling, Scotland. The school roll currently stands at over 900 pupils. Pupils travel from the Denny, Banknock, Alloa, Tullibody, Sauchie, Alva, Raploch, Cowie, Bannockburn, Braehead, Riverside, Dunblane and Blanefield areas...

 with 912 pupils, and Bannockburn High School in Broomridge with 752 pupils. All the city's secondary school premises have been redeveloped as a result of a Public-private partnership
Public-private partnership
Public–private partnership describes a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies...

 scheme. Stirling also has a Gaelic-medium unit situated in the city's Riverside Primary School which teaches pupils from across Stirling and Clackmannanshire through the medium of Scottish Gaelic.

Twinned cities

  • Villeneuve d'Ascq
    Villeneuve d'Ascq
    Villeneuve-d'Ascq is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. With more than 60,000 inhabitants, it is one of the main cities of the Urban Community of Lille Métropole and the largest in area after Lille ; it is also one of the main cities of the Nord-Pas de Calais region.Built up...

    , France
  • Dunedin, Florida
    Dunedin, Florida
    Dunedin is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States. The name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The population was 35,691 at the 2000 census. As of 2004, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau is 36,632...

    , United States
  • Óbuda
    Óbuda
    Óbuda was a historical city in Hungary. United with Buda and Pest in 1873 it now forms part of District III-Óbuda-Békásmegyer of Budapest. The name means Old Buda in Hungarian...

    , Hungary
  • Summerside, Prince Edward Island
    Summerside, Prince Edward Island
    Summerside is a Canadian city in Prince County, Prince Edward Island. It is the second largest city in the province and the principal municipality for the western part of the island.- History :...

    , Canada

See also

  • Black Bond
    Black Bond
    In 1772 three Stirling burgh councillors signed a secret agreement to run the affairs of the town to their own advantage. This private pact to advance their own power and finance came to be known as the Black Bond....

  • Lecropt
    Lecropt
    Lecropt is a rural parish lying to the west of Bridge of Allan, Scotland.The population of the parish of Lecropt is estimated to be around 75, consisting entirely of isolated farms and houses, as well as the Keir Estate owned by the landed Stirling family...

  • List of places in Stirling (district)
  • List of places in Scotland

External links


  • Stirling Council Website
  • Stirling Castle (Historic Scotland
    Historic Scotland
    Historic Scotland is an executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland.-Role:As its website states:...

    )
  • Mapping the Town: the history of Stirling, presented by Julian Richards
    Julian Richards
    Julian Richards FSA, MIFA is a British television and radio presenter, writer and archaeologist with over 30 years experience of fieldwork and publication.-Early career:...

     (BBC Radio 4
    BBC Radio 4
    BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station, operated and owned by the BBC, that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes, including news, drama, comedy, science and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967. The station controller is currently Gwyneth Williams, and the...

    ) (RealAudio
    RealAudio
    RealAudio is a proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks and first released in April 1995. It uses a variety of audio codecs, ranging from low-bitrate formats that can be used over dialup modems, to high-fidelity formats for music. It can also be used as a streaming audio format, that is...

    format)
  • University of Stirling
  • Photos of Stirling
  • Cambusbarron Village - Local website with lots of information about the village and the Stirling area
  • Stirling Gaelic Choir
  • Tolbooth, Stirling's venue for live music
  • Albion Trust Video link shows worlds oldest football, located at Smith Museum Stirling