New Haven, Connecticut

New Haven, Connecticut

Overview
New Haven is the second-largest city in Connecticut
Connecticut
Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and the state of New York to the west and the south .Connecticut is named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately...

 and the sixth-largest in New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

. According to the 2010 Census, New Haven's population increased by 5.0% between 2000 and 2010, a rate higher than that of the State of Connecticut, and higher than that of the state's five largest cities, and most cities in the northeastern part of the U.S. It is the home of the Ivy League
Ivy League
The Ivy League is an athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. The conference name is also commonly used to refer to those eight schools as a group...

 school Yale University
Yale University
Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...

. The university is an integral part of the city's economy, being New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, as noted in the Mayor's 2010 State of the City address.
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Encyclopedia
New Haven is the second-largest city in Connecticut
Connecticut
Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and the state of New York to the west and the south .Connecticut is named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately...

 and the sixth-largest in New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

. According to the 2010 Census, New Haven's population increased by 5.0% between 2000 and 2010, a rate higher than that of the State of Connecticut, and higher than that of the state's five largest cities, and most cities in the northeastern part of the U.S. It is the home of the Ivy League
Ivy League
The Ivy League is an athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. The conference name is also commonly used to refer to those eight schools as a group...

 school Yale University
Yale University
Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...

. The university is an integral part of the city's economy, being New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, as noted in the Mayor's 2010 State of the City address. Health care (hospitals and biotechnology), professional services (legal, architectural, marketing, and engineering), financial services, and retail trade also help to form an economic base for the city.

With a population of 129,779 people, New Haven is the principal municipality in the Greater New Haven
Greater New Haven
Greater New Haven is the metropolitan area whose extent includes those towns in the U.S. state of Connecticut that share an economic, social, political, and historical focus on the city of New Haven...

 metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

, which had a total population of 571,310 in 2000. It is located in New Haven County
New Haven County, Connecticut
New Haven County is a county located in the south central part of the U.S. state of Connecticut. As of the 2010 Census, the county population is 862,477 making it the third most populated county in Connecticut. There are 1,340 people per square mile...

, on New Haven Harbor
New Haven Harbor
New Haven Harbor is an inlet on the north side of Long Island Sound in the state of Connecticut in the United States. The harbor area is an inlet carved by the retreat of the glaciers during the last ice age approximately 13,000 years ago....

, on the northern shore of Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound is an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, located in the United States between Connecticut to the north and Long Island, New York to the south. The mouth of the Connecticut River at Old Saybrook, Connecticut, empties into the sound. On its western end the sound is bounded by the Bronx...

.

New Haven was founded in 1638 by English puritans, and a year later eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid
Grid plan
The grid plan, grid street plan or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid...

, creating what is now commonly known as the "Nine Square Plan," now recognized by the American Institute of Certified Planners
American Institute of Certified Planners
The American Institute of Certified Planners is the American Planning Association's professional institute. AICP certifies professionals in the United States in the field of Urban and Regional planning and assists planners in the areas of ethics, professional development, planning education, and...

 as a National Historic Planning Landmark. The central common block is New Haven Green
New Haven Green
The New Haven Green is a privately owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, and was designed and surveyed by colonist...

, a 16 acres (6 ha) square, now a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

 and the center of Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It is made up of the original nine squares laid out in 1638 to form New Haven, including the New Haven Green, and the immediate surrounding central business district, as well as a significant portion...

.

New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees (including some large elm
Elm
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The dozens of species are found in temperate and tropical-montane regions of North America and Eurasia, ranging southward into Indonesia. Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests...

s) that gave New Haven the nickname "The Elm City".

Pre-colonial and colonial



Before European arrival, the New Haven area was the home of the Quinnipiac
Quinnipiac
This article is about the Native American nation. For the university, see Quinnipiac University.The Quinnipiac — rarely spelled Quinnipiack — is the English name for the Eansketambawg a Native American nation of the Algonquian family who inhabited the Wampanoki This article is about the Native...

 tribe of Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, who lived in villages around the harbor
Harbor
A harbor or harbour , or haven, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored for future use. Harbors can be natural or artificial...

 and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of maize
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

. The area was briefly visited by Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 explorer Adriaen Block
Adriaen Block
Adriaen Block was a Dutch private trader and navigator who is best known for exploring the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614, following the 1609 expedition by Henry Hudson...

 in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver
Beaver
The beaver is a primarily nocturnal, large, semi-aquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, North American Beaver and Eurasian Beaver . Beavers are known for building dams, canals, and lodges . They are the second-largest rodent in the world...

 pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area.

In 1637 a small party of Puritans reconnoitered the New Haven harbor area and wintered over. In April 1638, the main party of five hundred Puritan
Puritan
The Puritans were a significant grouping of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries. Puritanism in this sense was founded by some Marian exiles from the clergy shortly after the accession of Elizabeth I of England in 1558, as an activist movement within the Church of England...

s who left the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century, in New England, situated around the present-day cities of Salem and Boston. The territory administered by the colony included much of present-day central New England, including portions...

 under the leadership of the Reverend John Davenport
John Davenport (clergyman)
John Davenport was an English puritan clergyman and co-founder of the American colony of New Haven.-Early life:Born in Manchester, Warwickshire, England to a wealthy family, Davenport was educated at Oxford University...

 and the London merchant Theophilus Eaton
Theophilus Eaton
Theophilus Eaton was a merchant, farmer, and Puritan colonial leader who was the co-founder and first governor of New Haven Colony, Connecticut.-Early life and first marriage:...

 sailed into the harbor. These settlers were hoping to establish a better theological community than the one they left in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

 and sought to take advantage of the excellent port capabilities of the harbor. The Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequot
Pequot
Pequot people are a tribe of Native Americans who, in the 17th century, inhabited much of what is now Connecticut. They were of the Algonquian language family. The Pequot War and Mystic massacre reduced the Pequot's sociopolitical influence in southern New England...

s, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection.
By 1640, the town
New England town
The New England town is the basic unit of local government in each of the six New England states. Without a direct counterpart in most other U.S. states, New England towns are conceptually similar to civil townships in other states, but are incorporated, possessing powers like cities in other...

's theocratic government and nine square grid plan were in place, and the town was renamed Newhaven from Quinnipiac. However, the area north of New Haven remained Quinnipiac until 1678, when it was renamed Hamden
Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The town's nickname is "The Land of the Sleeping Giant." Hamden is home to Quinnipiac University. The population was 58,180 according to the Census Bureau's 2005 estimates...

. The settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony
New Haven Colony
The New Haven Colony was an English colonial venture in present-day Connecticut in North America from 1637 to 1662.- Quinnipiac Colony :A Puritan minister named John Davenport led his flock from exile in the Netherlands back to England and finally to America in the spring of 1637...

. At the time, the New Haven Colony was separate from the Connecticut Colony
Connecticut Colony
The Connecticut Colony or Colony of Connecticut was an English colony located in British America that became the U.S. state of Connecticut. Originally known as the River Colony, it was organized on March 3, 1636 as a haven for Puritan noblemen. After early struggles with the Dutch, the English...

, which had been established to the north centering on Hartford
Hartford, Connecticut
Hartford is the capital of the U.S. state of Connecticut. The seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960, it is the second most populous city on New England's largest river, the Connecticut River. As of the 2010 Census, Hartford's population was 124,775, making...

. One of the principal differences between the two colonies was that the New Haven colony was an intolerant theocracy
Theocracy
Theocracy is a form of organization in which the official policy is to be governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided, or simply pursuant to the doctrine of a particular religious sect or religion....

 that did not permit other churches to be established while the Connecticut colony permitted the establishment of other churches.

Economic disaster struck the colony in 1646, however, when the town sent its first fully loaded ship of local goods back to England. This ship never reached the Old World, and its disappearance stymied New Haven's development in the face of the rising trade power of Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

 and New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. It later became New York City....

. In 1660, founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled and Hopkins School
Hopkins School
The Hopkins School is a private, college-preparatory, coeducational day school, located in New Haven, Connecticut....

 was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins
Edward Hopkins
Edward Hopkins was an English colonist and politician and Governor of the Connecticut Colony. Active on both sides of the Atlantic, he was a founder of the New Haven and Connecticut colonies, serving seven one-year terms as governor of Connecticut. He returned to England in the 1650s, where he...

.

In 1661, the judges who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England
Charles I of England
Charles I was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his Royal prerogative which Charles...

 were pursued by Charles II
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

. Two judges, Colonel Edward Whalley
Edward Whalley
Edward Whalley was an English military leader during the English Civil War, and was one of the regicides who signed the death warrant of King Charles I of England.-Early career:The exact dates of his birth and death are unknown...

 and Colonel William Goffe
William Goffe
William Goffe was an English Roundhead politician and soldier, perhaps best known for his role in the execution of King Charles I and later flight to America.-Early life:...

, fled to New Haven to seek refuge from the king's forces. John Davenport arranged for these "Regicides" to hide in the West Rock hills northwest of the town. A third judge, John Dixwell
John Dixwell
John Dixwell was one of the judges who tried King Charles I of England and condemned him to death.-Biography:He was the younger son of Edgar Dixwell, but was raised by his uncle Basil Dixwell of Broome Park, near Canterbury in Kent...

, joined the other regicides at a later time.

New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony in 1664, when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England, according to folklore as punishment for harboring the three judges (in reality, done in order to strengthen the case for the takeover of nearby New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. It later became New York City....

, which was rapidly losing territory to migrants from Connecticut). Some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish Newark, New Jersey
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the largest city in the American state of New Jersey, and the seat of Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Newark had a population of 277,140, maintaining its status as the largest municipality in New Jersey. It is the 68th largest city in the U.S...

.

It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from Old Saybrook
Old Saybrook, Connecticut
Old Saybrook is a town in Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 10,367 at the 2000 census. It contains the incorporated borough of Fenwick, as well as the census-designated places of Old Saybrook Center and Saybrook Manor.-History:...

 to New Haven and established New Haven as a center of learning. In 1718, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to Yale College
Yale College
Yale College was the official name of Yale University from 1718 to 1887. The name now refers to the undergraduate part of the university. Each undergraduate student is assigned to one of 12 residential colleges.-Residential colleges:...

 in response to a large donation from British East India Company merchant Elihu Yale
Elihu Yale
Elihu Yale was a Welsh merchant and philanthropist, governor of the East India Company, and a benefactor of the Collegiate School of Connecticut, which in 1718 was named Yale College in his honour.- Life :...

, former Governor of Madras.

For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought in the colonial militia alongside regular British forces, as in the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is the common American name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756, the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war...

. As the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

 approached, General David Wooster
David Wooster
David Wooster was an American general who served in the French and Indian War and in the American Revolutionary War. He died of wounds sustained during the Battle of Ridgefield, Connecticut. Cities, schools, and public places were named after him...

 and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with the government in Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, which is still celebrated in New Haven as Powder House Day, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard
Governor's Foot Guard
The Governor's Foot Guard of Connecticut are a unit of the State Defense Forces. The First Company was created in 1771 with a Second Company raised in 1775...

, of New Haven entered the struggle against the governing British parliament. Under Captain Benedict Arnold
Benedict Arnold
Benedict Arnold V was a general during the American Revolutionary War. He began the war in the Continental Army but later defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fort at West Point, New York, and plotted to surrender it to the British forces...

, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Greater Boston area. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Cambridge is home to two of the world's most prominent...

. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

 from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms.

2,600 loyalists and British regulars under General William Tryon
William Tryon
William Tryon was a British soldier and colonial administrator who served as governor of the Province of North Carolina and the Province of New York .-Early life and career:...

, governor of New York raided the 3,500-person town in July 1779
Tryon's raid
In July 1779, British Major General William Tryon and 2,600 men embarked onto a Royal Navy fleet led by Admiral George Collier, and raided the Connecticut ports of New Haven, Fairfield, and Norwalk. Military and public stores, supply houses, and ships were destroyed, as were private homes,...

, but did not torch it as they had with Danbury
Danbury, Connecticut
Danbury is a city in northern Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. It had population at the 2010 census of 80,893. Danbury is the fourth largest city in Fairfield County and is the seventh largest city in Connecticut....

 in 1777, or Fairfield
Fairfield, Connecticut
Fairfield is a town located in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. It is bordered by the towns of Bridgeport, Trumbull, Easton, Redding and Westport along the Gold Coast of Connecticut. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 59,404...

 and Norwalk
Norwalk, Connecticut
Norwalk is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the population of the city is 85,603, making Norwalk sixth in population in Connecticut, and third in Fairfield County...

 a week after the New Haven raid, leaving many of the town's colonial features preserved.
Towns created from the original New Haven Colony
New town Split from Incorporated
Wallingford
Wallingford, Connecticut
Wallingford is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 43,026 at the 2000 census.- History :Wallingford was established on October 10, 1667, when the Connecticut General Assembly authorized the "making of a village on the east river" to 38 planters and freemen...

New Haven 1670
Cheshire
Cheshire, Connecticut
Cheshire is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 28,543 at the 2000 census. The center of population of Connecticut is located in Cheshire. In 2009 Cheshire was ranked 72 in Money Magazine's 100 Best Places to Live.Likewise, in 2011 Cheshire was ranked 73 in...

Wallingford 1780
Meriden
Meriden, Connecticut
Meriden is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 59,653.-History:...

Wallingford 1806
Branford
Branford, Connecticut
-Landmarks and attractions:Branford has six historic districts that are listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places . These include buildings in Federal, Arts and Crafts, and Queen Anne styles of architecture...

New Haven 1685
North Branford
North Branford, Connecticut
North Branford is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 13,906 at the 2000 census.-Geography:According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.6 square miles , of which 24.9 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water...

Branford 1831
Woodbridge
Woodbridge, Connecticut
Woodbridge is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 8,983 at the 2000 census. It is one of the wealthiest towns in Connecticut, ranking 16th in the state in terms of per capita income, and is home to many of the faculty of Yale University...

New Haven and Milford
Milford, Connecticut
Milford is a coastal city in southwestern New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, located between Bridgeport and New Haven. The population was 52,759 at the 2010 census...

1784
Bethany
Bethany, Connecticut
Bethany is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 5,040 at the 2000 census. Bethany was first settled in 1717 but it was not until May 1832 that Bethany separated from Woodbridge to become incorporated as a town. This slightly remote, sparsely populated,...

Woodbridge 1832
East Haven
East Haven, Connecticut
East Haven is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the town population was 28,189. The town is just 3 minutes from downtown New Haven...

New Haven 1785
Hamden
Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The town's nickname is "The Land of the Sleeping Giant." Hamden is home to Quinnipiac University. The population was 58,180 according to the Census Bureau's 2005 estimates...

New Haven 1786
North Haven
North Haven, Connecticut
North Haven is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut on the outskirts of New Haven, Connecticut.North Haven is less than ten miles from downtown New Haven and Yale University. It is near Sleeping Giant State Park and home the Quinnipiac University School of Health Sciences, the School of Nursing,...

New Haven 1786
Orange
Orange, Connecticut
Orange is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 13,233 at the 2000 census. A 2007 Census Bureau estimate puts the population at 13,813. The town is governed by a Board of Selectmen.-History:...

New Haven and Milford
Milford, Connecticut
Milford is a coastal city in southwestern New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, located between Bridgeport and New Haven. The population was 52,759 at the 2010 census...

1822
West Haven
West Haven, Connecticut
West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 52,721.-History:...

Orange 1921


Post-colonial


New Haven was incorporated as a city in 1784, and Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman was an early American lawyer and politician, as well as a founding father. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic...

, one of the signers of the Constitution and author of the "Connecticut Compromise
Connecticut Compromise
The Connecticut Compromise was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution...

", became the new city's first mayor.

The city struck fortune in the late 18th century with the inventions and industrial activity of Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South...

, a Yale graduate who remained in New Haven to develop the cotton gin
Milling machine
A milling machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. Milling machines are often classed in two basic forms, horizontal and vertical, which refers to the orientation of the main spindle. Both types range in size from small, bench-mounted devices to room-sized machines...

 and establish a gun-manufacturing factory in the northern part of the city near the Hamden
Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The town's nickname is "The Land of the Sleeping Giant." Hamden is home to Quinnipiac University. The population was 58,180 according to the Census Bureau's 2005 estimates...

 town line. That area is still known as Whitneyville, and the main road through both towns is known as Whitney Avenue. The factory is now the Eli Whitney Museum
Eli Whitney Museum
The Eli Whitney Museum, in Hamden, Connecticut, is an experimental learning workshop for students, teachers, and families. The museum focuses on teaching experiments that are the roots of design and invention, featuring hands-on building projects and exhibits on Eli Whitney and A. C...

 which has a particular emphasis on activities for children, and exhibits pertaining to the A. C. Gilbert Company
A. C. Gilbert Company
The A. C. Gilbert Company was an American toy company, once one of the largest toy companies in the world. It is best known for introducing the Erector Set to the marketplace....

. His factory, along with that of Simeon North
Simeon North
Simeon North was a Middletown, Connecticut, gun manufacturer, who developed one of America's first milling machines in 1818 and played an important role in the development of interchangeable parts manufacturing.North was born in Berlin, Connecticut, into a prosperous family able to provide all...

, and the lively clock-making and brass hardware sectors, contributed to making early Connecticut a powerful manufacturing economy; so many arms manufacturers sprang up that the state became known as 'The Arsenal of America'. It was in Whitney's gun-manufacturing plant that Samuel Colt
Samuel Colt
Samuel Colt was an American inventor and industrialist. He was the founder of Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company , and is widely credited with popularizing the revolver. Colt's innovative contributions to the weapons industry have been described by arms historian James E...

 invented the automatic revolver
Revolver
A revolver is a repeating firearm that has a cylinder containing multiple chambers and at least one barrel for firing. The first revolver ever made was built by Elisha Collier in 1818. The percussion cap revolver was invented by Samuel Colt in 1836. This weapon became known as the Colt Paterson...

 in 1836.

The Farmington Canal
Farmington Canal
The Farmington Canal, also known as the New Haven and Northampton Canal, was a major private canal built in the early 19th century to provide water transportation from New Haven into the interior of Connecticut, Massachusetts and beyond. Its Massachusetts segment was known as the Hampshire and...

, created in the early 19th century, was a short-lived transporter of goods into the interior regions of Connecticut and Massachusetts, and ran from New Haven to Northampton, Massachusetts
Northampton, Massachusetts
The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of Northampton's central neighborhoods, was 28,549...

.

New Haven was home to one of the important early events in the burgeoning anti-slavery movement when, in 1839, the trial of mutineering Mendi tribesmen being transported as slaves on the Spanish slaveship Amistad
La Amistad
La Amistad was a ship notable as the scene of a revolt by African captives being transported from Havana to Puerto Principe, Cuba. It was a 19th-century two-masted schooner built in Spain and owned by a Spaniard living in Cuba...

was held in New Haven's United States District Court
United States District Court for the District of Connecticut
The United States District Court for the District of Connecticut is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Connecticut. The court has offices in Bridgeport, Hartford and New Haven. Appeals from the court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit...

. There is a statue of Joseph Cinqué
Joseph Cinqué
Sengbe Pieh , later known as Joseph Cinqué, was a West African man of the Mende people and was the most prominent defendant in the Amistad case, in which it was found that he and 51 others had been victims of the illegal Atlantic slave trade.-Biography:Cinqué was born c...

, the informal leader of the slaves, beside City Hall. See "Museums" below for more information. Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 delivered a speech on slavery in New Haven in 1860, shortly before he secured the Republican nomination for President
1860 Republican National Convention
The 1860 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States, held in Chicago, Illinois at the Wigwam, nominated former U.S. Representative Abraham Lincoln of Illinois for President and U.S. Senator Hannibal Hamlin of Maine for Vice President...

.

The American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 boosted the local economy with wartime purchases of industrial goods, including that of the New Haven Arms Company, which would later become the Winchester Repeating Arms Company
Winchester Repeating Arms Company
The Winchester Repeating Arms Company was a prominent American maker of repeating firearms, located in New Haven, Connecticut. The Winchester brand is today used under license by two subsidiaries of the Herstal Group, Fabrique Nationale of Belgium and the Browning Arms Company of Morgan, Utah.-...

 (Winchester would continue to produce arms in New Haven until 2006, and many of the buildings that were a part of the Winchester plant are now a part of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company Historic District
Winchester Repeating Arms Company Historic District
The Winchester Repeating Arms Company Historic District is a historic district in New Haven, Connecticut that was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988...

). After the war, population grew and doubled by the start of the 20th century, most notably due to the influx of immigrants from southern Europe, particularly Italy. Today, roughly half the populations of East Haven, West Haven, and North Haven are Italian-American. Jewish immigration to New Haven has left an enduring mark on the city. Westville was the center of Jewish life in New Haven, though today many have fanned out to suburban communities such as Woodbridge and Cheshire.

Modern


New Haven's growth continued during the two World Wars, with most new inhabitants being African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

s from the American South
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 and Puerto Ricans
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

. The city reached its peak population after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. The area of New Haven is only 17 square miles (44 km²), encouraging further development of new housing after 1950 in adjacent, suburban towns. Moreover, as in other U.S. cities in the 1950s
United States in the 1950s
During the 1950s in the United States, manufacturing and home construction were on the rise as the American economy was on the upswing. The Korean War and the beginning of the Cold War created a politically conservative climate in the country, and the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the...

, New Haven began to suffer from an exodus
White flight
White flight has been a term that originated in the United States, starting in the mid-20th century, and applied to the large-scale migration of whites of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions. It was first seen as...

 of middle-class workers.

In 1954, then-mayor Richard C. Lee
Richard C. Lee
Richard Charles Lee was a Democrat and a longtime Mayor of New Haven and the youngest when he held the position in 1954 at age 37. Lee is best known for his leading role in urban redevelopment in the 1950s and '60s.-Biography:Richard Charles Lee was born on March 12, 1916...

 began some of the earliest major urban renewal
Urban renewal
Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of...

 projects in the United States. Certain sections of Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It is made up of the original nine squares laid out in 1638 to form New Haven, including the New Haven Green, and the immediate surrounding central business district, as well as a significant portion...

 were destroyed and rebuilt with new office towers, a hotel, and large shopping complexes. Other parts of the city were affected by the construction of Interstate 95
Interstate 95 in Connecticut
Interstate 95, the main north–south Interstate Highway on the East Coast of the United States, runs in a general east–west compass direction for 111.57 miles in Connecticut from the Rhode Island state line to the New York State line. I-95 Southbound from East Lyme to the New York State...

 along the Long Wharf section, Interstate 91
Interstate 91
Interstate 91 is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of New England...

 and the Oak Street Connector
Oak Street Connector
The Oak Street Connector, officially known as the Richard C. Lee Highway, is a long freeway section of Route 34 that is located in downtown New Haven, Connecticut...

. The Oak Street Connector (Route 34
Route 34 (Connecticut)
Route 34 is a primary state highway in the U.S. state of Connecticut. Route 34 is long, and extends from Washington Street near I-84/US 6 in Newtown to the junction of I-95 and I-91 in New Haven. The highways connects the New Haven and Danbury areas via the Lower Naugatuck River Valley...

), running between Interstate 95
Interstate 95 in Connecticut
Interstate 95, the main north–south Interstate Highway on the East Coast of the United States, runs in a general east–west compass direction for 111.57 miles in Connecticut from the Rhode Island state line to the New York State line. I-95 Southbound from East Lyme to the New York State...

, downtown
Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It is made up of the original nine squares laid out in 1638 to form New Haven, including the New Haven Green, and the immediate surrounding central business district, as well as a significant portion...

 and The Hill
The Hill (New Haven)
The Hill is the southwestern-most neighborhood of New Haven, Connecticut. As early as 1800, this area was known as "Sodom Hill" and is now home to Yale-New Haven Hospital and the Yale School of Medicine.- Geography :...

 neighborhood, was originally intended as a highway to the city's western suburbs but was only completed as a highway to the downtown area, with the area to the west becoming a boulevard (See "Redevelopment" below).

In 1970, a series of criminal prosecutions
New Haven Black Panther trials
In 1970 there were a series of criminal prosecutions in New Haven, Connecticut against various members of the Black Panther Party. The charges ranged from criminal conspiracy to felony murder. All indictments stemmed from the murder of nineteen-year-old Alex Rackley in the early hours of May 21,...

 against various members of the Black Panther Party
Black Panther Party
The Black Panther Party wasan African-American revolutionary leftist organization. It was active in the United States from 1966 until 1982....

 took place in New Haven, inciting mass protests on the New Haven Green involving twelve thousand demonstrators and many well-known New Left
New Left
The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists, educators, agitators and others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms, in contrast to earlier leftist or Marxist movements that had taken a more vanguardist...

 political activists. (See "Political Culture" below for more information).

From the 1960s through the late 1990s, central areas of New Haven continued to decline both economically and in terms of population despite attempts to resurrect certain neighborhoods through renewal projects. In conjunction with its declining population, New Haven experienced a steep rise in its crime rate. In 2010, New Haven ranked as the 18th most dangerous city in America, (albeit with crime rating under the significant safety benchmark of 200.00.)

Urban redevelopment and notable events


Since approximately 2000, many parts of downtown New Haven have been revitalized, with new restaurants, nightlife, and small retail stores. In particular, the area surrounding the New Haven Green has experienced an influx of apartments and condominiums. In recent years, downtown retail options have increased with the opening of new stores such as Urban Oufitters, J Crew, Origins, American Apparel, Gant Clothing, and an Apple Store currently under construction, joining older stores such as Barnes & Nobles, Cutlers Records, and Raggs Clothing. In addition, downtown's growing residential population will be served by two new supermarkets, a Stop & Shop just outside of downtown and Elm City Market under construction one block from the Green. The recent turnaround of downtown New Haven has received positive press from various periodicals.

Major projects include the current construction of a new campus for Gateway Community College downtown, and also a 32 story - 500 unit apartment/retail building called 360 State Street
360 State Street
360 State Street is the second-tallest building in New Haven, Connecticut, and the largest apartment building in the state. The tall mixed-use modernist building, completed in 2010, includes 500 luxury apartments which sit on top of of retail space...

. The 360 State Street project is now occupied and is the largest residential building in Connecticut. A new Boathouse and Dock is planned for New Haven Harbor, and the linear park Farmington Canal Trail is set to extend into downtown New Haven within the coming year.
http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/uploads/Gateway%20Community%20College.jpg Additionally, foundation and ramp work to widen I-95 to create a new harbor crossing for New Haven, with an extradosed bridge to replace the 1950s-era Q Bridge
Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge (Connecticut)
-Bridge plans bring controversy:The existing Q-Bridge opened with a design capacity of 90,000 vehicles per day , but as of 2006 more than 150,000 vehicles cross the span daily...

, has begun. The city still hopes to redevelop the site of the New Haven Coliseum, which was demolished in 2007, by relocating Long Wharf Theatre
Long Wharf Theatre
Long Wharf Theatre is a nonprofit institution in New Haven, Connecticut, a pioneer in the not-for-profit regional theatre movement, the originator of several prominent plays, and a venue where many internationally known actors have appeared....

 to the site with additional mixed-use development.

In April 2009 the United States Supreme Court agreed to hear a suit over reverse discrimination
Reverse discrimination
Reverse discrimination is a controversial term referring to discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group, including the city or state, or in favor of members of a minority or historically disadvantaged group such as African Americans being slaves. Groups may be defined in terms of...

 brought by 18 white firefighters against the city. The suit involved the 2003 promotion test for the New Haven Fire Department. After the tests were scored, no blacks
Black people
The term black people is used in systems of racial classification for humans of a dark skinned phenotype, relative to other racial groups.Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and often social variables such as class, socio-economic status also plays a...

 scored high enough to qualify for consideration for promotion, so the city announced that no one would be promoted. In the subsequent Ricci v. DeStefano
Ricci v. DeStefano
Ricci v. DeStefano, 129 S. Ct. 2658, 2671, 174 L. Ed. 2d 490 is a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States arising from a lawsuit brought against the city of New Haven, Connecticut by twenty city firefighters alleging that the city discriminated against them with regard to promotions...

 decision the court found 5-4 that New Haven's decision to ignore the test results violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against African Americans and women, including racial segregation...

. As a result, a district court subsequently ordered the city to promote 14 of the white firefighters.

In 2010 and 2011, both State and Federal funds were awarded to Connecticut (and Massachusetts) to construct the New Haven-Hartford-Springfield commuter rail line
New Haven-Hartford-Springfield Commuter Rail Line
The New Haven–Hartford–Springfield commuter rail line is a planned commuter rail line with a southern terminus at Union Station in New Haven, Connecticut, and a northern terminus at Union Station in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States...

, with a southern terminus at New Haven's Union Station and a northern terminus at Springfield's
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

' Union Station. According to the White House
White House
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the president of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., the house was designed by Irish-born James Hoban, and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the Neoclassical...

, "This corridor [currently] has one train per day connecting communities in Connecticut and Massachusetts to the Northeast Corridor and Vermont. The vision for this corridor is to restore the alignment to its original route via the Knowledge Corridor
Knowledge Corridor
The Knowledge Corridor is term for the area comprising north-central Connecticut and the south-central Connecticut River Valley in Western Massachusetts...

 in western Massachusetts, improving trip time and increasing the population base that can be served." Set for construction in 2013, the "Knowledge Corridor high speed intercity passenger rail" project will cost approximately $1 billion. Although the Knowledge Corridor Line will terminate in New Haven and Springfield, the ultimate northern terminus for the project is reported to be Montreal, Canada. Train speeds between New Haven and Springfield will reportedly exceed 110 mph, and increase both cities' rail traffic exponentially.

Geography



According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 20.2 square miles (52.3 km²), of which, 18.9 square miles (49 km²) is land and 1.4 square miles (3.6 km²) of it (6.91%) is water.

New Haven's best-known geographic features are its large deep harbor, and two reddish basalt trap rock
Trap rock
Trap rock is a form of igneous rock that tends to form polygonal vertical fractures, most typically hexagonal, but also four to eight sided. The fracture pattern forms when magma of suitable chemical composition intrudes as a sill or extrudes as a thick lava flow, and slowly cools.Because of the...

s which rise to the northeast and northwest of the city core. These trap rocks are known respectively as East Rock
East Rock
East Rock of south-central Connecticut, United States, with a high point of , is a long trap rock ridge located on the north side of the city of New Haven...

 and West Rock, and both serve as extensive parks. West Rock has been tunneled through to make way for the east-west passage of the Wilbur Cross Parkway
Wilbur Cross Parkway
The Wilbur Cross Parkway is a limited access road in Connecticut, comprising the portion of Route 15 between Milford and Meriden. It is named after Wilbur Lucius Cross, a former governor of the state...

 (the only highway tunnel through a natural obstacle in Connecticut), and once served as the hideout of the "Regicides" (see: Regicides Trail
Regicides Trail
Regicides Trail is a Blue-Blazed hiking trail, about 7 miles long, roughly following the edge of a basalt, or traprock, cliff northwest of New Haven, Connecticut. It is named for two regicides, Edward Whalley and his son-in-law William Goffe, who signed the death warrant of King Charles I of England...

). Most New Haveners refer to these men as "The Three Judges". East Rock features the prominent Soldiers and Sailors war monument on its peak as well as the "Great/Giant Steps" which run up the rock's cliffside.

The city is drained by three rivers, the West
West River (Connecticut)
The West River is a freshwater stream in southern Connecticut. It flows through the towns of Bethany, Woodbridge, and New Haven before discharging into the West Haven Harbor....

, Mill, and Quinnipiac
Quinnipiac River
The Quinnipiac River is a river in the New England region of the United States, located entirely in the state of Connecticut.It rises in west central Connecticut from Dead Wood Swamp west of the city of New Britain...

, named in order from west to east. The West River discharges into the West Haven
West Haven, Connecticut
West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 52,721.-History:...

 Harbor, while the Mill and Quinnipiac Rivers discharge into the New Haven Harbor. Both harbors are embayments of Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound is an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, located in the United States between Connecticut to the north and Long Island, New York to the south. The mouth of the Connecticut River at Old Saybrook, Connecticut, empties into the sound. On its western end the sound is bounded by the Bronx...

. In addition, several smaller streams flow through the city's neighborhoods, including Wintergreen Brook, the Beaver Ponds Outlet, Wilmot Brook, Belden Brook, and Prospect Creek. Not all of these small streams have continuous flow year-round.

Climate


New Haven experiences a warm summer-type humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

: Dfa), typical of southern New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

. Summers are warm to moderately hot, with high levels of humidity and frequent afternoon thunderstorms. Spring and Fall bring pleasantly cool temperatures with moderate precipitation. Winters are cold and humid, with frequent snowfalls. The weather patterns that affect New Haven result from a primarily offshore direction, thus minimizing the marine influence of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 that would otherwise moderate summer and winter temperatures—though, like other marine areas, differences in temperature between areas right along the coastline and areas a mile or two inland can be very significant at times.

Streetscape


New Haven has a long tradition of urban planning
Urban planning
Urban planning incorporates areas such as economics, design, ecology, sociology, geography, law, political science, and statistics to guide and ensure the orderly development of settlements and communities....

 and a purposeful design for the city's layout. The city could be argued to have some of the first preconceived layouts in the country. Upon founding, New Haven was laid out in a grid plan
Grid plan
The grid plan, grid street plan or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid...

 of nine square blocks; the central square was left open, in the tradition of many New England towns, as the city green
Village green
A village green is a common open area which is a part of a settlement. Traditionally, such an area was often common grass land at the centre of a small agricultural settlement, used for grazing and sometimes for community events...

 (a commons area). The city also instituted the first public tree planting program in America. As in other cities, many of the elm
Elm
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The dozens of species are found in temperate and tropical-montane regions of North America and Eurasia, ranging southward into Indonesia. Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests...

s that gave New Haven the nickname "Elm City" perished in the mid-20th century due to Dutch Elm disease
Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease is a disease caused by a member of the sac fungi category, affecting elm trees which is spread by the elm bark beetle. Although believed to be originally native to Asia, the disease has been accidentally introduced into America and Europe, where it has devastated native...

, although many have since been replanted. The New Haven Green
New Haven Green
The New Haven Green is a privately owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, and was designed and surveyed by colonist...

 is currently home to three separate historic churches which speak to the original theocratic nature of the city. The Green remains the social center of the city today. It was named a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

 in 1970.

Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It is made up of the original nine squares laid out in 1638 to form New Haven, including the New Haven Green, and the immediate surrounding central business district, as well as a significant portion...

, occupied by nearly 7,000 residents, has a more residential character than most downtowns. The downtown area provides about half of the city's jobs and half of its tax base and in recent years has become filled with dozens of new upscale restaurants, several of which have garnered national praise (such as Ibiza, recognized by Esquire
Esquire (magazine)
Esquire is a men's magazine, published in the U.S. by the Hearst Corporation. Founded in 1932, it flourished during the Great Depression under the guidance of founder and editor Arnold Gingrich.-History:...

and Wine Spectator
Wine Spectator
Wine Spectator is a lifestyle magazine that focuses on wine and wine culture. It publishes 15 issues per year with content that includes news, articles, profiles, and general entertainment pieces...

magazines as well as the New York Times as the best Spanish food in the country), in addition to shops and thousands of apartments and condominium units which subsequently help overall growth of the city.


Neighborhoods



The city has many distinct neighborhoods. In addition to Downtown, centered on the central business district
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city. In North America this part of a city is commonly referred to as "downtown" or "city center"...

 and the Green
New Haven Green
The New Haven Green is a privately owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, and was designed and surveyed by colonist...

, are the following neighborhoods: the west central neighborhoods of Dixwell and Dwight; the southern neighborhoods of The Hill, historic water-front City Point (or Oyster Point), and the harborside district of Long Wharf
Long Wharf (New Haven)
Long Wharf is a waterfront district and neighborhood of the city of New Haven, Connecticut, United States.-Location:Its location can be defined as the area stretching inland from the west side of New Haven Harbor northwest to Union Avenue, west to Hallock Avenue and Cedar Street, and north to the...

; the western neighborhoods of Edgewood, West River
West River (neighborhood)
West River is an official neighborhood of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. The neighborhood covers the part of the city east of the West River and south of Chapel Street. Official planning maps run the eastern and southern boundaries run along Day Street, Legion Avenue, Winthrop Avenue, and...

, Westville
Westville, Connecticut
Westville is a neighborhood of the city of New Haven, Connecticut located in the western part of the city west of the West River. The official neighborhood planning area for Westville is defined to be the area bordered by the neighboring town of Woodbridge, Connecticut on the west , by the Amity...

, Amity, and West Rock-Westhills
West Rock (neighborhood)
West Rock is an official neighborhood of the city of New Haven, Connecticut.It includes part of West Rock Ridge State Park and the campus of Southern Connecticut State University. The north end of the official neighborhood contains the Brookside neighborhood....

; East Rock
East Rock (neighborhood)
East Rock is a neighborhood in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, named for nearby East Rock, a prominent trap rock ridge. The area is home to a large group of Yale students, staff, and faculty, as well as many young professionals and families. The neighborhood is divided between New Haven's...

, Cedar Hill
Cedar Hill (New Haven)
Cedar Hill is a neighborhood in New Haven, Connecticut. It includes portions of the city-designated neighborhoods of East Rock, Quinnipiac Meadows, and Mill River.Cedar Hill was named for cedar trees that were once plentiful there in 1665...

, Prospect Hill
Prospect Hill (New Haven)
Prospect Hill is a neighborhood of the city of New Haven, Connecticut located in the north central portion of the city, directly north of Downtown New Haven. The neighborhood contains residences, institutional buildings of Albertus Magnus University and a portion of the main campus of Yale...

, and Newhallville
Newhallville
Newhallville is a neighborhood in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, named for industrialist George Newhall.As delineated on city planning maps, Newhallville is bordered on the north by the town of Hamden, on the east by Winchester Avenue, on the south by Munson Street, on the southwest by...

 in the northern side of town; the east central neighborhoods of Mill River
Mill River (neighborhood)
Mill River is a primarily industrial neighborhood in the city of New Haven, Connecticut located between the Wooster Square and Fair Haven neighborhoods....

 and Wooster Square
Wooster Square
Wooster Square is a neighborhood in the city of New Haven, Connecticut to the east of downtown. The name refers to a park square located between Greene Street, Wooster Place, Chapel Street and Academy Street in the center of the neighborhood...

, an Italian-American neighborhood; Fair Haven
Fair Haven, Connecticut
Fair Haven is a neighborhood in the eastern part of the city of New Haven, Connecticut located between the Mill and Quinnipiac rivers. The northeast section of the neighborhood is also known as Chatham Square....

, an immigrant community located between the Mill and Quinnipiac rivers; Quinnipiac Meadows
Quinnipiac Meadows
Quinnipiac Meadows, also known as Bishop Woods, is a neighborhood in the northeast corner of the city of New Haven, Connecticut located east of the Quinnipiac River and north of Fair Haven and Fair Haven Heights. It contains a considerable wetlands area which is a nature preserve. There is also a...

 and Fair Haven Heights
Fair Haven Heights
Fair Haven Heights, or simply the Heights, is a residential and light industrial neighborhood in the eastern part of the city of New Haven, Connecticut, located east of the Quinnipiac River. Fair Haven Heights is not to be confused with the adjacent Fair Haven neighborhood west of the river...

 across the Quinnipiac River; and facing the eastern side of the harbor, The Annex and East Shore
East Shore (New Haven)
East Shore, also known as Morris Cove, is a neighborhood of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. Its name is derived from its geographic location on the east side of New Haven Harbor. It is bordered on the north by Upson Terrace, on the east by the town of East Haven, on the west and south by Long...

 (or Morris Cove).

Economy and demographics


New Haven's economy originally was based in manufacturing, but the postwar period brought rapid industrial decline and factories were shuttered; the entire Northeast was affected, and medium-sized cities with large working-class populations, like New Haven, were hit particularly hard. Simultaneously, the growth and expansion of Yale University
Yale University
Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...

 further effected the economic shift. Today, over half (56%) of the city's economy is now made up of services, in particular education and health care; Yale is the city's largest employer, followed by Yale-New Haven Hospital
Yale-New Haven Hospital
Yale-New Haven Hospital , Connecticut's largest hospital with 966 beds, is located in New Haven, Connecticut.The hospital is owned and operated by the Yale New Haven Health System, Inc...

. Other large employers include St. Raphael Hospital, Smilow Cancer Hospital, Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Connecticut State University is one of four state universities in Connecticut, and is located in the West Rock neighborhood of New Haven, Connecticut...

, Assa Abloy
Assa Abloy
The Assa Abloy Group is a Swedish lock manufacturer, the world's largest by sales. Assa Abloy was formed in 1994 when ASSA AB was detached from Swedish security firm Securitas AB. Shortly thereafter the Finnish high-security lock manufacturer Abloy Oy was acquired. The company was introduced to...

 Manufacturing, the Knights of Columbus
Knights of Columbus
The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. Founded in the United States in 1882, it is named in honor of Christopher Columbus....

 headquarters, Higher One, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Covidien and United Illuminating. Yale and Yale-New Haven are also among the largest employers in the state, and provide more $100,000+-salaried positions than any other employer in Connecticut.

Industry sectors: Agriculture (.6%), Construction and Mining (4.9%), Manufacturing (2.9%), Transportation and Utilities (2.9%), Trade (21.7%), Finance and Real Estate (7.1%), Services (55.9%), Government (4.0%)

The US Census Bureau estimates a 2010 population of 129,779; the 2010 census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 lists 47,094 households and 25,854 families within the central municipality, the City of New Haven. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 is 6,859.8 people per square mile (2,648.6/km²). There are 52,941 housing units at an average density of 2,808.5 per square mile (1,084.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 43.46% White, 37.36% African American, 0.43% Native American, 1.90% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 10.89% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 3.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino residents of any race were 9.39% of the population. The city's demography is shifting rapidly: New Haven has always been a city of immigrants and currently the Latino population is growing rapidly. Previous influxes among ethnic groups have been: African-Americans in the postwar era, and Irish, Italian and (to a lesser degree) Slavic peoples in the prewar period.

As of the 2010 US Census, of the 47,094 households, 29.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.5% include married couples living together, 22.9% have a female householder with no husband present, and 45.1% are non-families. 36.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.40 and the average family size 3.19.

The ages of New Haven's residents are: 25.4% under the age of 18, 16.4% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age is 29 years, which is statistically very young. There are 91.8 males per 100 females. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $29,604, and the median income for a family is $35,950. Median income for males is $33,605, compared with $28,424 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city is $16,393. About 20.5% of families and 24.4% of the population live below the poverty line, including 32.2% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over.

In 2006 the New York Times described New Haven as one of the poorest cities in the United States. As of 2001, the New Haven-Stamford
Stamford, Connecticut
Stamford is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 122,643, making it the fourth largest city in the state and the eighth largest city in New England...

-Bridgeport-Danbury metropolitan area had the third-highest per capita income in the country, behind San Francisco and Silicon Valley, California. But Stamford is one of the wealthiest cities in Connecticut, with a median per capita income of $34,987, over twice that in New Haven.

It is estimated that 14% of New Haven residents are pedestrian commuters, ranking it at number four by highest percentage in the United States This is primary due to New Havens' small size (geographically) and the presence of Yale University
Yale University
Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...

.

Today New Haven is a predominantly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 city, as the city's Dominican, Irish, Italian, Mexican, Ecuadorian, and Puerto Rican populations are overwhelmingly Catholic. Jews also make up a considerable portion of the population, as do Black Baptists. There is a growing number of (mostly Puerto Rican) Pentecostals as well. Catholic New Haven is part of the Archdiocese of Hartford. There are churches for all major branches of Christianity within the city, multiple store-front churches, ministries (especially in working-class Latino and Black neighborhoods), a mosque, many synagogues (including two yeshivas), and other places of worship; the level of religious diversity in the city is high.

Business headquarters


The Knights of Columbus
Knights of Columbus
The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. Founded in the United States in 1882, it is named in honor of Christopher Columbus....

, the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization and a Fortune 1000
Fortune 1000
Fortune 1000 is a reference to a list maintained by the American business magazine Fortune. The list is of the 1000 largest American companies, ranked on revenues alone...

 company, is headquartered in New Haven. Two more Fortune 1000 companies are based in Greater New Haven: the electrical equipment producers Hubbell, based in Orange
Orange, Connecticut
Orange is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 13,233 at the 2000 census. A 2007 Census Bureau estimate puts the population at 13,813. The town is governed by a Board of Selectmen.-History:...

, and Amphenol
Amphenol
Amphenol Corporation is a major producer of electronic and fiber optic connectors, cable and interconnect systems such as Coaxial cables. Amphenol is a portmanteau from the corporation's original name, American Phenolic Corp....

, based in Wallingford
Wallingford, Connecticut
Wallingford is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 43,026 at the 2000 census.- History :Wallingford was established on October 10, 1667, when the Connecticut General Assembly authorized the "making of a village on the east river" to 38 planters and freemen...

. Eight Courant 100 companies are based in Greater New Haven, with four headquartered in New Haven proper. New Haven-based companies traded on stock exchange
Stock exchange
A stock exchange is an entity that provides services for stock brokers and traders to trade stocks, bonds, and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, and capital events including the payment of income and...

s include NewAlliance Bank
NewAlliance Bank
NewAlliance Bancshares , doing business as NewAlliance Bank, was the second largest Connecticut-based savings bank. It was formed in 2004 through the union of The Savings Bank of Manchester, New Haven Savings Bank, and Tolland Bank....

, the second largest bank in Connecticut and fourth-largest in New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

 (NYSE: NAL), Higher One Holdings (NYSE: ONE), a financial services firm United Illuminating, the electricity distributor for southern Connecticut (NYSE: UIL), Achillion Pharmaceuticals (NasdaqGM: ACHN), Alexicon Pharmaceuticals (NasdaqGS: ALXN), and Transpro Inc. (AMEX: TPR). Vion Pharmaceuticals is traded OTC
Over-the-counter (finance)
Within the derivatives markets, many products are traded through exchanges. An exchange has the benefit of facilitating liquidity and also mitigates all credit risk concerning the default of a member of the exchange. Products traded on the exchange must be well standardised to transparent trading....

 (OTC BB: VIONQ.OB). Other notable companies based in the city include the Peter Paul Candy Manufacturing Company
Peter Paul Candy Manufacturing Company
The Peter Paul Candy Manufacturing Company is a candy-making division within the Hershey Company. Peter Paul was originally founded in 1919 by Peter Paul Halajian, a candy retailer in the New Haven, Connecticut area....

 (the candy-making division of the Hershey Company), the American division of Assa Abloy
Assa Abloy
The Assa Abloy Group is a Swedish lock manufacturer, the world's largest by sales. Assa Abloy was formed in 1994 when ASSA AB was detached from Swedish security firm Securitas AB. Shortly thereafter the Finnish high-security lock manufacturer Abloy Oy was acquired. The company was introduced to...

 (one of the world's leading manufacturers of locks), Yale University Press
Yale University Press
Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908 by George Parmly Day. It became an official department of Yale University in 1961, but remains financially and operationally autonomous....

, and the Russell Trust Association
Russell Trust Association
The Russell Trust Association is the business name for the New Haven, Connecticut, based Skull and Bones society, incorporated in 1856.The Russell Trust was incorporated by William Huntington Russell as its president, and Daniel Coit Gilman as its first treasurer...

 (the business arm of the Skull and Bones Society). The Southern New England Telephone Company (SNET) began operations in the city as the District Telephone Company of New Haven in 1878; the company remains headquartered in New Haven as a subsidiary of AT&T
AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications corporation headquartered in Whitacre Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States. It is the largest provider of mobile telephony and fixed telephony in the United States, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services...

, now doing business as
Doing business as
The phrase "doing business as" is a legal term used in the United States, meaning that the trade name, or fictitious business name, under which the business or operation is conducted and presented to the world is not the legal name of the legal person who actually own it and are responsible for it...

 AT&T Connecticut, and provides telephone service for all but two municipalities in Connecticut.

Government



Typical of New England town
New England town
The New England town is the basic unit of local government in each of the six New England states. Without a direct counterpart in most other U.S. states, New England towns are conceptually similar to civil townships in other states, but are incorporated, possessing powers like cities in other...

s, New Haven is governed via the mayor-council system. Connecticut municipalities (like those of neighboring states Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

 and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
The state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, more commonly referred to as Rhode Island , is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area...

) provide nearly all local services (such as fire and rescue, education, snow removal, etc.) as county government has been completely abolished since 1960. New Haven County merely refers to a grouping of towns and a judicial district, not a governmental entity. New Haven is a member of the South Central Connecticut Regional Council of Governments (SCRCOG), a regional agency created to facilitate coordination between area municipal governments and state and federal agencies, in the absence of county government.

John DeStefano, Jr.
John DeStefano, Jr.
John DeStefano, Jr. is the current mayor of New Haven, Connecticut. He was the Democratic candidate in 2006 for Governor of Connecticut, unsuccessfully challenging incumbent Republican Governor M. Jodi Rell. He was also the named defendant in the landmark 2009 U.S. Supreme Court case of Ricci v...

, the current mayor of New Haven, has served eight consecutive terms and was re-elected for a record ninth term in November 2009. Mayor DeStefano has focused his tenure on improving education and public safety, as well as on economic development. Notable initiatives include the Livable City Initiative, begun in 1996, which promotes homeownership and removes blight, and the Citywide Youth Initiative. In 1995, DeStefano launched a 15-year, $1.5 billion School Construction Program, already half finished, to replace or renovate every New Haven public school. The mayor is elected by the entire city. The first mayor of New Haven was Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman was an early American lawyer and politician, as well as a founding father. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic...

.

The city council, called the Board of Aldermen, consists of thirty members, each elected from single member wards. New Haven is served by the New Haven Police Department
New Haven Police Department
The New Haven Police Department is the law enforcement agency responsible for the city of New Haven, Connecticut.-Civilian Workforce:In addition to sworn officers, the department employs civilian employees for administrative functions funded partly by the Community Oriented Policing Services...

 and the New Haven Fire Department
New Haven Fire Department
The city of New Haven, Connecticut is protected full-time by the 350 professional firefighters and paramedics of the City of New Haven Fire Department...

.

New Haven lies within Connecticut's 3rd congressional district
Connecticut's 3rd congressional district
Connecticut's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Connecticut. Located in the central part of the state, the district includes the city of New Haven and its suburbs as well as surrounding areas....

 and has been represented by Rosa DeLauro
Rosa DeLauro
Rosa L. DeLauro is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 1991. She is a member of the Democratic Party.The district is based in New Haven, and includes most of that city's suburbs.-Early life, education and career:...

 since 1991. Martin Looney
Martin Looney
Martin M. Looney is an American politician. Looney, a Democrat, has been a state senator from Connecticut since 1993. Since 2004, Looney has served as Majority Leader of the Senate....

 and Toni Harp
Toni Harp
Toni Nathaniel Harp is an American politician. Harp, a Democrat, has been a state senator from Connecticut since 1993.Harp, a resident of New Haven, represents the western half of the city as well as part of West Haven in the Connecticut Senate....

 represent New Haven in the Connecticut State Senate, and the city lies within six districts (numbers 92 through 97) of the Connecticut House of Representatives
Connecticut House of Representatives
The Connecticut House of Representatives is the lower house in the Connecticut General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Connecticut. The house is composed of 151 members representing an equal number of districts, with each constituency containing nearly 22,600 residents...



The Greater New Haven area is served by the New Haven Judicial District Court and the New Haven Superior Court, both headquartered at the New Haven County Courthouse. The United States District Court for the District of Connecticut
United States District Court for the District of Connecticut
The United States District Court for the District of Connecticut is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Connecticut. The court has offices in Bridgeport, Hartford and New Haven. Appeals from the court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit...

 has an office in New Haven, located in the Richard C. Lee U.S. Courthouse.

Crime


Crime increased in the 1990s, with New Haven having one of the ten highest violent crime rates per capita in the United States. In the late 1990s New Haven's crime began to stabilize. The city, adopting a policy of community policing, saw crime rates drop during the 2000s.

Violent crime levels vary dramatically between New Haven's neighborhoods, with some areas having crime rates in line with the state of Connecticut average, and others having extremely high rates of crime. A 2011 New Haven Health Department report identifies these issues in greater detail.

In 2010, New Haven ranked as the 18th most dangerous city in the United States (albeit below the safety benchmark of 200.00 for the second year in a row.) However, according to a completely different analysis conducted by the "24/7 Wall Street Blog," in 2011 New Haven had risen to become the fourth most dangerous city in the United States, and was widely cited in the press as such.

However, an analysis by the Regional Data Cooperative for Greater New Haven, Inc., has shown that due to issues of comparative denominators and other factors, such municipality-based rankings can be considered inaccurate. For example, two cities of identical population can cover widely differing land areas, making such analyses irrelevant. The research organization called for comparisons based on neighborhoods, blocks, or standard methodologies (similar to those used by Brookings, DiversityData, and other established institutions), not based on municipalities.
  • See America's Safest and Most Dangerous Cities
    America's Safest and Most Dangerous Cities
    America's Safest and Most Dangerous Cities is a publication issued annually by CQ Press, a division of Congressional Quarterly Inc., that ranks American cities on the basis of safety and crime...

     for more information.

Political culture



New Haven is the birthplace of former president George W. Bush
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

, who was born when his father, former president George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States . He had previously served as the 43rd Vice President of the United States , a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence.Bush was born in Milton, Massachusetts, to...

, was living in New Haven while a student at Yale. In addition to being the site of the college educations of both Presidents Bush, New Haven was also the temporary home of former presidents William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft was the 27th President of the United States and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States...

, Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
Gerald Rudolph "Jerry" Ford, Jr. was the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and the 40th Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974...

, and Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

. Clinton met his wife, current U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton
Hillary Rodham Clinton
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is the 67th United States Secretary of State, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She was a United States Senator for New York from 2001 to 2009. As the wife of the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton, she was the First Lady of the...

, while the two were students at Yale Law School
Yale Law School
Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Established in 1824, it offers the J.D., LL.M., J.S.D. and M.S.L. degrees in law. It also hosts visiting scholars, visiting researchers and a number of legal research centers...

. Former vice presidents John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
John Caldwell Calhoun was a leading politician and political theorist from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. Calhoun eloquently spoke out on every issue of his day, but often changed positions. Calhoun began his political career as a nationalist, modernizer, and proponent...

 and Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney served as the 46th Vice President of the United States , under George W. Bush....

 also studied in New Haven (the latter did not graduate from Yale). Before the 2008 election, the last time there was not a person with ties to New Haven and Yale on either major party's ticket was 1968. James Hillhouse
James Hillhouse
James Hillhouse was an American lawyer, real estate developer, and politician from New Haven, Connecticut. He represented Connecticut in both the U.S. House and Senate...

, a New Haven native, served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
The President pro tempore is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate. The United States Constitution states that the Vice President of the United States is the President of the Senate and the highest-ranking official of the Senate despite not being a member of the body...

 in 1801.

A predominantly Democratic
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 city, New Haven voters overwhelmingly supported Al Gore
Al Gore
Albert Arnold "Al" Gore, Jr. served as the 45th Vice President of the United States , under President Bill Clinton. He was the Democratic Party's nominee for President in the 2000 U.S. presidential election....

 in the 2000 election
United States presidential election, 2000
The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, then-governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush , and Democratic candidate Al Gore, then-Vice President....

, Yale graduate John Kerry
John Kerry
John Forbes Kerry is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts, the 10th most senior U.S. Senator and chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was the presidential nominee of the Democratic Party in the 2004 presidential election, but lost to former President George W...

 in 2004, and Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 in 2008. In the 2008 election, New Haven County was third among all Connecticut counties in campaign contributions, after Fairfield
Fairfield County, Connecticut
Fairfield County is a county located in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Connecticut. The county population is 916,829 according to the 2010 Census. There are currently 1,465 people per square mile in the county. It is the most populous county in the State of Connecticut and contains...

 and Hartford counties (Connecticut, in turn, was ranked 14th among all states in total campaign contributions).

New Haven was the subject of Who Governs? Democracy and Power in An American City
Who Governs?
Who Governs? is an influential book in American political science by Robert Dahl. It was published in 1961 by Yale University Press. Dahl's work is a case study of political power and representation in New Haven, Connecticut...

, a very influential book in political science
Political science
Political Science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior...

 by preeminent Yale professor Robert Dahl, which includes an extensive history of the city and thorough description of its politics in the 1950s. New Haven's theocratic history is also mentioned several times by Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis-Charles-Henri Clérel de Tocqueville was a French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America and The Old Regime and the Revolution . In both of these works, he explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in...

 in his classic volume on 19th century American political life, Democracy in America
Democracy in America
De la démocratie en Amérique is a classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville. A "literal" translation of its title is Of Democracy in America, but the usual translation of the title is simply Democracy in America...

. New Haven was also the residence of conservative thinker William F. Buckley, Jr.
William F. Buckley, Jr.
William Frank Buckley, Jr. was an American conservative author and commentator. He founded the political magazine National Review in 1955, hosted 1,429 episodes of the television show Firing Line from 1966 until 1999, and was a nationally syndicated newspaper columnist. His writing was noted for...

 in 1951, when he wrote his influential God and Man at Yale
God and Man at Yale
God and Man at Yale: The Superstitions of “Academic Freedom” is a book published in 1951 by William F. Buckley, Jr., who eventually became a leading voice in the American conservative movement in the latter half of the twentieth century....

.

In 1970, the New Haven Black Panther trials
New Haven Black Panther trials
In 1970 there were a series of criminal prosecutions in New Haven, Connecticut against various members of the Black Panther Party. The charges ranged from criminal conspiracy to felony murder. All indictments stemmed from the murder of nineteen-year-old Alex Rackley in the early hours of May 21,...

 took place, the largest and longest trials in Connecticut history. Black Panther Party
Black Panther Party
The Black Panther Party wasan African-American revolutionary leftist organization. It was active in the United States from 1966 until 1982....

 co-founder Bobby Seale
Bobby Seale
Robert George "Bobby" Seale , is an activist. He is known for co-founding the Black Panther Party with Huey Newton.-Early life:...

 and ten other Party members were tried for murdering an alleged informant. Beginning on May Day
May Day
May Day on May 1 is an ancient northern hemisphere spring festival and usually a public holiday; it is also a traditional spring holiday in many cultures....

, the city became a center of protest for 12,000 Panther supporters, college students, and New Left
New Left
The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists, educators, agitators and others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms, in contrast to earlier leftist or Marxist movements that had taken a more vanguardist...

 activists (including Jean Genet
Jean Genet
Jean Genet was a prominent and controversial French novelist, playwright, poet, essayist, and political activist. Early in his life he was a vagabond and petty criminal, but later took to writing...

, Benjamin Spock
Benjamin Spock
Benjamin McLane Spock was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. Its message to mothers is that "you know more than you think you do."Spock was the first pediatrician to study psychoanalysis to try to understand...

, Abbie Hoffman
Abbie Hoffman
Abbot Howard "Abbie" Hoffman was a political and social activist who co-founded the Youth International Party ....

, Jerry Rubin
Jerry Rubin
Jerry Rubin was an American social activist during the 1960s and 1970s. During the 1980s, he became a successful businessman.-Early life:...

, and John Froines
John Froines
John R. Froines is a chemist and anti-war activist.He is noted as a member of the Chicago Seven, a group charged with involvement with the riots at the 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago. Froines, who holds a Ph.D. in Chemistry from Yale, was charged with interstate travel for purposes of...

), who amassed on the New Haven Green
New Haven Green
The New Haven Green is a privately owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, and was designed and surveyed by colonist...

, across the street from where the trials were being held. Violent confrontations between the demonstrators and the New Haven police
New Haven Police Department
The New Haven Police Department is the law enforcement agency responsible for the city of New Haven, Connecticut.-Civilian Workforce:In addition to sworn officers, the department employs civilian employees for administrative functions funded partly by the Community Oriented Policing Services...

 occurred, and several bombs were set off in the area by radicals. The event became a rallying point for the New Left and critics of the Nixon Administration.

During the summer of 2007, New Haven was the center of protests by anti-immigration groups who opposed the city's program of offering municipal ID cards, known as the Elm City Resident Card
Elm City Resident Card
The Elm City Resident Card is an identification card used in New Haven, Connecticut in the United States. The card was originally designed to protect the estimated 10,000 to 15,000 illegal immigrants in New Haven from being robbed or assaulted...

, to illegal aliens
Illegal immigration to the United States
An illegal immigrant in the United States is an alien who has entered the United States without government permission or stayed beyond the termination date of a visa....

. In 2008, the country of Ecuador
Ecuador
Ecuador , officially the Republic of Ecuador is a representative democratic republic in South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean to the west. It is one of only two countries in South America, along with Chile, that do not have a border...

 opened a consulate in New Haven to serve the large Ecuadorean immigrant population in the area. It is the first foreign mission to open in New Haven since Italy opened a consulate (now closed) in the city in 1910.

In April 2009, the United States Supreme Court agreed to hear a suit
Ricci v. DeStefano
Ricci v. DeStefano, 129 S. Ct. 2658, 2671, 174 L. Ed. 2d 490 is a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States arising from a lawsuit brought against the city of New Haven, Connecticut by twenty city firefighters alleging that the city discriminated against them with regard to promotions...

 over reverse discrimination
Reverse discrimination
Reverse discrimination is a controversial term referring to discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group, including the city or state, or in favor of members of a minority or historically disadvantaged group such as African Americans being slaves. Groups may be defined in terms of...

 brought by 18 white firefighters against the city. The suit involved the 2003 promotion test for the New Haven Fire Department
New Haven Fire Department
The city of New Haven, Connecticut is protected full-time by the 350 professional firefighters and paramedics of the City of New Haven Fire Department...

. After the tests were scored, no blacks
Black people
The term black people is used in systems of racial classification for humans of a dark skinned phenotype, relative to other racial groups.Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and often social variables such as class, socio-economic status also plays a...

 scored high enough to qualify for consideration for promotion, so the city announced that no one would be promoted. On 29 June 2009, the United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of the firefighters, agreeing that they were improperly denied promotion because of their race. The case, Ricci v. DeStefano, became highly publicized and brought national attention to New Haven politics due to the involvement of then-Supreme Court nominee (and Yale Law School graduate) Sonia Sotomayor
Sonia Sotomayor
Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. Sotomayor is the Court's 111th justice, its first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice....

 in a lower court decision.

Garry Trudeau
Garry Trudeau
Garretson Beekman "Garry" Trudeau is an American cartoonist, best known for the Doonesbury comic strip.-Background and education:...

, creator of the political Doonesbury
Doonesbury
Doonesbury is a comic strip by American cartoonist Garry Trudeau, that chronicles the adventures and lives of an array of characters of various ages, professions, and backgrounds, from the President of the United States to the title character, Michael Doonesbury, who has progressed from a college...

comic-strip, attended Yale University. There he met fellow student and later Green Party
Green Party (United States)
The Green Party of the United States is a nationally recognized political party which officially formed in 1991. It is a voluntary association of state green parties. Prior to national formation, many state affiliates had already formed and were recognized by other state parties...

 candidate for Congress Charles Pillsbury
Charles Pillsbury
Charles A. Pillsbury is a mediator, lawyer, and community activist in New Haven, Connecticut, where he is the executive director of Community Mediation, Inc. He is the great-grandson of Charles Alfred Pillsbury, founder of the Pillsbury Company in 1872...

, a long-time New Haven resident for whom Trudeau's comic strip is named. During his college years, Pillsbury was known by the nickname
Nickname
A nickname is "a usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place, as a supposedly appropriate replacement for or addition to the proper name.", or a name similar in origin and pronunciation from the original name....

 "The Doones". A theory of international law, which argues for a sociological normative approach in regards to jurisprudence, is named the New Haven Approach, after the city. Current Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman was a New Haven resident for years, before moving back to his hometown of Stamford
Stamford, Connecticut
Stamford is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 122,643, making it the fourth largest city in the state and the eighth largest city in New England...

.

Colleges and universities


New Haven is a notable center for higher education
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

. Yale University
Yale University
Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...

, at the heart of downtown, is one of the city's best known features and its largest employer. New Haven is also home to Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Connecticut State University is one of four state universities in Connecticut, and is located in the West Rock neighborhood of New Haven, Connecticut...

, part of the Connecticut State University System
Connecticut State University System
The Connecticut State University System is a public university system in Connecticut. CSUS consists of four comprehensive universities with more than 36,500 students and 180,000 alumni. It is the largest university system in the state. The system dates back to the founding Central Connecticut...

, and Albertus Magnus College
Albertus Magnus College
Albertus Magnus College is a small private liberal arts college in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. It is located about two miles from the central campus of Yale University in a residential area near the border with Hamden. The neighborhood is on Prospect Street just above Edgerton park and...

, a private institution. Gateway Community College
Gateway Community College
Gateway Community College is a public community college located in Connecticut. The college maintains two campuses: one in New Haven and one in North Haven. As of February 17, 2010, Gateway had the 1st highest credit enrollment among Connecticut's community colleges, with 6987 students enrolled...

 has a campus in New Haven, located in the Long Wharf
Long Wharf (New Haven)
Long Wharf is a waterfront district and neighborhood of the city of New Haven, Connecticut, United States.-Location:Its location can be defined as the area stretching inland from the west side of New Haven Harbor northwest to Union Avenue, west to Hallock Avenue and Cedar Street, and north to the...

 district; Gateway is in the process of consolidating into one campus and will move downtown into a new state-of-the-art campus (on the site of the old Macy's building) which is slated to open for the Fall 2012 semester.

There are several institutions immediately outside of New Haven, as well. Quinnipiac University
Quinnipiac University
Quinnipiac University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university located in Hamden, Connecticut, United States at the foot of Sleeping Giant State Park...

 and the Paier College of Art
Paier College of Art
The Paier College of Art is a private 4-year art school in Hamden, Connecticut, on the outskirts of the greater New Haven area. Formerly the Paier School of Art, the institution's current name and form date from 1982 when it received a charter and accreditation for offering a 4-year Bachelor of...

 are located just to the north, in the town of Hamden
Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The town's nickname is "The Land of the Sleeping Giant." Hamden is home to Quinnipiac University. The population was 58,180 according to the Census Bureau's 2005 estimates...

. The University of New Haven
University of New Haven
The University of New Haven is a private university that combines a liberal arts education with professional training. The university comprises five colleges: the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Business, the Tagliatela College of Engineering, the Henry C...

 is located not in New Haven but in neighboring West Haven
West Haven, Connecticut
West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 52,721.-History:...

.

Primary and secondary schools


New Haven Public Schools
New Haven Public Schools
New Haven Public Schools is a school district serving the city of New Haven, Connecticut, United States.Wilbur Cross High School and Hillhouse High School are New Haven's two largest public secondary schools....

 is the school district serving New Haven, Connecticut. Wilbur Cross High School and Hillhouse High School
Hillhouse High School
James Hillhouse Comprehensive High School is the oldest public high school in New Haven, Connecticut. It is a part of New Haven Public Schools.- History :Established in 1859 as New Haven High School,...

 are New Haven's two largest public secondary schools.

Hopkins School
Hopkins School
The Hopkins School is a private, college-preparatory, coeducational day school, located in New Haven, Connecticut....

, a private school, was founded in 1660 and is the fifth-oldest educational institution in the United States. New Haven is home to a number of other private schools as well as public magnet schools including High School in the Community, Hill Regional Career High School
Hill Regional Career High School
Hill Regional Career High School is a magnet high school located in the Hill area of New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Its original name was Lee High School, named after one of New Haven's most famous mayors, Richard C. Lee...

, Co-op High School
Co-op High School
Cooperative Arts & Humanities High School is a high school in the downtown section of New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1983 as a joint venture of New Haven and Hamden, it was originally known as the Hamden-New Haven Co-op...

, New Haven Academy
New Haven Academy
New Haven Academy is a four-year, ninth through twelfth grade high school in New Haven, CT. New Haven Academy was founded by Gregory Baldwin and Meredith Gavrin in 2003 as an interdistrict magnet school and part of the New Haven Public School district. The school provides a college preparatory...

, ACES Educational Center for the Arts
ACES Educational Center for the Arts
ACES Educational Center for the Arts, or ECA, is an American public arts magnet high school located at 55 Audubon Street in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. The school is primarily located in the former Mishkan Israel synagogue with studio spaces across the street...

, and the Sound School
Sound School
The Sound School is a regional vocational aquaculture center situated in the City Point neighborhood of New Haven, Connecticut.The Sound School Regional Vocational Aquaculture Center is an accredited inter-district college preparatory high school, one of the 19 vocational agriculture centers in...

, all of which draw students from New Haven and suburban towns. New Haven is also home to two Achievement First charter schools, Amistad Academy and Elm City College Prep. It is also home to Common Ground, an environmental charter school.

Architecture


New Haven has many architectural landmarks dating from every important time period and architectural style in American history. The city has been home to a number of architects and architectural firms that have also left their mark on the city including Ithiel Town
Ithiel Town
Ithiel Town was a prominent American architect and civil engineer. One of the first generation of professional architects in the United States, Town made significant contributions to American architecture in the first half of the 19th century. He was high-strung, sophisticated, generous,...

 and Henry Austin
Henry Austin (architect)
Henry Austin was a prominent and prolific American architect based in New Haven, Connecticut. He practiced for more than fifty years and designed many public buildings and homes primarily in the New Haven area...

 in the 19th century and Cesar Pelli
César Pelli
César Pelli is an Argentine architect known for designing some of the world's tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. In 1991, the American Institute of Architects listed Pelli among the ten most influential living American architects...

, Warren Platner, Kevin Roche
Kevin Roche
Kevin Roche is an Irish-American architect known for his creative work with glass.Born in Dublin, Roche spent his formative years in Mitchelstown, Co. Cork before he graduated from University College Dublin in 1945. He then worked with Michael Scott from 1945-1946...

, Herbert Newman
Herbert Newman
Herbert James Newman was an English cricketer who played for Northamptonshire. He was born in Duston, Northamptonshire....

 and Barry Svigals
Barry Svigals
Barry Svigals, FAIA is a Connecticut-based architect and sculptor. He is the founder and Managing Partner of Svigals + Partners, an architectural design firm in New Haven, Connecticut...

 in the 20th. The Yale School of Architecture
Yale School of Architecture
The Yale School of Architecture is one of the constituent professional schools of Yale University. It is generally considered to be one of the most prestigious architecture schools in the world.- History :...

 has fostered this important component of the city's economy. Cass Gilbert
Cass Gilbert
- Historical impact :Gilbert is considered a skyscraper pioneer; when designing the Woolworth Building he moved into unproven ground — though he certainly was aware of the ground-breaking work done by Chicago architects on skyscrapers and once discussed merging firms with the legendary Daniel...

, of the Beaux-Arts school, designed New Haven's Union Station
Union Station (New Haven)
Union Station, also known as New Haven Railroad Station, is the main railroad passenger station in New Haven, Connecticut. Designed by noted American architect Cass Gilbert, the beaux-arts Union Station was completed and opened in 1920 after the previous Union Station was...

 and the New Haven Free Public Library and was also commissioned for a City Beautiful plan in 1919.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture...

, Marcel Breuer
Marcel Breuer
Marcel Lajos Breuer , was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect and furniture designer of Jewish descent. One of the masters of Modernism, Breuer displayed interest in modular construction and simple forms.- Life and work :Known to his friends and associates as Lajkó, Breuer studied and taught at...

, Alexander Jackson Davis
Alexander Jackson Davis
Alexander Jackson Davis, or A. J. Davis , was one of the most successful and influential American architects of his generation, in particular his association with the Gothic Revival style....

, Philip C. Johnson, Gordon Bunshaft
Gordon Bunshaft
Gordon Bunshaft was an architect educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1988, Gordon Bunshaft nominated himself for the Pritzker Prize and eventually won it.-Career:...

, Louis Kahn
Louis Kahn
Louis Isadore Kahn was an American architect, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935...

, James Gamble Rogers
James Gamble Rogers
James Gamble Rogers was an American architect best known for his academic commissions at Yale University, Columbia University, Northwestern University, and elsewhere....

, Frank Gehry
Frank Gehry
Frank Owen Gehry, is a Canadian American Pritzker Prize-winning architect based in Los Angeles, California.His buildings, including his private residence, have become tourist attractions...

, Charles Willard Moore
Charles Willard Moore
Charles Willard Moore was an American architect, educator, writer, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects, and winner of the AIA Gold Medal in 1991.-Life and career:...

, Stefan Behnisch
Behnisch Architekten
Behnisch Architekten is an architectural practice based in Stuttgart, Germany, with branches in Venice, California and Boston, Massachusetts.The office was founded in 1989 by Stefan Behnisch, son of the well-known German architect Günter Behnisch...

, James Polshek
James Polshek
James Stewart Polshek is an American architect based in New York City. He is the founder of Polshek Partnership, the firm at which he was Principal Design Partner for more than four decades...

, Paul Rudolph
Paul Rudolph (architect)
Paul Marvin Rudolph was an American architect and the dean of the Yale School of Architecture for six years, known for use of concrete and highly complex floor plans...

, Eero Saarinen
Eero Saarinen
Eero Saarinen was a Finnish American architect and industrial designer of the 20th century famous for varying his style according to the demands of the project: simple, sweeping, arching structural curves or machine-like rationalism.-Biography:Eero Saarinen shared the same birthday as his father,...

 and Robert Venturi
Robert Venturi
Robert Charles Venturi, Jr. is an American architect, founding principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, and one of the major figures in the architecture of the twentieth century...

 all have designed buildings in New Haven. Yale's 1950s-era Ingalls Rink
Ingalls Rink
David S. Ingalls Rink is a hockey rink in New Haven, CT designed by architect Eero Saarinen and built between 1953 and 1958 for Yale University. It is commonly referred to as The Whale, due to its appearance. The rink stands at the intersection of Prospect and Sachem Streets. The building was...

, designed by Eero Saarinen, was included on the America's Favorite Architecture list created in 2007.

Many of the city's neighborhoods are well-preserved as walkable "museums" of 19th and 20th century American architecture, particularly by the New Haven Green
New Haven Green
The New Haven Green is a privately owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, and was designed and surveyed by colonist...

, Hillhouse Avenue
Hillhouse Avenue
Hillhouse Avenue, described, according to tradition, by both Charles Dickens and Mark Twain as "the most beautiful street in America," , is in New Haven, Connecticut and is home to many nineteenth century mansions including the president's house at Yale University...

 and other residential sections close to Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It is made up of the original nine squares laid out in 1638 to form New Haven, including the New Haven Green, and the immediate surrounding central business district, as well as a significant portion...

. Overall, a large proportion of the city's land area is National (NRHP) historic districts. One of the best sources on local architecture is "New Haven: Architecture and Urban Design", by Elizabeth Mills Brown.

The five tallest buildings in New Haven are:
  1. Connecticut Financial Center
    Connecticut Financial Center
    The Connecticut Financial Center is the tallest building in New Haven, Connecticut, and the sixth tallest building in the state. The 383 foot postmodern skyscraper was completed in 1990 and lies adjacent to New Haven City Hall in Downtown New Haven. Among the current tenants of the building are...

     383 ft (117 m) 26 Floors
  2. 360 State Street
    360 State Street
    360 State Street is the second-tallest building in New Haven, Connecticut, and the largest apartment building in the state. The tall mixed-use modernist building, completed in 2010, includes 500 luxury apartments which sit on top of of retail space...

     338 ft (103 m) 32 Floors
  3. Knights of Columbus Building  321 ft (98 m) 23 Floors
  4. Kline Biology Tower
    Kline Biology Tower
    Kline Biology Tower is a skyscraper in New Haven, Connecticut. The building is home to the Yale University Department of Biology and is currently the fourth-tallest building in New Haven. It was the tallest building in city from 1966 to 1969, and was designed by Philip Johnson.-References:...

     250 ft (76 m) 16 Floors
  5. Crown Towers
    Crown Towers (New Haven, Connecticut)
    Crown Towers is a high-rise apartment building in New Haven, Connecticut. The fifth-tallest building in the city, the modernist building was New Haven's tallest residential building until the construction of 360 State Street in 2010....

     233 ft (71 m) 22 Floors

Cuisine


There are 95 top Zagat-rated
Zagat Survey
Zagat Survey was established by Tim and Nina Zagat in 1979 as a way to collect and correlate the ratings of restaurants by diners. For their first guide, covering New York City, the Zagats surveyed their friends. As of 2005, the Zagat Survey included 70 cities, with reviews based on the input of...

 restaurants in New Haven, the second most in Connecticut and the fourth most in New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

 (after Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

, Stamford and Cambridge). More than 120 restaurants are located within two blocks of the New Haven Green
New Haven Green
The New Haven Green is a privately owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, and was designed and surveyed by colonist...

. The city is home to an eclectic mix of ethnic restaurants and small markets specializing in various foreign foods. Represented cuisines include Malaysian, Ethiopian, Spanish, French, Greek, Latin, Mexican, Italian, Thai, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Korean, Indian, Jamaican, Cuban, Peruvian, Syrian/Lebanese, and Turkish.

New Haven's greatest culinary claim to fame may be its pizza, which has been claimed to be among the best in the country, or even in the world. New-Haven-style pizza, called apizza
Apizza
New Haven-style pizza, locally known as apizza, is a style of Neapolitan pizza common in and around New Haven, Connecticut. It originated at the Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana and is now served in many other pizza restaurants in the area, most notably, Sally's Apizza, Bar Bru Room, Grand Apizza,...

 , made its debut at the iconic Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana
Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana
Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana, known locally as Pepe's, is a popular pizza restaurant in the Wooster Square neighborhood of New Haven, Connecticut at 163 Wooster Street. Opened in 1925, it is one of the oldest and best known pizzerias in the United States.-Frank Pepe:Pepe's was founded in 1925 by...

 (known as Pepe's) in 1925. Apizza is baked in coal- or wood-fired brick ovens, and is notable for its thin crust. Apizza may be Red (with a tomato
Tomato
The word "tomato" may refer to the plant or the edible, typically red, fruit which it bears. Originating in South America, the tomato was spread around the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas, and its many varieties are now widely grown, often in greenhouses in cooler...

-based sauce) or White (with a sauce of garlic
Garlic
Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. Dating back over 6,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia, and has long been a staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent...

 and olive oil
Olive oil
Olive oil is an oil obtained from the olive , a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. It is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps...

), and pies ordered "plain" are made without the otherwise customary mozzarella cheese . A white clam
Clam
The word "clam" can be applied to freshwater mussels, and other freshwater bivalves, as well as marine bivalves.In the United States, "clam" can be used in several different ways: one, as a general term covering all bivalve molluscs...

 pie is a well known specialty of the restaurants on Wooster Street
Wooster Square
Wooster Square is a neighborhood in the city of New Haven, Connecticut to the east of downtown. The name refers to a park square located between Greene Street, Wooster Place, Chapel Street and Academy Street in the center of the neighborhood...

 in the Little Italy section of New Haven, including Pepe's and Sally's Apizza
Sally's Apizza
Sally's Apizza is a famed pizzeria in the Wooster Square neighborhood of New Haven, Connecticut. It, along with its neighbor Pepe's, is often cited by aficionados in debates over the world's best pizza....

 (which opened in 1938). Modern Apizza
Modern Apizza
Modern Apizza is a pizza restaurant in New Haven, Connecticut.-History:Originally called State Street Apizza, Modern Apizza was founded in 1934 and has been in the same spot ever since...

, which opened in 1934 and is located on State Street, is also well-known.

A second New Haven gastronomical claim to fame is Louis' Lunch
Louis' Lunch
Louis' Lunch in New Haven, Connecticut, advertises itself as the first restaurant to serve hamburgers and as being the oldest hamburger restaurant still operating in the U.S. Opened as a small lunch wagon in 1895, Louis' Lunch was also one of the first places in the U.S...

, which is located in a small brick building on Crown Street and has been serving fast food
Fast food
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a...

 since 1895. Though fiercely debated, the restaurant's founder Louis Lassen is credited by the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library of the United States Congress, de facto national library of the United States, and the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. Located in three buildings in Washington, D.C., it is the largest library in the world by shelf space and...

 with inventing the hamburger
Hamburger
A hamburger is a sandwich consisting of a cooked patty of ground meat usually placed inside a sliced bread roll...

 and steak sandwich
Steak sandwich
A steak sandwich is a sandwich that is made out of steak that has been broiled, fried, grilled, barbecued or seared using steel grates or gridirons then served on bread or a roll...

. Louis' Lunch broils hamburgers, steak sandwiches and hot dogs vertically in original antique 1898 cast iron
Cast iron
Cast iron is derived from pig iron, and while it usually refers to gray iron, it also identifies a large group of ferrous alloys which solidify with a eutectic. The color of a fractured surface can be used to identify an alloy. White cast iron is named after its white surface when fractured, due...

 stoves using gridirons
Gridiron (cooking)
A gridiron is a metal grate with parallel bars typically used for grilling meat, fish, vegetables, or combinations of such foods. It may also be two such grids, hinged to fold together, to securely hold food while grilling over an open flame.-Development:...

, patented by local resident Luigi Pieragostini in 1939, that hold the meat in place while it cooks.

New Haven is home to Miya's
Miya's
Miya's Sushi is a sushi restaurant located in the Chapel West neighborhood of downtown New Haven, Connecticut in the United States.-History:...

 Sushi, one of America's first sustainable sushi
Sustainable sushi
Sustainable sushi is sushi from either fished or farmed sources that can maintain or increase production in the future without jeopardizing the ecosystems from which it was acquired...

 restaurants. Miya's offers the largest vegetarian sushi menu in the world.

Over 150 lunch carts from neighborhood restaurants that cater to different student populations throughout Yale's campus during weekday lunchtime. The carts cluster at three main points: by Yale-New Haven Hospital
Yale-New Haven Hospital
Yale-New Haven Hospital , Connecticut's largest hospital with 966 beds, is located in New Haven, Connecticut.The hospital is owned and operated by the Yale New Haven Health System, Inc...

 in the center of the Hospital Green (Cedar and York Streets), by Yale's Trumbull College
Trumbull College
Trumbull College is one of twelve undergraduate residential colleges of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.The college is named for Jonathan Trumbull, the last governor of the Colony of Connecticut and first governor of the State of Connecticut, serving from 1769 until 1784, and a friend and...

 (Elm and York Streets), and on the intersection of Prospect and Sachem Streets by the Yale School of Management
Yale School of Management
The Yale School of Management is the graduate business school of Yale University and is located on Hillhouse Avenue in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. The School offers Master of Business Administration and Ph.D. degree programs. As of January 2011, 454 students were enrolled in its MBA...

. Popular Farmers' Markets set up shop weekly in several neighborhoods including Westville/Edgewood Park, Fair Haven, Upper State Street, Wooster Square, and Downtown/New Haven Green.

A large hybrid co-op,the Elm City Market is set to open on 360 State Street in New Haven in early Fall 2011. This is an independent and member owned grocery store that will provide local produce and groceries to the community.

Theatre and film



The city hosts numerous theatres and production houses including the Yale Repertory Theatre
Yale Repertory Theatre
The Yale Repertory Theatre at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut was founded by Robert Brustein, dean of the Yale School of Drama in 1966, with the goal of facilitating a meaningful collaboration between theatre professionals and talented students. In the process it has become one of the...

, the Long Wharf Theatre
Long Wharf Theatre
Long Wharf Theatre is a nonprofit institution in New Haven, Connecticut, a pioneer in the not-for-profit regional theatre movement, the originator of several prominent plays, and a venue where many internationally known actors have appeared....

, and the Shubert Theatre
Shubert Theatre (New Haven)
The Shubert Theatre is a 1600-seat theatre located at 247 College Street in New Haven, Connecticut. Originally opened in 1914, it was designed by Albert Swazey, a New York architect and built by the H.E. Murdock Construction Company...

. There is also theatre activity from the Yale School of Drama
Yale School of Drama
The Yale School of Drama is a graduate professional school of Yale University providing training in every discipline of the theatre: acting, design , directing, dramaturgy and dramatic criticism, playwriting, stage management, sound design, technical design and production, and theater...

, which works through the Yale University Theatre and the student-run Yale Cabaret. Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Connecticut State University is one of four state universities in Connecticut, and is located in the West Rock neighborhood of New Haven, Connecticut...

 hosts the Lyman Center for the Performing Arts. The shuttered Palace Theatre (oppostite the Shubert Theater) was rumored to being re-opened in 2008, but new development there is on hold. Smaller theaters include the Little Theater on Lincoln Street and the soon to open Co-op High School Theater on College Street.

The Shubert Theater once premiered many major theatrical productions before their Broadway debuts. Productions that premiered at the Shubert include Oklahoma!
Oklahoma!
Oklahoma! is the first musical written by composer Richard Rodgers and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. The musical is based on Lynn Riggs' 1931 play, Green Grow the Lilacs. Set in Oklahoma Territory outside the town of Claremore in 1906, it tells the story of cowboy Curly McLain and his romance...

(which was also written in New Haven), Carousel
Carousel (musical)
Carousel is the second stage musical by the team of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II . The work premiered in 1945 and was adapted from Ferenc Molnár's 1909 play Liliom, transplanting its Budapest setting to the Maine coastline...

, South Pacific
South Pacific (musical)
South Pacific is a musical with music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II and book by Hammerstein and Joshua Logan. The story draws from James A. Michener's Pulitzer Prize-winning 1947 book Tales of the South Pacific, weaving together characters and elements from several of its...

, My Fair Lady
My Fair Lady
My Fair Lady is a musical based upon George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion and with book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe...

, The King and I
The King and I
The King and I is a stage musical, the fifth by the team of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. The work is based on the 1944 novel Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon and derives from the memoirs of Anna Leonowens, who became governess to the children of King Mongkut of Siam in...

, and The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music is a musical by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II and a book by Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse. It is based on the memoir of Maria von Trapp, The Story of the Trapp Family Singers...

, as well as the Tennessee Williams' play A Streetcar Named Desire
A Streetcar Named Desire (play)
A Streetcar Named Desire is a 1947 play written by American playwright Tennessee Williams for which he received the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1948. The play opened on Broadway on December 3, 1947, and closed on December 17, 1949, in the Ethel Barrymore Theatre. The Broadway production was...

.

Bow Tie Cinemas owns and operates the Criterion Cinemas, the first new movie theater to open in New Haven in over 30 years and the first luxury movie complex in the city's history. The Criterion has 7 screens and opened in November, 2004 showing a mix of upscale first run commercial and independent film.

Museums



New Haven has a variety of museums, many of them associated with Yale. The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library features an original copy of the Gutenberg Bible
Gutenberg Bible
The Gutenberg Bible was the first major book printed with a movable type printing press, and marked the start of the "Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of the printed book. Widely praised for its high aesthetic and artistic qualities, the book has an iconic status...

. There is also the Connecticut Children's Museum
Connecticut Children's Museum
The Connecticut Children's Museum building, in New Haven, Connecticut, houses three programs, interwoven in purpose and philosophy: Creating Kids Child Care Center, Creating Curriculum Child Care Provider Training Program and the Connecticut Children's Museum itself...

; the Knights of Columbus
Knights of Columbus
The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. Founded in the United States in 1882, it is named in honor of Christopher Columbus....

 museum near that organization's world headquarters; the Peabody Museum of Natural History; the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments
Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments
The Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments is a museum at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. The collection of musical instruments was established in 1900 by the gift of historic keyboard instruments by Morris Steinert and later enriched in 1960 and 1962 by gifts from the Skinner...

; the Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South...

 museum (across the town line in Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The town's nickname is "The Land of the Sleeping Giant." Hamden is home to Quinnipiac University. The population was 58,180 according to the Census Bureau's 2005 estimates...

, on Whitney Avenue); the Yale Center for British Art
Yale Center for British Art
The Yale Center for British Art is an art museum in New Haven, Connecticut at Yale University which houses the most comprehensive collection of British Art outside the United Kingdom...

, which houses the largest collection of British art outside the U.K., and the Yale University Art Gallery
Yale University Art Gallery
The Yale University Art Gallery houses a significant and encyclopedic collection of art in several buildings on the campus of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Although it embraces all cultures and periods, the Gallery possesses especially renowned collections of early Italian painting,...

, the nation's oldest college art museum. New Haven is also home to the New Haven Museum and Historical Society
New Haven Museum and Historical Society
The New Haven Museum and Historical Society was founded in 1862 in New Haven, Connecticut for the purposes of preserving and presenting the region’s history...

 on Whitney Avenue, which also has a library of many primary source treasures dating from Colonial times to the present.

Artspace
Artspace
Artspace is a contemporary art gallery and non-profit organization located in downtown New Haven, in Connecticut. Artspace’s mission is to connect artists, audiences, and resources; catalyze artistic activity, and redefine art spaces. Since its founding in 1987, Artspace has helped nearly 3,000...

 on Orange Street is one of several contemporary art galleries around the city, showcasing the work of local, national, and international artists. Others include City Gallery, A. Leaf Gallery in the downtown area. Westville galleries include Kehler Liddell, Jennifer Jane Gallery, and The Hungry Eye. The Erector Square
Erector Square
Erector Square is located at the intersection of Blatchley Avenue and Peck Street in New Haven, Connecticut. It is a 3-story brick industrial warehouse complex located in the Fair Haven section of New Haven. It originally housed the factory for making Erector Set toys, invented by Alfred Carlton...

 complex in the Fair Haven neighborhood houses the Parachute Factory gallery along with numerous artist studios, and the complex serves as an active destination during City-Wide Open Studios held yearly in October.

New Haven is also the home port of a life-size replica of the historical Freedom Schooner Amistad, which is open for tours at Long Wharf pier at certain times during the summer. Also at Long Wharf pier is the Quinnipiack schooner, offering sailing cruises of the harbor area throughout the summer. The Quinnipiack also functions as a floating classroom for hundreds of local students.

Music


The New Haven Green is the site of many free music concerts, especially during the summer months. These have included the New Haven Symphony Orchestra
New Haven Symphony Orchestra
The New Haven Symphony Orchestra is an American symphony orchestra based in New Haven, Connecticut. The New Haven Symphony Orchestra gave its first concert in 1895 and is the fourth oldest orchestra in the United States.- History :...

, the July Free Concerts on the Green in July, and the New Haven Jazz Festival in August. The Jazz Festival, which began in 1982, was one of the longest-running free outdoor festivals in the U.S., until it was canceled for 2007. Headliners such as The Breakfast, Dave Brubeck, Ray Charles and Celia Cruz have historically drawn 30,000 to 50,000 fans, filling up the New Haven Green to capacity. The New Haven Jazz Festival has been revived for 2008 and 2009 under the sponsorship of Jazz Haven.http://jazzhaven.org/

New Haven is also home to the concert venue Toad's Place
Toad's Place
Toad's Place is a concert venue and nightclub in New Haven, Connecticut, with two other short lived locations in Waterbury, CT and Richmond, VA.-History:...

. The city has retained an alternative art and music underground that has helped to influence post-punk era music movements such as indie
Indie rock
Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1980s. Indie rock is extremely diverse, with sub-genres that include lo-fi, post-rock, math rock, indie pop, dream pop, noise rock, space rock, sadcore, riot grrrl and emo, among others...

, college rock
College rock
College rock is a term that was used in the United States to describe 1980s alternative rock before the term "alternative" came into common usage. The term's use of the word "college" refers to campus radio stations located at institutions of higher education in Canada and the United States, where...

 and underground hip-hop. Other local venues include Cafe Nine, BAR, Firehouse 12, and Rudy's.

The Yale School of Music
Yale School of Music
The Yale School of Music is one of the twelve professional schools at Yale University and one of the premier music conservatories in the world....

 also contributes to the city's music scene by offering hundreds of free concerts throughout the year at venues in and around the Yale campus.
Hardcore
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the Midlands of the United Kingdom and the United States...

 Band
Musical ensemble
A musical ensemble is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles or wind ensembles...

, Hatebreed
Hatebreed
- History :Hatebreed was formed in 1994 in Bridgeport, Waterbury and New Haven. They began by recording a three song demo and selling it to locals. Those three songs would eventually be released on a split seven inch with New York's Neglect in 1995...

 are from Wallingford, but got their start in New Haven under the name Jasta 14
Jasta 14
Jasta 14 was a hardcore band from Connecticut that existed from 1991 to 1996. Over the years it included members that went on to play in such bands as Hatebreed, Red Sparowes and Orthrelm.-Members:* Jamey Jasta* Mick Barr* Joel Chialastri* Greg Burns...

. The band Miracle Legion
Miracle Legion
Miracle Legion was an American college rock band formed in 1983 in New Haven, Connecticut. They earned modest renown, especially in their native New England region. The original lineup consisted of singer/guitarist Mark Mulcahy, lead guitarist Mr. Ray Neal, drummer Jeff Wiederschall, and bassist...

 formed in New Haven in 1983.

Festivals


In addition to the Jazz Festival (described above), New Haven serves as the home city of the annual International Festival of Arts and Ideas. New Haven's Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Day is a religious holiday celebrated internationally on 17 March. It commemorates Saint Patrick , the most commonly recognised of the patron saints of :Ireland, and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland. It is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion , the Eastern...

 parade, which began in 1842, is New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

's oldest St. Patty's Day parade and draws the largest crowds of any one-day spectator event in Connecticut. The St. Andrew The Apostle Italian Festival has taken place in the historic Wooster Square
Wooster Square
Wooster Square is a neighborhood in the city of New Haven, Connecticut to the east of downtown. The name refers to a park square located between Greene Street, Wooster Place, Chapel Street and Academy Street in the center of the neighborhood...

 neighborhood every year since 1900. New Haven celebrates Powder House Day every April on the New Haven Green to commemorate the city's entrance into the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

. The Film Fest New Haven
Film Fest New Haven
The Film Fest New Haven is an annual film festival held in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, home of Yale University. Also sometimes known as the New Haven Film Fest, it is a non-profit organisation that was founded in 1995. This independent film festival features premieres and screenings of films made...

 has been held annually since 1995.

Nightlife


In the past decade downtown has seen an influx of new restaurants, bars, and nightclubs.
Large crowds are drawn to the Crown Street area downtown on weekends where many of the restaurants and bars are located.
Crown Street between State and High Streets has dozens of establishments as do nearby Temple and College Streets.
Away from downtown, Upper State Street also has a number of restaurants and bars popular with local residents and weekend visitors.

Newspapers and media


New Haven is served by the daily New Haven Register, the weekly "alternative" (which is corporate run by Tribune, the company owning The Hartford Courant) New Haven Advocate, the online daily New Haven Independent, and the monthly Grand News Community Newspaper. The city's Spanish-speaking community is served by Registro, a Spanish-language twice-weekly operated by The New Haven Register's parent company. Downtown New Haven is covered by an in-depth civic news forum, Design New Haven
Design New Haven
Design New Haven, or "DNH Collaborative", is a civic organization focusing on Downtown New Haven, Connecticut. The group functions as a civic forum whose "mission is to promote dialogue on topics including economic development, architecture and design, transportation, livable streets, history,...

. The Register also backs PLAY
Play
Play may refer to:* Play , enjoyment by animals including humans* Play , structured literary form of theatre-Bands:* Play , Mexican band* Play , Swedish band-Albums:...

magazine, a weekly entertainment publication. It is also served by several student-run papers, including the Yale Daily News
Yale Daily News
The Yale Daily News is an independent student newspaper published by Yale University students in New Haven, Connecticut since January 28, 1878...

, the weekly Yale Herald and a humor tabloid, Rumpus Magazine
Rumpus Magazine
Rumpus is a tabloid publication produced six times a year by students at Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut. Visually resembling the New York Post, Rumpus is a controversial, humorous publication with content ranging from campus gossip to investigative reporting.-History:Rumpus was first...

.

WTNH
WTNH
WTNH is the ABC-affiliated television station for the state of Connecticut that is licensed to New Haven. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on VHF channel 10 from a transmitter in Hamden. Owned by the LIN TV Corporation, the station is sister to MyNetworkTV affiliate WCTX and the two...

 Channel 8, the ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

 affiliate for Connecticut, WCTX
WCTX
WCTX is the MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station for the state of Connecticut that is licensed to New Haven. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 39 from a transmitter in Hamden. Owned by the LIN TV Corporation, the station is sister to ABC affiliate WTNH and the two...

 Channel 59, the MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV is a television broadcast syndication service in the United States, owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a division of News Corporation...

 affiliate for the state, and Connecticut Public Television
Connecticut Public Television
Connecticut Public Television is the PBS member network for the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is owned by Connecticut Public Broadcasting, who also owns Connecticut Public Radio. Together, the television and radio stations make up the Connecticut Public Broadcasting Network...

 station WEDY channel 65, a PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

 affiliate, broadcast from New Haven. All New York City news and sports team stations broadcast to New Haven County

Though both WTNH and WCTX are located in New Haven, CT, their Master Control, and Traffic departments are located in Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

 in a former section of the city called Chicopee.

Sports and athletics




New Haven has a history of professional sports franchises dating back to the 19th century and has been the home to professional baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

, basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

, football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

, hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

, and soccer teams—including the New York Giants
New York Giants
The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in East Rutherford, New Jersey, representing the New York City metropolitan area. The Giants are currently members of the Eastern Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League...

 of the National Football League
National Football League
The National Football League is the highest level of professional American football in the United States, and is considered the top professional American football league in the world. It was formed by eleven teams in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association, with the league changing...

 from 1973 to 1974, who played at Yale Bowl
Yale Bowl
The Yale Bowl is a football stadium in New Haven, Connecticut on the border of West Haven, about 1½ miles west of Yale's main campus. Completed in 1914, the stadium seats 61,446, reduced by renovations from the original capacity of 70,869...

. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, New Haven consistently had minor league hockey and baseball teams, which played at the New Haven Arena
New Haven Arena
New Haven Arena was an indoor arena on Grove Street in New Haven, Connecticut, that served as a venue for ice hockey, concerts, and circuses.The first arena opened in 1914 but burned down in 1924...

 (build in 1926, demolished in 1972), New Haven Coliseum
New Haven Coliseum
The New Haven Coliseum was a sports-entertainment arena located in downtown New Haven, Connecticut. Construction began in 1968 and was completed in 1972...

 (1972–2002), and Yale Field
Yale Field
Yale Field is a stadium in West Haven, Connecticut, just across the city line with New Haven, Connecticut. It is primarily used for the Yale University baseball team, the Bulldogs, and, until 2007 was also the home field of the New Haven County Cutters Canadian-American Association of Professional...

 (1928–present).

When John DeStefano, Jr.
John DeStefano, Jr.
John DeStefano, Jr. is the current mayor of New Haven, Connecticut. He was the Democratic candidate in 2006 for Governor of Connecticut, unsuccessfully challenging incumbent Republican Governor M. Jodi Rell. He was also the named defendant in the landmark 2009 U.S. Supreme Court case of Ricci v...

, became mayor of New Haven in 1995, he outlined a plan to transform the city into a major cultural and arts center in the Northeast, which involved investments in programs and projects other than sports franchises. As nearby Bridgeport
Bridgeport
Bridgeport is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.Bridgeport may also refer to:-Places:In Canada:* Bridgeport, Nova ScotiaIn the United States:* Bridgeport, Alabama* Bridgeport, California, in Mono County...

 built new sports facilities, the brutalist New Haven Coliseum rapidly deteriorated. Believing the upkeep on the venue to be a drain of tax dollars, the DeStefano administration closed the Coliseum in 2002; it was demolished in 2007. New Haven's last professional sports team, the New Haven County Cutters
New Haven County Cutters
The New Haven County Cutters were an independent baseball team based in New Haven, Connecticut. From 2004 through 2007, it played in the Canadian-American Association of Professional Baseball , an independent league that is not affiliated with Major League Baseball or with the Minor League Baseball...

, left in 2009. The DeStefano administration did, however, see the construction of the New Haven Athletic Center in 1998, a 94000 square feet (8,732.9 m²) indoor athletic facility with a seating capacity of over 3,000. The NHAC, built adjacent to Hillhouse High School
Hillhouse High School
James Hillhouse Comprehensive High School is the oldest public high school in New Haven, Connecticut. It is a part of New Haven Public Schools.- History :Established in 1859 as New Haven High School,...

, is used for New Haven public schools athletics, as well as large-scale area and state sporting events; it is the largest high school indoor sports complex in the state.

New Haven was the host of the 1995 Special Olympics World Summer Games
1995 Special Olympics World Summer Games
The Ninth Special Olympics World Summer Games were held in New Haven, Connecticut, USA on July 1-9 1995. More than 7,000 athletes from 143 countries gathered for competition in 21 sports. The opening and closing ceremonies were held in the Yale Bowl, and various events were held around the New...

; then-President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

 spoke at the Opening Ceremonies. The city is home to the Pilot Pen International
Pilot Pen Tennis
This article is about the former New Haven joint tennis event. It is now a women's-only event. For the New Haven men's tennis event known as Volvo International , click here....

 tennis event, which takes place every August at the Connecticut Tennis Center, one the largest tennis venues in the world. New Haven biannually hosts "The Game" between Yale and Harvard, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Numerous road races take place in New Haven, including the USA 20K Championship during the New Haven Road Race.

Greater New Haven
Greater New Haven
Greater New Haven is the metropolitan area whose extent includes those towns in the U.S. state of Connecticut that share an economic, social, political, and historical focus on the city of New Haven...

 is home to a number of college sports teams. The Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
The Yale Bulldogs are the athletic teams of the Yale University. The school sponsors 35 varsity sports. The school has won two NCAA national championships in women's fencing, four in men's swimming and diving, and twenty one in men's golf.-Men's baseball:...

 play Division I college sports, as do the Quinnipiac Bobcats in neighboring Hamden
Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The town's nickname is "The Land of the Sleeping Giant." Hamden is home to Quinnipiac University. The population was 58,180 according to the Census Bureau's 2005 estimates...

. Division II athletics are played by Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Connecticut State University
Southern Connecticut State University is one of four state universities in Connecticut, and is located in the West Rock neighborhood of New Haven, Connecticut...

 and the University of New Haven
University of New Haven
The University of New Haven is a private university that combines a liberal arts education with professional training. The university comprises five colleges: the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Business, the Tagliatela College of Engineering, the Henry C...

 (actually located in neighboring West Haven
West Haven
- Places :Australia:* West Haven, New South WalesNew Zealand:* Westhaven suburb, in Auckland* Westhaven Marina, in the suburb of the same name, in AucklandUnited States:* Westhaven, California * West Haven, Connecticut* West Haven, Oregon...

), while Albertus Magnus College
Albertus Magnus College
Albertus Magnus College is a small private liberal arts college in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. It is located about two miles from the central campus of Yale University in a residential area near the border with Hamden. The neighborhood is on Prospect Street just above Edgerton park and...

 athletes perform at the Division III level.

New Haven is a battleground city between fans of the Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox
The Boston Red Sox are a professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts, and a member of Major League Baseball’s American League Eastern Division. Founded in as one of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Red Sox's home ballpark has been Fenway Park since . The "Red Sox"...

 and New York Yankees
New York Yankees
The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the The Bronx, New York. They compete in Major League Baseball in the American League's East Division...

. Walter Camp
Walter Camp
Walter Chauncey Camp was an American football player, coach, and sports writer known as the "Father of American Football". With John Heisman, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pop Warner, Fielding H. Yost, and George Halas, Camp was one of the most accomplished persons in the early history of American football...

, deemed the "father of American football," was a New Havener.

The New Haven Warriors
New Haven Warriors
-Stadium:The Warriors home ground is Ken Strong Stadium at West Haven High School in West Haven, Connecticut.-Statistics and records:Biggest winning marginBiggest losing marginMost points for the clubMost points in a match...

 rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 team play in the AMNRL. They have a large amount of Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander , is a geographic term to describe the indigenous inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia.According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, these three regions, together with their islands consist of:Polynesia:...

 playing for them. Their field is located at the West Haven High School
West Haven High School
West Haven High School is a secondary school located in West Haven, Connecticut, which educates students in grades 9–12. The mascot of West Haven is the Blue Devil. -Administration and Campus:...

's Ken Strong Stadium. They won the 2008 AMNRL Grand Final.

Historic points of interest



Many historical sites exist throughout the city, including 59 properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut
This is a list of National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut.This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, United States...

. Of these, nine are among the 60 U.S. National Historic Landmarks in Connecticut. The New Haven Green
New Haven Green
The New Haven Green is a privately owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, and was designed and surveyed by colonist...

, one of the National Historic Landmarks, was formed in 1638, and is home to three 19th century churches. Below one of the churches (referred to as the Center Church on-the-Green) lies a 17th century crypt, which is open to visitors (some of the more famous burials include the first wife of Benedict Arnold
Benedict Arnold
Benedict Arnold V was a general during the American Revolutionary War. He began the war in the Continental Army but later defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fort at West Point, New York, and plotted to surrender it to the British forces...

 and the aunt and grandmother of President Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th President of the United States . As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction and the United States' entry into the Second Industrial Revolution...

; Hayes visited the crypt while President in 1880). The Old Campus
Old Campus
The Old Campus is a complex of buildings at Yale University on the block at the northwest end of the green in New Haven, Connecticut, consisting of dormitories, classrooms, chapels and offices...

 of Yale University
Yale University
Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...

 is located next to the Green, and includes Connecticut Hall
Connecticut Hall
Connecticut Hall is a Georgian-style building on the Old Campus of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Built in 1752, it is the oldest building on the Yale campus and one of the oldest buildings in Connecticut...

, Yale's oldest building and a National Historic Landmark. The Hillhouse Avenue
Hillhouse Avenue
Hillhouse Avenue, described, according to tradition, by both Charles Dickens and Mark Twain as "the most beautiful street in America," , is in New Haven, Connecticut and is home to many nineteenth century mansions including the president's house at Yale University...

 area, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 and is also a part of Yale's campus, has been called a walkable museum, due to its 19th century mansions and street scape; Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. Dickens enjoyed a wider popularity and fame than had any previous author during his lifetime, and he remains popular, having been responsible for some of English literature's most iconic...

 is said to have called Hillhouse Avenue "the most beautiful street in America" when visiting the city in 1868.

In 1660, Edward Whalley
Edward Whalley
Edward Whalley was an English military leader during the English Civil War, and was one of the regicides who signed the death warrant of King Charles I of England.-Early career:The exact dates of his birth and death are unknown...

 (a cousin and friend of Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader who overthrew the English monarchy and temporarily turned England into a republican Commonwealth, and served as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland....

) and William Goffe
William Goffe
William Goffe was an English Roundhead politician and soldier, perhaps best known for his role in the execution of King Charles I and later flight to America.-Early life:...

, two English Civil War
English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists...

 generals who signed the death warrant of King Charles I, hid in a rock formation in New Haven after having fled England upon the restoration
English Restoration
The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms...

 of Charles II
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

 to the English throne. They were later joined by a third regicide
Regicide
The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a monarch. In a narrower sense, in the British tradition, it refers to the judicial execution of a king after a trial...

, John Dixwell
John Dixwell
John Dixwell was one of the judges who tried King Charles I of England and condemned him to death.-Biography:He was the younger son of Edgar Dixwell, but was raised by his uncle Basil Dixwell of Broome Park, near Canterbury in Kent...

. The rock formation, which is now a part of West Rock Park, is known as Judges' Cave, and the path leading to the cave is called Regicides Trail
Regicides Trail
Regicides Trail is a Blue-Blazed hiking trail, about 7 miles long, roughly following the edge of a basalt, or traprock, cliff northwest of New Haven, Connecticut. It is named for two regicides, Edward Whalley and his son-in-law William Goffe, who signed the death warrant of King Charles I of England...

.

After the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

 broke out in 1776, the Connecticut colonial government ordered the construction of Black Rock Fort
Fort Nathan Hale
Fort Nathan Hale, also known as Fort Hale Park, Black Rock, is a city park located on the east shore of New Haven Harbor in New Haven, Connecticut. It includes the site of a 1659 fort and a Revolutionary War-era fort. The fort was named after Nathan Hale, Connecticut's official hero. Since 1921,...

 (to be built on top of an older 17th century fort) to protect the port of New Haven. In 1779, during the Battle of New Haven, British soldiers captured Black Rock Fort and burned the barracks to the ground. The fort was reconstructed in 1807 by the federal government (on orders from the Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom , the third President of the United States and founder of the University of Virginia...

 administration), and rechristened Fort Nathan Hale
Fort Nathan Hale
Fort Nathan Hale, also known as Fort Hale Park, Black Rock, is a city park located on the east shore of New Haven Harbor in New Haven, Connecticut. It includes the site of a 1659 fort and a Revolutionary War-era fort. The fort was named after Nathan Hale, Connecticut's official hero. Since 1921,...

, after the Revolutionary War hero
Nathan Hale
Nathan Hale was a soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for an intelligence-gathering mission in New York City but was captured by the British...

 who had lived in New Haven. The cannons of Fort Nathan Hale were successful in defying British war ships during the War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

. In 1863, during the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, a second Fort Hale
Fort Nathan Hale
Fort Nathan Hale, also known as Fort Hale Park, Black Rock, is a city park located on the east shore of New Haven Harbor in New Haven, Connecticut. It includes the site of a 1659 fort and a Revolutionary War-era fort. The fort was named after Nathan Hale, Connecticut's official hero. Since 1921,...

 was built next to the original, complete with bomb-resistant bunkers and a moat, to defend the city should a Southern raid against New Haven be launched. The United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 deeded the site to the state in 1921, and all three versions of the fort have been restored. The site is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places and receives thousands of visitors each year.

Grove Street Cemetery, a National Historic Landmark which lies adjacent to Yale's campus, contains the graves of Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman
Roger Sherman was an early American lawyer and politician, as well as a founding father. He served as the first mayor of New Haven, Connecticut, and served on the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence, and was also a representative and senator in the new republic...

, Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South...

, Noah Webster
Noah Webster
Noah Webster was an American educator, lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author...

, Charles Goodyear
Charles Goodyear
Charles Goodyear was an American inventor who developed a process to vulcanize rubber in 1839 -- a method that he perfected while living and working in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1844, and for which he received patent number 3633 from the United States Patent Office on June 15, 1844Although...

 and Walter Camp
Walter Camp
Walter Chauncey Camp was an American football player, coach, and sports writer known as the "Father of American Football". With John Heisman, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pop Warner, Fielding H. Yost, and George Halas, Camp was one of the most accomplished persons in the early history of American football...

, among other notable burials. The cemetery is also known for its grand Egyptian Revival gateway. The Union League Club of New Haven building, located on Chapel Street, is notable for not only being a historic Beaux-Arts building, but also is built on the site where Roger Sherman's home once stood; George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

 is known to have stayed at the Sherman residence while President in 1789 (one of three times Washington visited New Haven throughout his lifetime).

Two sites pay homage to the time President and Chief Justice
Chief Justice of the United States
The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the United States federal court system and the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States. The Chief Justice is one of nine Supreme Court justices; the other eight are the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States...

 William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft was the 27th President of the United States and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States...

 lived in the city, as both a student and later Professor at Yale: a plaque on Prospect Street marks the site where Taft's home formerly stood and downtown's Taft Apartment Building (formerly the Taft Hotel) bears the name of the former President who resided in the building for eight years before becoming Chief Justice of the United States.

Lighthouse Point Park, a public beach run by the city, was a popular tourist destination during the Roaring Twenties
Roaring Twenties
The Roaring Twenties is a phrase used to describe the 1920s, principally in North America, but also in London, Berlin and Paris for a period of sustained economic prosperity. The phrase was meant to emphasize the period's social, artistic, and cultural dynamism...

, attracting luminaries of the period such as Babe Ruth
Babe Ruth
George Herman Ruth, Jr. , best known as "Babe" Ruth and nicknamed "the Bambino" and "the Sultan of Swat", was an American Major League baseball player from 1914–1935...

 and Ty Cobb
Ty Cobb
Tyrus Raymond "Ty" Cobb , nicknamed "The Georgia Peach," was an American Major League Baseball outfielder. He was born in Narrows, Georgia...

. The park remains popular among New Haveners, and is home to both the Five Mile Point
Five Mile Point
Five Mile Point Light, also known as Five Mile Point Lighthouse or Old New Haven Harbor Lighthouse, is a lighthouse in New Haven, Connecticut, United States, on the harbor entrance to Long Island Sound, five miles from Downtown New Haven...

 Lighthouse, constructed in 1847, and the Lighthouse Point Carousel, constructed in 1916. Five Mile Point was decommissioned in 1877 following the construction of Southwest Ledge Light
Southwest Ledge Light
Southwest Ledge Light is a lighthouse in New Haven, Connecticut.United States, on the reef at main entrance to New Haven Harbor. It was one of the first to be built on a cylindrical iron foundation, an innovation by Maj. George H...

 at the entrance of the harbor, which remains in service to this day. Both of the lighthouses and the carousel are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Other historic sites in the city include the Soldiers and Sailors Monument
Soldiers and Sailors Monument (New Haven)
The Soldiers and Sailors Monument, located on the summit of East Rock in New Haven, Connecticut, is visible for miles from the surrounding urban metropolis and Long Island Sound. The monument was built in 1887 and honors the residents of New Haven who gave their lives in the Revolutionary War, the...

, which stands at the summit of East Rock
East Rock
East Rock of south-central Connecticut, United States, with a high point of , is a long trap rock ridge located on the north side of the city of New Haven...

, the Marsh Botanical Garden
Marsh Botanical Garden
The Marsh Botanical Garden is a botanical garden, arboretum, and greenhouses located on the Yale University campus at 277 Mansfield Street, New Haven, Connecticut, USA....

, Wooster Square
Wooster Square
Wooster Square is a neighborhood in the city of New Haven, Connecticut to the east of downtown. The name refers to a park square located between Greene Street, Wooster Place, Chapel Street and Academy Street in the center of the neighborhood...

, Dwight Street
Dwight Street Historic District
The Dwight Street Historic District is an irregularly-shaped historic district in New Haven, Connecticut. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. In 1983, out of 629 buildings in the district 595 were deemed contributing buildings...

, Louis' Lunch
Louis' Lunch
Louis' Lunch in New Haven, Connecticut, advertises itself as the first restaurant to serve hamburgers and as being the oldest hamburger restaurant still operating in the U.S. Opened as a small lunch wagon in 1895, Louis' Lunch was also one of the first places in the U.S...

, and the Farmington Canal
Farmington Canal
The Farmington Canal, also known as the New Haven and Northampton Canal, was a major private canal built in the early 19th century to provide water transportation from New Haven into the interior of Connecticut, Massachusetts and beyond. Its Massachusetts segment was known as the Hampshire and...

, all of which date back to the 19th century. Other historic parks besides the Green include Edgerton Park, Edgewood Park, and East Rock Park
East Rock Park
East Rock Park is a park in the city of New Haven and the town of Hamden, Connecticut that is operated as a New Haven city park. The park surrounds and includes the mountainous ridge named East Rock and was developed with naturalistic landscaping....

, each of which is included on the National Register of Historic Places.

Popular culture references


New Haven has been depicted in a number of movies. Scenes in the film All About Eve
All About Eve
All About Eve is a 1950 American drama film written and directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, based on the 1946 short story "The Wisdom of Eve", by Mary Orr.The film stars Bette Davis as Margo Channing, a highly regarded but aging Broadway star...

(1950) are set at the Taft Hotel (now Taft Apartments) on the corner of College and Chapel Streets, and the history of New Haven theaters as Broadway "tryouts" is depicted in the Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire was an American film and Broadway stage dancer, choreographer, singer and actor. His stage and subsequent film career spanned a total of 76 years, during which he made 31 musical films. He was named the fifth Greatest Male Star of All Time by the American Film Institute...

 film The Band Wagon
The Band Wagon
The Band Wagon is a 1953 musical comedy film that many critics rank, along with Singin' in the Rain, as the finest of the MGM musicals, although it was only a modest box-office success. It tells the story of an aging musical star who hopes a Broadway play will restart his career...

(1953). The city was fictionally portrayed in the Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
Steven Allan Spielberg KBE is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, video game designer, and studio entrepreneur. In a career of more than four decades, Spielberg's films have covered many themes and genres. Spielberg's early science-fiction and adventure films were seen as an...

 movie Amistad (1997) concerning the events around the mutiny trial of that ship's rebelling captives. New Haven was also fictionalized in the movie The Skulls (2000), which focused on conspiracy theories surrounding the real-life Skull and Bones
Skull and Bones
Skull and Bones is an undergraduate senior or secret society at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. It is a traditional peer society to Scroll and Key and Wolf's Head, as the three senior class 'landed societies' at Yale....

 secret society which is located in New Haven.
It is also the town where famous American Rock Band "The Doors" were thrown out of when lead singer Jim Morrison was arrested and for harassment of an officer. Supposedly Jim was mistaken for a fan being backstage, and was assaulted by one of the security officers working the show. Jim later in the show spoke of the incident to the audience and was arrested for distubing the peace, and harassment of an officer.

Several recent movies have been filmed in New Haven, including Mona Lisa Smile
Mona Lisa Smile
Mona Lisa Smile is a 2003 romantic drama film produced by Revolution Studios and Columbia Pictures in association with Red Om Films Productions, directed by Mike Newell, written by Lawrence Konner and Mark Rosenthal, and starring Julia Roberts, Kirsten Dunst, Maggie Gyllenhaal, and Julia Stiles...

(2003), with Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
Julia Fiona Roberts is an American actress. She became a Hollywood star after headlining the romantic comedy Pretty Woman , which grossed $464 million worldwide...

, The Life Before Her Eyes (2007), with Uma Thurman
Uma Thurman
Uma Karuna Thurman is an American actress and model. She has performed in leading roles in a variety of films, ranging from romantic comedies and dramas to science fiction and action movies. Among her best-known roles are those in the Quentin Tarantino films Pulp Fiction and Kill Bill...

, and Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008) directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford is an American film actor and producer. He is famous for his performances as Han Solo in the original Star Wars trilogy and as the title character of the Indiana Jones film series. Ford is also known for his roles as Rick Deckard in Blade Runner, John Book in Witness and Jack Ryan in...

, Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett
Catherine Élise "Cate" Blanchett is an Australian actress. She came to international attention for her role as Elizabeth I of England in the 1998 biopic film Elizabeth, for which she won British Academy of Film and Television Arts and Golden Globe Awards, and earned her first Academy Award...

 and Shia LaBeouf
Shia LaBeouf
Shia Saide LaBeouf is an American actor who became known among younger audiences for his part in the Disney Channel series Even Stevens and made his film debut in Holes . In 2007, he starred as the leads in Disturbia and Transformers...

. The filming of Crystal Skull involved an extensive chase sequence through the streets of New Haven. Several downtown streets were closed to traffic and received a "makeover" to look like streets of 1957, when the film is set. 500 locals were cast as extras for the film. In Everybody's Fine (2009), Robert DeNiro has a close encounter in what is supposed to be the Denver train station; the scene was filmed in New Haven's Union Station.
New Haven is repeatedly referenced by Nick Carraway in F. Scott Fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigm writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century. Fitzgerald is considered a member of the "Lost...

's literary classic The Great Gatsby
The Great Gatsby
The Great Gatsby is a novel by the American author F. Scott Fitzgerald. First published in1925, it is set on Long Island's North Shore and in New York City from spring to autumn of 1922....

, as well as by fellow fictional Yale alumnus C. Montgomery Burns, a character from The Simpsons
The Simpsons
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie...

television show. The TV show Gilmore Girls
Gilmore Girls
Gilmore Girls is an American family comedy-drama series created by Amy Sherman-Palladino, starring Lauren Graham and Alexis Bledel. On October 5, 2000, the series debuted on The WB and was cancelled in its seventh season, ending on May 15, 2007 on The CW...

is set (but not filmed) in New Haven and at Yale University, as are scenes in the film The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants 2
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants 2
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants 2 is a 2008 sequel to the 2005 film The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants. The original cast , return to star in the movie, which was directed by Sanaa Hamri...

(2008).

New Haven was the location of one of Jim Morrison
Jim Morrison
James Douglas "Jim" Morrison was an American musician, singer, and poet, best known as the lead singer and lyricist of the rock band The Doors...

's infamous arrests while he fronted the rock group The Doors
The Doors
The Doors were an American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles, California, with vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, drummer John Densmore, and guitarist Robby Krieger...

. The near-riotous concert and arrest in 1967 at the New Haven Arena
New Haven Arena
New Haven Arena was an indoor arena on Grove Street in New Haven, Connecticut, that served as a venue for ice hockey, concerts, and circuses.The first arena opened in 1914 but burned down in 1924...

 was commemorated by Morrison in the lyrics to "Peace Frog
Peace Frog
"Peace Frog" is a song by The Doors which appears on the album Morrison Hotel. It was released on vinyl in February 1970 by Elektra/Asylum Records and produced by Paul Rothchild...

" which include the line "...blood in the streets in the town of New Haven..." This was also the first time a rock star had ever been arrested in concert. This event is also portrayed in the movie The Doors (1991), starring Val Kilmer
Val Kilmer
Val Edward Kilmer is an American actor. Originally a stage actor, Kilmer became popular in the mid-1980s after a string of appearances in comedy films, starting with Top Secret! , then the cult classic Real Genius , as well as blockbuster action films, including a supporting role in Top Gun and a...

 as Morrison, with a concert hall in Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

 used to depict the New Haven Arena.

Pat Benatar
Pat Benatar
Pat Benatar is an American singer and four-time Grammy winner. She had considerable commercial success particularly in the United States...

 released a DVD
DVD
A DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions....

 entitled "Live in New Haven" which shows a 1983 live concert performed at the New Haven Coliseum
New Haven Coliseum
The New Haven Coliseum was a sports-entertainment arena located in downtown New Haven, Connecticut. Construction began in 1968 and was completed in 1972...

. Van Halen
Van Halen
Van Halen is an American hard rock band formed in Pasadena, California, in 1972. The band has enjoyed success since the release of its debut album, Van Halen, . As of 2007 Van Halen has sold 80 million albums worldwide and has had the most #1 hits on the Billboard Mainstream Rock chart...

 also has a DVD
DVD
A DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions....

, "Live Without a Net" which was filmed at the Coliseum in 1986. New Haven and Louis' Lunch
Louis' Lunch
Louis' Lunch in New Haven, Connecticut, advertises itself as the first restaurant to serve hamburgers and as being the oldest hamburger restaurant still operating in the U.S. Opened as a small lunch wagon in 1895, Louis' Lunch was also one of the first places in the U.S...

 are depicted in the documentary "Hamburger America" (2004).

Notable inventions and formations



1638: New Haven (arguably) becomes the first-planned city in America.

1776: Yale Student David Bushnell invents the first American submarine.

1787: John Fitch builds the first steam boat.

1793: Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney
Eli Whitney was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South...

 invents the cotton gin
Cotton gin
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, a job formerly performed painstakingly by hand...

.

1836: Samuel Colt
Samuel Colt
Samuel Colt was an American inventor and industrialist. He was the founder of Colt's Patent Fire-Arms Manufacturing Company , and is widely credited with popularizing the revolver. Colt's innovative contributions to the weapons industry have been described by arms historian James E...

 invents the automatic revolver
Automatic revolver
An automatic revolver is a revolver that uses the energy of firing for cocking the hammer and revolving the cylinder, rather than using manual operations to perform these actions...

 in Whitney's factory
Eli Whitney Museum
The Eli Whitney Museum, in Hamden, Connecticut, is an experimental learning workshop for students, teachers, and families. The museum focuses on teaching experiments that are the roots of design and invention, featuring hands-on building projects and exhibits on Eli Whitney and A. C...



1839: Charles Goodyear
Charles Goodyear
Charles Goodyear was an American inventor who developed a process to vulcanize rubber in 1839 -- a method that he perfected while living and working in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1844, and for which he received patent number 3633 from the United States Patent Office on June 15, 1844Although...

 of New Haven discovers and patents the process of vulcanizing rubber in nearby Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

.

1860: Philios P. Blake patents the first corkscrew.

1877: New Haven hosted the first Bell
Bell System
The Bell System was the American Bell Telephone Company and then, subsequently, AT&T led system which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly. In 1984, the company was broken up into separate companies, by a U.S...

 PSTN (telephone) switch office.

1878-1880: The District Telephone Company of New Haven created the world's first telephone exchange
Telephone exchange
In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls...

, the first telephone directory
Telephone directory
A telephone directory is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory...

 and installed the first public phone. The company expanded and became the Connecticut Telephone Company, then the Southern New England Telephone Company (now part of AT&T
AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications corporation headquartered in Whitacre Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States. It is the largest provider of mobile telephony and fixed telephony in the United States, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services...

).

1882: the Knights of Columbus
Knights of Columbus
The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. Founded in the United States in 1882, it is named in honor of Christopher Columbus....

 was founded in New Haven. The city still serves as the world headquarters of the organization, which maintains a museum downtown.

1892: Local confectioner George C. Smith of the Bradley Smith Candy Co. invented the first lollipop
Lollipop
A lollipop, pop, lolly, sucker, or sticky-pop is a type of confectionery consisting mainly of hardened, flavored sucrose with corn syrup mounted on a stick and intended for sucking or licking. They are available in many flavors and shapes.- Types :Lollipops are available in a number of colors and...

s.

Late 19th century-early 20th century: The first public tree planting program takes place in New Haven, at the urging of native James Hillhouse
James Hillhouse
James Hillhouse was an American lawyer, real estate developer, and politician from New Haven, Connecticut. He represented Connecticut in both the U.S. House and Senate...

.

1900: Louis Lassen, owner of Louis' Lunch
Louis' Lunch
Louis' Lunch in New Haven, Connecticut, advertises itself as the first restaurant to serve hamburgers and as being the oldest hamburger restaurant still operating in the U.S. Opened as a small lunch wagon in 1895, Louis' Lunch was also one of the first places in the U.S...

, is credited with inventing the hamburger
Hamburger
A hamburger is a sandwich consisting of a cooked patty of ground meat usually placed inside a sliced bread roll...

, as well as the steak sandwich.

1911: The Erector Set
Erector Set
Erector Set is the trade name of a toy construction set that is popular in the United States.It consists of collections of small metal beams with regular holes for nuts, bolts, screws, and mechanical parts such as pulleys, gears, and small electric motors.The brand name is currently used for...

, the popular and culturally important construction toy, was invented in New Haven by A.C. Gilbert
Alfred Carlton Gilbert
Alfred Carlton Gilbert was an American inventor, athlete, toy-maker and businessman. Born in Salem, Oregon and died in Boston, Massachusetts, Gilbert is best known as the inventor of the Erector Set.-Early life:...

, and was manufactured by the A. C. Gilbert Company at the Erector Square, from 1913 until the company's bankruptcy in 1967.

1920: In competition with competing explanations, the Frisbee
Frisbee
A flying disc is a disc-shaped glider that is generally plastic and roughly in diameter, with a lip. The shape of the disc, an airfoil in cross-section, allows it to fly by generating lift as it moves through the air while rotating....

 is said to have originated on the Yale campus, based on the tin pans of the Frisbie Pie Company
Frisbie Pie Company
The Frisbie Pie Company was founded in 1851 by William Russell Frisbie in Bridgeport, Connecticut, when he bought and renamed a branch of the Olds Baking Company. The company was located on Kossuth Street in Bridgeport's East Side, where nearby school kids tossed the plates around and yelled...

 which were tossed around by students on the New Haven Green
New Haven Green
The New Haven Green is a privately owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, and was designed and surveyed by colonist...

.

1977: The first memorial to victims of the Holocaust on public land in America stands in New Haven's Edgewood Park
Edgewood Park Historic District
Edgewood Park Historic District is a historic district in New Haven, Connecticut. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. In 1986, it included 231 contributing buildings, 4 other contributing structures, and 1 contributing object....

 at the corner of Whalley and West Park Avenues; it was built with funds collected from the community and is maintained by Greater New Haven Holocaust Memory, Inc. The ashes of victims killed and cremated
Cremation
Cremation is the process of reducing bodies to basic chemical compounds such as gasses and bone fragments. This is accomplished through high-temperature burning, vaporization and oxidation....

 at Auschwitz are buried under the memorial.

The Greater New Haven Convention and Visitors Bureau has a more extensive list of New Haven firsts which can be found here http://www.visitnewhaven.com/base/content.cfm?section=meetingplanners&dir=core&page=about_gnh&sub1=&sub2=&sub3=.

Hospitals and medicine


The New Haven area supports several medical facilities that are considered some of the best hospitals in the country. There are two major medical centers downtown: Yale-New Haven Hospital
Yale-New Haven Hospital
Yale-New Haven Hospital , Connecticut's largest hospital with 966 beds, is located in New Haven, Connecticut.The hospital is owned and operated by the Yale New Haven Health System, Inc...

 has four pavilions, including the Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital and the Smilow Cancer Hospital; the Hospital of Saint Raphael
Hospital of Saint Raphael
The Hospital of Saint Raphael or Saint Raphael Hospital, located in New Haven, Connecticut, USA, is a 511-bed community teaching hospital and an academic health center affiliated with Yale University School of Medicine. It was founded by the Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth in 1907...

 is several blocks North, and touts its excellent cardiac emergency care program. Smaller downtown health facilities are the Temple Medical Center located downtown on Temple Street, Connecticut Mental Health Center, across Park Street from Y-NHH, and the Hill Health Center, which serves the working-class Hill Neighborhood. A large Veterans Affairs hospital is located in neighboring West Haven. To the west in Milford is Milford Hospital
Milford Hospital (Connecticut)
Milford Hospital is an acute-care community hospital located in Milford, Connecticut.The hospital offers inpatient and outpatient services and has specialties in emergency and walk-in services, joint replacement surgery, outpatient surgery, family childbirth, health education and home care services...

 and to the north in Meriden is the MidState Medical Center.

Yale and New Haven are working to build a medical and biotechnology research mecca in the city and Greater New Haven region, and are succeeding to some extent. The city, state and Yale together run Science Park, a large site three blocks north-west of Yale's Science Hill campus area. This multi-block site, approximately bordered by Mansfield Street, Division Street, and Shelton Avenue is the former home of Winchester
Winchester Repeating Arms Company
The Winchester Repeating Arms Company was a prominent American maker of repeating firearms, located in New Haven, Connecticut. The Winchester brand is today used under license by two subsidiaries of the Herstal Group, Fabrique Nationale of Belgium and the Browning Arms Company of Morgan, Utah.-...

's and Olin Corporation's 45 large-scale factory buildings. Currently, sections of the site are large-scale parking lots or abandoned structures, but there is also a large remodeled and functioning area of buildings (leased primarily by a private developer) with numerous Yale employees, financial service and biotech companies.

A second biotechnology district is being planned for the median strip on Frontage Road, on land cleared for the never-built Route 34
Route 34 (Connecticut)
Route 34 is a primary state highway in the U.S. state of Connecticut. Route 34 is long, and extends from Washington Street near I-84/US 6 in Newtown to the junction of I-95 and I-91 in New Haven. The highways connects the New Haven and Danbury areas via the Lower Naugatuck River Valley...

 extension. As of late 2009, a Pfizer
Pfizer
Pfizer, Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation. The company is based in New York City, New York with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut, United States...

 drug-testing clinic, a medical laboratory building serving Yale New Haven Hospital, and a mixed-use structure containing parking, housing and office space, have been constructed on this corridor. A former SNET telephone building at 300 George Street is being converted into lab space, and has been so far quite successful in attracting biotechnology and medical firms.

Railroad


New Haven is connected to New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 by both commuter rail, regional rail
Regional rail
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city center, and the middle to outer suburbs beyond 15km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis...

 and intercity rail, provided by Metro-North Railroad
Metro-North Railroad
The Metro-North Commuter Railroad , trading as MTA Metro-North Railroad, or, more commonly, Metro-North, is a suburban commuter rail service that is run and managed by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority , an authority of New York State. It is the busiest commuter railroad in the United...

 (commuter rail), Shoreline East
Shore Line East
Shore Line East is a commuter rail service operating in southern Connecticut, USA. A fully owned subsidiary of the Connecticut Department of Transportation , SLE provides service seven days a week along the Northeast Corridor from New London west to New Haven, with continuing service to Bridgeport...

 (commuter rail), and Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 (regional and intercity rail) respectively, allowing New Haven residents to commute to work in New York City (just under two hours by train).

The city's main railroad station is the historic beaux-arts Union Station
Union Station (New Haven)
Union Station, also known as New Haven Railroad Station, is the main railroad passenger station in New Haven, Connecticut. Designed by noted American architect Cass Gilbert, the beaux-arts Union Station was completed and opened in 1920 after the previous Union Station was...

, which serves Metro-North trains to New York and Shore Line East
Shore Line East
Shore Line East is a commuter rail service operating in southern Connecticut, USA. A fully owned subsidiary of the Connecticut Department of Transportation , SLE provides service seven days a week along the Northeast Corridor from New London west to New Haven, with continuing service to Bridgeport...

 commuter trains to New London
New London, Connecticut
New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States.It is located at the mouth of the Thames River in New London County, southeastern Connecticut....

. An additional station was opened in 2002, named State Street Station
State Street Station (New Haven)
State Street Station is the secondary railroad passenger station in New Haven, Connecticut located northeast of the primary station in the city, Union Station. The station opened on June 7, 2002, for Shore Line East trains and June 24, 2002, for Metro-North Railroad trains...

, to provide Shore Line East and a few peak-hour Metro-North passengers easier access to and from Downtown
Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It is made up of the original nine squares laid out in 1638 to form New Haven, including the New Haven Green, and the immediate surrounding central business district, as well as a significant portion...

.

Union Station is further served by four Amtrak lines: the Northeast Regional and the high-speed rail
High-speed rail
High-speed rail is a type of passenger rail transport that operates significantly faster than the normal speed of rail traffic. Specific definitions by the European Union include for upgraded track and or faster for new track, whilst in the United States, the U.S...

 Acela Express
Acela Express
The Acela Express is Amtrak's high-speed rail service along the Northeast Corridor in the Northeast United States between Washington, D.C., and Boston via Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York...

provide service to New York, Washington DC and Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

, and rank as the first and second busiest routes in the country; the New Haven-Springfield Line
New Haven-Springfield Line
The New Haven–Springfield Line or Hartford Line is a railroad line owned by Amtrak from New Haven, Connecticut north to Springfield, Massachusetts. As a branch of the Northeast Corridor at New Haven, it is served by approximately seven daily Regional round trips, some continuing from New Haven to...

provides service to Hartford
Hartford, Connecticut
Hartford is the capital of the U.S. state of Connecticut. The seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960, it is the second most populous city on New England's largest river, the Connecticut River. As of the 2010 Census, Hartford's population was 124,775, making...

 and Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

; and the Vermonter
Vermonter
Amtrak's Vermonter is a 611-mile passenger train service between St. Albans , New York City and Washington, D.C. One trip runs in each direction per day....

provides service to both Washington and upstate Vermont, 15 miles (24.1 km) from the Canadian border.

Metro-North has the third highest daily ridership among commuter rails in the country, with an average weekday ridership of 276,000 in 2009. Of the 276,000 Metro-North riders, 112,000 rode the New Haven Line
New Haven Line (Metro-North)
Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line runs from New Haven, Connecticut southwest to Woodlawn, New York. There it joins the Metro-North Harlem Line, where trains continue south to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan....

 each day, which would make the New Haven Line seventh in the country in daily ridership if it were alone an entire commuter rail system. Shore Line East ranked nineteenth in the country, with an average daily ridership of 2,000.
The first high-speed rail line in the United States

As of 2011, a high-speed, intercity commuter rail from the City of New Haven's Union Station to the City of Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield, Massachusetts
Springfield is the most populous city in Western New England, and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers; the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern...

' Union Station has been awarded hundreds of millions of dollars in both state and federal funding. Connecticut and Massachusetts officials "expect to complete all design work on the New Haven–Hartford–Springfield Commuter Rail Line in 2013, and launch the new rail service in 2016." This would mean that New Haven and Springfield - two cities long known for innovations - would become the terminals for the first truly "high-speed rail line" in the United States, reaching speeds of over 110 miles per hour. As of 2011, the densely-populated New Haven-Hartford-Springfield Corridor - which, as of the 2010 Census, has a population of over 2.4 million, and over 200,000 university students - is connected only by Interstate 91
Interstate 91
Interstate 91 is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of New England...

, one of the most congested highways in the United States. Only 60 miles separate the cities of New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts, with significant suburban developments and the City of Hartford linking them into a regional corridor. According to NHHSRail, the project's bi-state oversight body, the New Haven–Hartford–Springfield Commuter Rail Line is intended to unite the region, and "provide travelers with a fast, safe and reliable public transportation alternative to the congestion that plagues our roads during rush hour each day and to the steadily increasing price of gasoline."

Bus



The New Haven Division
Connecticut Transit New Haven
Connecticut Transit New Haven is the second largest division of Connecticut Transit, providing service on 24 routes in 19 towns within the Greater New Haven and Lower Naugatuck River Valley areas, with connections to other CT Transit routes in Waterbury and Meriden, as well as connections to...

 of Connecticut Transit
Connecticut Transit
Connecticut Transit is a bus system serving much of the U.S. state of Connecticut and is a division of that state's Department of Transportation. CT Transit provides bus service via contract providers for seven different metropolitan areas in the state, mostly concentrated in Hartford and New...

 (CT Transit), the state's bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 system, is the second largest division in the state with 24 routes. All routes originate from the New Haven Green
New Haven Green
The New Haven Green is a privately owned park and recreation area located in the downtown district of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It comprises the central square of the nine-square settlement plan of the original Puritan colonists in New Haven, and was designed and surveyed by colonist...

, making it the central transfer hub of the city. Service is provided to 19 different municipalities throughout Greater New Haven
Greater New Haven
Greater New Haven is the metropolitan area whose extent includes those towns in the U.S. state of Connecticut that share an economic, social, political, and historical focus on the city of New Haven...

. A map of the New Haven Division routes can be seen here http://www.cttransit.com/uploads_RTDivisionSystem/NewHavenMapSystem%282%29.pdf, a map of downtown stops can be seen here http://www.cttransit.com/uploads_RTDivisionDetail/NH_inset%282%29.pdf, and a list of schedules can be seen here http://www.cttransit.com/RoutesSchedules/Display.asp?DivID={2F26F128-0D02-4B72-B7E2-4F47AF926BDC}.

CT Transit's Union Station Shuttle provides free service from Union Station to the New Haven Green and several New Haven parking garages. Peter Pan
Peter Pan Bus Lines
Peter Pan Bus Lines is a long-distance bus carrier headquartered in Springfield, Massachusetts. It operates in the northeastern United States. Over four million passengers per year travel on Peter Pan's bus routes....

 and Greyhound
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 bus lines have scheduled stops at Union Station and connections downtown can be made via the Union Station Shuttle. A private company operates the New Haven/Hartford Express which provides commuter bus service to Hartford. The Yale University Shuttle provides free transportation around New Haven for Yale students, faculty, and staff.

The New Haven Division buses follow routes that had originally been covered by trolley service. Horse-drawn steetcars
Horsecar
A horsecar or horse-drawn tram is an animal-powered streetcar or tram.These early forms of public transport developed out of industrial haulage routes that had long been in existence, and from the omnibus routes that first ran on public streets in the 1820s, using the newly improved iron or steel...

 began operating in New Haven in the 1860s, and by the mid-1890s, all the lines had become electric. In the 1920s and 1930s, some of the trolley lines began to be replaced by bus lines, with the last trolley route converted to bus in 1948. The City of New Haven is in the very early stages of considering the restoration of streetcar (light-rail) service, which has been absent since the postwar period.

Bicycle


The Farmington Canal Trail
Farmington Canal Trail
The Farmington Canal Heritage Trail is an 80-mile multi-use rail trail located in Connecticut and Massachusetts.It follows the abandoned north-south right-of-way of the former New Haven and Northampton Company...

 is a rail trail
Rail trail
A rail trail is the conversion of a disused railway easement into a multi-use path, typically for walking, cycling and sometimes horse riding. The characteristics of former tracks—flat, long, frequently running through historical areas—are appealing for various development. The term sometimes also...

 that will eventually run continuously from downtown New Haven to Northampton, Massachusetts
Northampton, Massachusetts
The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of Northampton's central neighborhoods, was 28,549...

. The scenic trail follows the path of the historic New Haven and Northampton Company and the Farmington Canal
Farmington Canal
The Farmington Canal, also known as the New Haven and Northampton Canal, was a major private canal built in the early 19th century to provide water transportation from New Haven into the interior of Connecticut, Massachusetts and beyond. Its Massachusetts segment was known as the Hampshire and...

. Currently, there is a continuous 14 miles (22.5 km) stretch of the trail from downtown, through Hamden
Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The town's nickname is "The Land of the Sleeping Giant." Hamden is home to Quinnipiac University. The population was 58,180 according to the Census Bureau's 2005 estimates...

 and into Cheshire, making bicycle commuting
Bicycle commuting
Bicycle commuting is the use of a bicycle to travel from home to a place of work or study — in contrast to the use of a bicycle for sport, recreation or touring....

 between New Haven and those suburbs possible. The trail is part of the East Coast Greenway
East Coast Greenway
The East Coast Greenway, or ECG, is a project to create a nearly urban path linking the major cities of the Atlantic coast of the United States, from Calais, Maine, to Key West, Florida, for non-motorized human transportation...

, a proposed 3000 miles (4,828 km) bike path that would link every major city on the East Coast
East Coast of the United States
The East Coast of the United States, also known as the Eastern Seaboard, refers to the easternmost coastal states in the United States, which touch the Atlantic Ocean and stretch up to Canada. The term includes the U.S...

 from Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 to Maine
Maine
Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south, New Hampshire to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the northwest and New Brunswick to the northeast. Maine is both the northernmost and easternmost...

.

In 2004, a bike lane was added to Orange Street, connecting East Rock Park
East Rock Park
East Rock Park is a park in the city of New Haven and the town of Hamden, Connecticut that is operated as a New Haven city park. The park surrounds and includes the mountainous ridge named East Rock and was developed with naturalistic landscaping....

 and the East Rock
East Rock (neighborhood)
East Rock is a neighborhood in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, named for nearby East Rock, a prominent trap rock ridge. The area is home to a large group of Yale students, staff, and faculty, as well as many young professionals and families. The neighborhood is divided between New Haven's...

 neighborhood to downtown. The city has created recommended bike routes for getting around New Haven, including use of the Canal Trail and the Orange Street lane—a bike map of the city entire can be seen here http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/EnvironmentalInitiatives/Greenways/BikeMap_Front.pdf and bike maps broken down by area here http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/EnvironmentalInitiatives/Greenways/BikeMap_Back.pdf.

The city has plans to create two additional bike lanes connecting Union Station with downtown, and the Westville neighborhood with downtown. The city is currently adding dozens of covered bike parking
Bicycle parking
Bicycle parking involves the infrastructure and equipment to enable secure and convenient parking of bicycles...

 spots at Union Station, in order to facilitate more bike commuting to the station.

Major highways



New Haven lies at the intersection of Interstate 95 on the coast - which provides access southwards and/or westwards to the western coast of Connecticut and to New York City, and eastwards to the eastern Connecticut shoreline, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
The state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, more commonly referred to as Rhode Island , is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area...

, and eastern Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

 - and Interstate 91
Interstate 91
Interstate 91 is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of New England...

, which leads northward to the interior of Massachusetts and Vermont
Vermont
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state ranks 43rd in land area, , and 45th in total area. Its population according to the 2010 census, 630,337, is the second smallest in the country, larger only than Wyoming. It is the only New England...

 and the Canadian border. I-95 is infamous for traffic jams increasing with proximity to New York City; on the east side of New Haven it passes over the Quinnipiac River
Quinnipiac River
The Quinnipiac River is a river in the New England region of the United States, located entirely in the state of Connecticut.It rises in west central Connecticut from Dead Wood Swamp west of the city of New Britain...

 via the Pearl Harbor Memorial, or "Q Bridge", which often presents a major bottleneck to traffic. I-91, however, is relatively less congested, except at the intersection with I-95 during peak travel times.

The Oak Street Connector
Oak Street Connector
The Oak Street Connector, officially known as the Richard C. Lee Highway, is a long freeway section of Route 34 that is located in downtown New Haven, Connecticut...

 (Route 34
Route 34 (Connecticut)
Route 34 is a primary state highway in the U.S. state of Connecticut. Route 34 is long, and extends from Washington Street near I-84/US 6 in Newtown to the junction of I-95 and I-91 in New Haven. The highways connects the New Haven and Danbury areas via the Lower Naugatuck River Valley...

) intersects I-91 at exit 1, just south of the I-95/I-91 interchange, and runs northwest for a few blocks as an expressway spur into downtown before emptying onto surface roads. The Wilbur Cross Parkway
Wilbur Cross Parkway
The Wilbur Cross Parkway is a limited access road in Connecticut, comprising the portion of Route 15 between Milford and Meriden. It is named after Wilbur Lucius Cross, a former governor of the state...

 (Route 15
Route 15 (Connecticut)
Route 15 is a state highway in the U.S. state of Connecticut that runs from a connection with New York's Hutchinson River Parkway in Greenwich, Connecticut to its northern terminus intersecting with Interstate 84 in East Hartford, Connecticut...

) runs parallel to I-95 west of New Haven, turning northwards as it nears the city and then running northwards parallel to I-91 through the outer rim of New Haven, and Hamden
Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The town's nickname is "The Land of the Sleeping Giant." Hamden is home to Quinnipiac University. The population was 58,180 according to the Census Bureau's 2005 estimates...

, offering an alternative to the I-95/I-91 journey (restricted to non-commercial vehicles). Route 15 in New Haven is also the site of the only highway tunnel in the state (officially designated as Heroes Tunnel
Heroes Tunnel
Heroes Tunnel is a 1,200-foot-long, twin-tube tunnel carrying the Wilbur Cross Parkway through West Rock Ridge in New Haven, Connecticut...

), running through West Rock, home to West Rock Park and the Three Judges Cave.

In addition to these expressways, the city also has several major surface arteries. U.S. Route 1 (Columbus Avenue, Union Avenue, Water Street, Forbes Avenue) runs in an east-west direction south of downtown serving Union Station
Union Station (New Haven)
Union Station, also known as New Haven Railroad Station, is the main railroad passenger station in New Haven, Connecticut. Designed by noted American architect Cass Gilbert, the beaux-arts Union Station was completed and opened in 1920 after the previous Union Station was...

 and leading out of the city to Milford
Milford, Connecticut
Milford is a coastal city in southwestern New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, located between Bridgeport and New Haven. The population was 52,759 at the 2010 census...

, West Haven
West Haven, Connecticut
West Haven is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 52,721.-History:...

, East Haven
East Haven, Connecticut
East Haven is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the town population was 28,189. The town is just 3 minutes from downtown New Haven...

 and Branford
Branford, Connecticut
-Landmarks and attractions:Branford has six historic districts that are listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places . These include buildings in Federal, Arts and Crafts, and Queen Anne styles of architecture...

. The main road from downtown heading northwest is Whalley Avenue (partly signed as Route 10 and Route 63
Route 63 (Connecticut)
Route 63 is a secondary state highway in the U.S. state of Connecticut, from New Haven up to Canaan, running for . It connects the Greater New Haven area to Northwestern Connecticut via the western suburbs of Waterbury.-Route description:...

) leading to Westville and Woodbridge
Woodbridge, Connecticut
Woodbridge is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 8,983 at the 2000 census. It is one of the wealthiest towns in Connecticut, ranking 16th in the state in terms of per capita income, and is home to many of the faculty of Yale University...

. Heading north towards Hamden
Hamden, Connecticut
Hamden is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The town's nickname is "The Land of the Sleeping Giant." Hamden is home to Quinnipiac University. The population was 58,180 according to the Census Bureau's 2005 estimates...

, there are two major thoroughfares, Dixwell Avenue and Whitney Avenue. To the northeast are Middletown Avenue (Route 17
Route 17 (Connecticut)
Route 17 is a primary north–south state route beginning in New Haven, through Middletown, and ending in Glastonbury, with a length of .-Route description:...

), which leads to the Montowese section of North Haven, and Foxon Boulevard (Route 80
Route 80 (Connecticut)
Route 80 is a long secondary east–west state route in Connecticut from New Haven to Deep River. It serves as a more inland alternate route to US 1 in eastern New Haven County and Middlesex County.-Route description:...

), which leads to the Foxon section of East Haven and to the town of North Branford
North Branford, Connecticut
North Branford is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 13,906 at the 2000 census.-Geography:According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.6 square miles , of which 24.9 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water...

. To the west is Route 34
Route 34 (Connecticut)
Route 34 is a primary state highway in the U.S. state of Connecticut. Route 34 is long, and extends from Washington Street near I-84/US 6 in Newtown to the junction of I-95 and I-91 in New Haven. The highways connects the New Haven and Danbury areas via the Lower Naugatuck River Valley...

, which leads to the city of Derby
Derby, Connecticut
Derby is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 12,391 at the 2000 census. With of land area, Derby is Connecticut's smallest municipality.The city has a Metro-North railroad station called Derby – Shelton.-History:...

. Other major intracity arteries are Ella Grasso Boulevard (Route 10) west of downtown, and College Street, Temple Street, Church Street, Elm Street, and Grove Street in the downtown area.

Traffic safety is a major concern for drivers, pedestrians and cyclists in New Haven. In addition to many traffic-related fatalities in the city each year, since 2005, over a dozen Yale
YALE
RapidMiner, formerly YALE , is an environment for machine learning, data mining, text mining, predictive analytics, and business analytics. It is used for research, education, training, rapid prototyping, application development, and industrial applications...

 students, staff and faculty have been killed or injured in traffic collisions on or near the campus.

Airport


Tweed New Haven Regional Airport is located within the city limits three miles (5 km) east of the business district, and provides daily service through US Airways
US Airways
US Airways, Inc. is a major airline based in the U.S. city of Tempe, Arizona. The airline is an operating unit of US Airways Group and is the sixth largest airline by traffic and eighth largest by market value in the country....

. Bus service between Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven
Downtown New Haven is the neighborhood located in the heart of the city of New Haven, Connecticut. It is made up of the original nine squares laid out in 1638 to form New Haven, including the New Haven Green, and the immediate surrounding central business district, as well as a significant portion...

 and Tweed is available via the CT Transit New Haven Division 'Bus G'. Taxi service and rental cars (including service by Hertz, Avis
Avis Rent A Car System
Avis Rent a Car System, LLC is a car rental company headquartered in Parsippany-Troy Hills Township, New Jersey, United States. Avis, Budget Rent a Car and Budget Truck Rental are all units of Avis Budget Group....

, Enterprise
Enterprise Rent-A-Car
Enterprise Holdings, Inc. is a privately held company formed in 2009 to operate rental car subsidiaries: Enterprise Rent-A-Car, National Car Rental, Alamo Rent A Car, WeCar and its commercial fleet management, used car sales, and commercial truck rental operations.Enterprise Holdings was formed as...

 and Budget
Budget Rent a Car
Budget Rent a Car System, Inc. is an American car rental company that was founded in 1958 in Los Angeles, California by Morris Mirkin. Budget's operations are headquartered in Parsippany-Troy Hills Township, New Jersey....

) are available at the airport. Travel time from Tweed to downtown takes less than 15 minutes by car.

Seaport



New Haven Harbor
New Haven Harbor
New Haven Harbor is an inlet on the north side of Long Island Sound in the state of Connecticut in the United States. The harbor area is an inlet carved by the retreat of the glaciers during the last ice age approximately 13,000 years ago....

 is home to The Port of New Haven, a deep-water seaport with three berths capable of hosting vessels and barges as well as the facilities required to handle break-bulk cargo. The port has the capacity to load 200 trucks a day from the ground or via loading docks. Rail transportation access is available, with a private switch engine for yard movements and private siding for loading and unloading. Approximately 400000 square feet (37,161.2 m²) of inside storage and 50 acres (202,343 m²) of outside storage are available at the site. Five shore cranes with a 250-ton capacity and 26 forklifts, each with a 26-ton capacity, are also available.

Power supply facilities


Electricity for New Haven is generated by 448 MW oil and gas-fired generating station located on the shore at New Haven Harbor. In addition, Pennsylvania Power and Light (PPL) Inc. operates a 220 MW peaking natural gas turbine plant in nearby Wallingford.
Near New Haven there is the static inverter plant
Static inverter plant
A static inverter station, also known as an HVDC Converter Station, is the terminal equipment for a high-voltage direct-current transmission line, in which direct current is converted to three-phase alternating current, and, usually, the reverse...

 of the HVDC Cross Sound Cable
Cross Sound Cable
The Cross Sound Cable is a long bipolar high-voltage direct current submarine power cable between New Haven, Connecticut, USA and Shoreham, Long Island New York , USA. The Cross Sound Cable can transmit a maximum power of 330 MW at a voltage of +/- 150 kV DC. The maximum current for Cross Sound...

.

Sister cities



Afula-Gilboa
Afula
Afula is a city in the North District of Israel, often known as the "Capital of the Valley", referring to the Jezreel Valley. The city had a population of 40,500 at the end of 2009.-History:...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 Amalfi
Amalfi
Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, c. 35 km southeast of Naples. It lies at the mouth of a deep ravine, at the foot of Monte Cerreto , surrounded by dramatic cliffs and coastal scenery...

, Italy Avignon
Avignon
Avignon is a French commune in southeastern France in the départment of the Vaucluse bordered by the left bank of the Rhône river. Of the 94,787 inhabitants of the city on 1 January 2010, 12 000 live in the ancient town centre surrounded by its medieval ramparts.Often referred to as the...

, France Freetown, Sierra Leone Hue, Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 León, Nicaragua
León, Nicaragua
León is a department in northwestern Nicaragua . It is also the second largest city in Nicaragua, after Managua. It was founded by the Spaniards as Santiago de los Caballeros de León and rivals Granada, Nicaragua, in the number of historic Spanish colonial homes and churches...



Some of these were selected because of historical connection — Freetown because of the Amistad trial. Others, such as Amalfi and Afula-Gilboa, reflect ethnic groups in New Haven.

In 1990, the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 named New Haven a "Peace Messenger City
United Nations Peace Messenger Cities
United Nations Peace Messenger Cities are cities around the world that have volunteered for an initiative sponsored by the United Nations to promote peace and understanding between nations....

".

Literature

  • Leonard Bacon, Thirteen Historical Discourses, (New Haven, 1839)
  • C. H. Hoadley (editor), Records of the Colony of New Haven, 1638–1665, (two volumes, Hartford, 1857–58)
  • J. W. Barber, History and Antiquities of New Haven, (third edition, New Haven, 1870)
  • C. H. Levermore, Town and City Government of New Haven, (Baltimore, 1886)
  • C. H. Levermore, Republic of New Haven: A History of Municipal Evolution, (Baltimore, 1886)
  • E. S. Bartlett, Historical Sketches of New Haven, (New Haven, 1897)
  • F. H. Cogswell, "New Haven" in L. P. Powell (editor), Historic Towns of New England, (New York, 1898)
  • H. T. Blake, Chronicles of New Haven Green, (New Haven, 1898)
  • E. E. Atwater, History of the Colony of New Haven, (New edition, New Haven, 1902)
  • Robert A. Dahl
    Robert A. Dahl
    Robert Alan Dahl , is the Sterling Professor emeritus of political science at Yale University, where he earned his Ph.D. in political science in 1940. He is past president of the American Political Science Association...

    , Who Governs? Democracy and Power in An American City
    Who Governs?
    Who Governs? is an influential book in American political science by Robert Dahl. It was published in 1961 by Yale University Press. Dahl's work is a case study of political power and representation in New Haven, Connecticut...

     
    (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1961)
  • Douglas W. Rae, City: Urbanism and Its End, (New Haven, 2003)
  • New Haven City Yearbooks
  • Michael Sletcher, New Haven: From Puritanism to the Age of Terrorism, (Charleston, 2004)
  • William Lee Miller, The Fifteenth Ward and the Great Society, (Houghton Mifflin/Riverside, 1966)
  • Preston C. Maynard and Majorey B. Noyes, (editors), "Carriages and Clocks, Corsets and Locks: the Rise and Fall of an Industrial City-New Haven, Connecticut" (University Press of New England, 2005.)

See also


  • Other articles about people and places in New Haven, CT.
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut
    National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut
    This is a list of National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven, Connecticut.This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, United States...

  • New Haven Fire Department
    New Haven Fire Department
    The city of New Haven, Connecticut is protected full-time by the 350 professional firefighters and paramedics of the City of New Haven Fire Department...

  • New Haven Police Department
    New Haven Police Department
    The New Haven Police Department is the law enforcement agency responsible for the city of New Haven, Connecticut.-Civilian Workforce:In addition to sworn officers, the department employs civilian employees for administrative functions funded partly by the Community Oriented Policing Services...


External links