Nickel oxyhydroxide battery

Nickel oxyhydroxide battery

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Nickel oxyhydroxide battery (abb. NiOx) is a type of primary cell
Primary cell
A primary cell is any kind of battery in which the electrochemical reaction is not reversible, rendering the cell non-rechargeable. A common example of a primary cell is the disposable battery. Unlike a secondary cell, the reaction cannot be reversed by running a current into the cell; the chemical...

 (non-rechargeable). NiOx batteries excel in high-drain applications such as digital camera
Digital camera
A digital camera is a camera that takes video or still photographs, or both, digitally by recording images via an electronic image sensor. It is the main device used in the field of digital photography...

s, and in this role, they can provide up to twice the life of an alkaline battery
Alkaline battery
Alkaline batteries are a type of primary batteries dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide . A rechargeable alkaline battery allows reuse of specially designed cells....

.

NiOx batteries of this chemistry are sold under brand names such as Duracell
Duracell
Duracell is a brand of batteries manufactured by Procter & Gamble.Additionally, Duracell owns the Procell professional-use brand.-Products:Duracell manufactures alkaline batteries in many common sizes, such as AAA, AA, C, D, and 9V...

 Power Pix and Panasonic
Panasonic
Panasonic is an international brand name for Japanese electric products manufacturer Panasonic Corporation, which was formerly known as Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd...

 Oxyride.

NiOx batteries used in low-drain applications, have a lifespan similar to a premium alkaline battery. NiOx batteries produce a higher voltage (1.7V) than alkaline batteries (1.5V) which can cause problems in certain products, such as equipment with incandescent light bulbs (such as flashlights/torches), or devices without a voltage regulator.

Construction


The nickel oxyhydroxide cell is different from a standard alkaline battery
Alkaline battery
Alkaline batteries are a type of primary batteries dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide . A rechargeable alkaline battery allows reuse of specially designed cells....

 in the manufacturing process and in chemical composition.

The chemical difference is the addition of nickel oxyhydroxide to the manganese dioxide and graphite
Graphite
The mineral graphite is one of the allotropes of carbon. It was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Ancient Greek γράφω , "to draw/write", for its use in pencils, where it is commonly called lead . Unlike diamond , graphite is an electrical conductor, a semimetal...

 for the cathode
Cathode
A cathode is an electrode through which electric current flows out of a polarized electrical device. Mnemonic: CCD .Cathode polarity is not always negative...

. This results in an unloaded voltage of 1.7 V DC per cell. The cells sustain a higher average voltage during discharge compared to alkaline batteries. This may cause a false indication in equipment that monitors battery voltage as an indication of remaining operating time.

Finer grained graphite in the cathode and a vacuum pouring process that inserts a higher quantity of electrolyte in the cell are used during the manufacturing of the nickel oxyhydroxide cells.

Marketing stunts


Panasonic has promoted their brand with a number of marketing stunts. In August 2007, 192 Oxyride AA batteries powered a car that reached a top speed of 122 km/hour, (75.81Mph) getting into the Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records , is a reference book published annually, containing a collection of world records, both human achievements and the extremes of the natural world...

. http://www.techeblog.com/index.php/tech-gadget/video-panasonic-s-aa-battery-powered-vehicle-rockets-to-76mph

Rechargeable form



Rechargeable nickel–zinc batteries use the same chemistry. In the 1920s and 1930s, a rechargeable form of zinc-nickel oxyhydroxide battery was manufactured, but it had poor cycle life.

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