Robert E. Scholes
is an American literary critic and theorist. He is known for his ideas on fabulation
In literary criticism, the term fabulation was popularized by Robert Scholes, in his work The Fabulators, to describe the large and growing class of mostly 20th century novels that are in a style similar to magical realism, and do not fit into the traditional categories of realism or romance...
Metafiction, also known as Romantic irony in the context of Romantic works of literature, is a type of fiction that self-consciously addresses the devices of fiction, exposing the fictional illusion...
He graduated from Yale University
Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...
. Since 1970 he has been a Professor at Brown University
Brown University is a private, Ivy League university located in Providence, Rhode Island, United States. Founded in 1764 prior to American independence from the British Empire as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations early in the reign of King George III ,...
With Eric S. Rabkin, he published in 1977 the book Science Fiction: History, Science, Vision
, which considerably influenced science fiction studies
This article is about the field of science fiction studies. For the journal of the same title, please see Science Fiction Studies.Science fiction studies is the common name for the academic discipline that studies and researches the history, culture, and works of science fiction and, more broadly,...
. In it, they attempt to explain the literary history of the genre, but also the sciences such as physics and astronomy.
Scholes holds honorary doctorates from Université Lumière Lyon 2, France, (1987) and SUNY Purchase
Purchase College, State University of New York, is a public four-year college located in Purchase, New York, United States. It is one of 13 comprehensive colleges in the State University of New York system...
(2003). He is a past president of the Semiotic Society of America
The Semiotic Society of America is an interdisciplinary professional association serving scholars from many disciplines with common interests in semiotics, the study of signs and sign-systems. It was founded in 1975 and includes members from the United States and Canada. Its official journal is The...
(1989–1990) and of the Modern Language Association of America
The Modern Language Association of America is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature...
Scholes is currently the director of the Modernist Journals Project. In his collaboration with Clifford Wulfman, Modernism in the Magazines: An Introduction
(2010), Scholes offers a primer on early twentieth-century magazines, with particular attention given to the relationship of advertising to editorial content.
- Approaches to the Novel (1961) editor
- The Cornell Joyce Collection: A Catalogue (1961) editor
- The Fabulators (1967)
- Elements of Poetry (1969)
- Structuralism in Literature (1974)
- Structural Fabulation (1975)
- Fabulation and Metafiction (1979)
- Semiotics and Interpretation (1982)
- Textual Power (1985)
- Protocols of Reading (1989)
- In Search of James Joyce (1992)
- Elements of Fiction (1995) translation of a work first published in Japanese
- The Rise and Fall of English: Reconstructing English as a Discipline (1998)
- The Crafty Reader (2001)
- Paradoxy of Modernism (2006)
- Modernism in the Magazines: An Introduction (2010) with Clifford Wulfman