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Neville Cardus

Neville Cardus

Overview

Sir John Frederick Neville Cardus CBE
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions...

 (3 April 1888 – 28 February 1975) was an English writer and critic, best known for his writing on music and cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

. For many years, he wrote for The Manchester Guardian
The Guardian
The Guardian, formerly known as The Manchester Guardian , is a British national daily newspaper in the Berliner format...

. He was untrained in music, and his style of criticism was subjective, romantic and personal, in contrast with his critical contemporary Ernest Newman
Ernest Newman
Ernest Newman was an English music critic and musicologist. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians describes him as "the most celebrated British music critic in the first half of the 20th century." His style of criticism, aiming at intellectual objectivity in contrast to the more subjective...

. Before becoming a cricket writer, he had been a cricket coach at a boys' school.
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Sir John Frederick Neville Cardus CBE
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions...

 (3 April 1888 – 28 February 1975) was an English writer and critic, best known for his writing on music and cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

. For many years, he wrote for The Manchester Guardian
The Guardian
The Guardian, formerly known as The Manchester Guardian , is a British national daily newspaper in the Berliner format...

. He was untrained in music, and his style of criticism was subjective, romantic and personal, in contrast with his critical contemporary Ernest Newman
Ernest Newman
Ernest Newman was an English music critic and musicologist. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians describes him as "the most celebrated British music critic in the first half of the 20th century." His style of criticism, aiming at intellectual objectivity in contrast to the more subjective...

. Before becoming a cricket writer, he had been a cricket coach at a boys' school. His writing about the game was innovative, turning what had previously been in general a purely factual form into vivid description and criticism.

Early years


Cardus was born in Rusholme
Rusholme
-Etymology:Rusholme, unlike other areas of Manchester which have '-holme' in the place name is not a true '-holme'. Its name came from ryscum, which is the dative plural of Old English rysc "rush": "[at the] rushes"...

, Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

. His year of birth has been the subject of much conjecture. His biographer, Christopher Brookes, and Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians record the year as 1889, and Cardus himself celebrated his 70th birthday with a luncheon for a large number of guests at the Royal Festival Hall
Royal Festival Hall
The Royal Festival Hall is a 2,900-seat concert, dance and talks venue within Southbank Centre in London. It is situated on the South Bank of the River Thames, not far from Hungerford Bridge. It is a Grade I listed building - the first post-war building to become so protected...

 in April 1959. Both The Times
The Times
The Times is a British daily national newspaper, first published in London in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register . The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary since 1981 of News International...

and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography give 1888 as the correct year. A "centenary collection" of his music writing was published in 1988. Cardus wrote two volumes of autobiography and avoided mentioning the year of his birth in either. His birth was, in fact, registered in the June Quarter of 1888 in Chorlton District, Lancashire
Lancashire
Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Although Lancaster is still considered to be the county town, Lancashire County Council is based in Preston...

. His mother Ada (1870–1954) married John Frederick Newsham in the September Quarter of 1888 in Chorlton District. In the 1891 Census, Ada Newsham is shown living with her parents Robert and Ann Cardus and her son, "Frederick Newsham", aged 3 in Rusholme, Lancashire. Also living there is Beatrice (Ada's sister). In his autobiography Cardus mentions "Aunt Beatrice". He was illegitimate and never knew his father. He lived with his mother, who was described as a "genteel prostitute", and his maternal grandparents. His grandfather was an ex-policeman.

After attending a local board school
School board (England & Wales)
School boards were public bodies in England and Wales between 1870 and 1902, which established and administered elementary schools.School boards were created in boroughs and parishes under the Elementary Education Act 1870 following campaigning by George Dixon, Joseph Chamberlain and the National...

 for five years, Cardus left at age 13 and took on various jobs before being employed as a clerk in a marine insurance
Marine insurance
Marine insurance covers the loss or damage of ships, cargo, terminals, and any transport or cargo by which property is transferred, acquired, or held between the points of origin and final destination....

 firm in December 1904. In his spare time, he read widely and became self-taught in literature, philosophy, and the arts. Admiring the critics who wrote about music and theatre for The Manchester Guardian
The Guardian
The Guardian, formerly known as The Manchester Guardian , is a British national daily newspaper in the Berliner format...

, he consciously attempted to adopt their writing style. From his earliest years, Cardus was drawn by the twin attractions of cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 and music. In 1912, he was appointed assistant cricket coach (to Walter Attewell and, later, Ted Wainwright
Ted Wainwright
Ted Wainwright was an English first-class cricketer, who played in 352 first-class matches for Yorkshire County Cricket Club between 1888 and 1902. An all-rounder, Wainwright helped to establish the county at the top under Lord Hawke's captaincy, during the early years of County Championship cricket...

) at Shrewsbury School
Shrewsbury School
Shrewsbury School is a co-educational independent school for pupils aged 13 to 18, founded by Royal Charter in 1552. The present campus to which the school moved in 1882 is located on the banks of the River Severn in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England...

 in Shropshire
Shropshire
Shropshire is a county in the West Midlands region of England. For Eurostat purposes, the county is a NUTS 3 region and is one of four counties or unitary districts that comprise the "Shropshire and Staffordshire" NUTS 2 region. It borders Wales to the west...

. There, he came under the influence of the headmaster, Cyril Alington
Cyril Alington
Cyril Argentine Alington was an English educationalist, scholar, cleric, and prolific author. He was the headmaster of both Shrewsbury School and Eton College. He also served as chaplain to King George V and as Dean of Durham....

, who appointed him as his secretary in 1914.

Cricket and music critic


When Alington moved to Eton
Eton College
Eton College, often referred to simply as Eton, is a British independent school for boys aged 13 to 18. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as "The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor"....

 in 1916, Cardus also moved on. Rejected for military service in World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 because of his short-sightedness, and otherwise unemployed, Cardus briefly wrote for the socialist paper The Daily Citizen. He successfully applied for a junior post on the staff of The Manchester Guardian, now calling himself Neville (he had hitherto been known as "Fred"). His articles were attributed to "NC". The editor, C. P. Scott
C. P. Scott
Charles Prestwich Scott was a British journalist, publisher and politician. Born in Bath, Somerset, he was the editor of the Manchester Guardian from 1872 until 1929 and its owner from 1907 until his death...

, recognised Cardus's talent and rapidly promoted him to the post of second-string theatre critic, and in 1919 he became the paper's cricket correspondent. On 17 June 1921 at Chorlton, Manchester
Chorlton-cum-Hardy
Chorlton-cum-Hardy is a suburban area of the city of Manchester, England. It is known locally as Chorlton. It is situated about four miles southwest of Manchester city centre. Pronunciation varies: and are both common....

, Cardus married teacher Edith Honorine Walton King (1881–1968). Cardus recounted in his autobiography that he went to the opening overs
Over (cricket)
In the sport of cricket, an over is a set of six consecutive balls bowled in succession. An over is normally bowled by a single bowler. However, in the event of injury preventing a bowler from completing an over, it is completed by a teammate....

 of the Lancashire
Lancashire County Cricket Club
Lancashire County Cricket Club represents the historic county of Lancashire in cricket's County Championship. The club was founded in 1864 as a successor to Manchester Cricket Club and has played at Old Trafford since then...

 v Yorkshire
Yorkshire County Cricket Club
Yorkshire County Cricket Club represents the historic county of Yorkshire as one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English and Welsh domestic cricket structure....

 cricket match, left the ground
Cricket field
A cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground on which the game of cricket is played. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet to 500 feet...

 to go to his wedding ceremony, and returned in time to see the pre-lunch overs, to find that Lancashire had added 17 runs to their score in his absence. Cardus described his wife as "a great spirit and character, born for sisterhood not marriage".

In 1927, Cardus became the paper’s principal music critic, after Samuel Langford
Samuel Langford
Samuel Langford was an influential English music critic of the early twentieth century.Trained as a pianist, Langford became chief music critic of The Manchester Guardian in 1906, serving in that post until his death...

's death, and retained his cricket role. Cardus later said, "to be paid to watch cricket at Lord's in the afternoon and hear Lotte Lehmann
Lotte Lehmann
Charlotte "Lotte" Lehmann was a German soprano who was especially associated with German repertory. She gave memorable performances in the operas of Richard Strauss, Richard Wagner, Ludwig van Beethoven, Puccini, Mozart and Massenet. The Marschallin in Der Rosenkavalier was considered her greatest...

 as Strauss
Richard Strauss
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; and his tone poems and orchestral works, such as Death and Transfiguration, Till...

's Marschallin
Der Rosenkavalier
Der Rosenkavalier is a comic opera in three acts by Richard Strauss to an original German libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. It is loosely adapted from the novel Les amours du chevalier de Faublas by Louvet de Couvrai and Molière’s comedy Monsieur de Pourceaugnac...

 in the evening, was nothing less than an act of Providence". He attracted a wide readership, writing as "Cricketer". John Arlott
John Arlott
Leslie Thomas John Arlott OBE was an English journalist, author and cricket commentator for the BBC's Test Match Special. He was also a poet, wine connoisseur and former police officer in Hampshire...

 wrote: "Before him, cricket was reported ... with him it was for the first time appreciated, felt, and imaginatively described". His prose, rich with allusions to music and poetry, made folk heroes of the players. Similarly, his approach to music was intuitive and personal, rather than academic and technical. He covered concerts in London, Vienna and Salzburg
Salzburg
-Population development:In 1935, the population significantly increased when Salzburg absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was created for American soldiers of the postwar Occupation, and could be used for...

, and mixed socially with leading musicians and composers.

Australia


Cardus visited Australia to report on England's cricket tour of 1936–1937, later writing a book on the series titled Australian Summer. He visited the country again in 1938. At the onset of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, he feared losing his job so he accepted an offer from Sir Keith Murdoch
Keith Murdoch
Sir Keith Arthur Murdoch was an Australian journalist and the father of Rupert Murdoch, the CEO and Chairman of News Corp.-Life and career:Murdoch was born in Melbourne in 1885, the son of Annie and the Rev...

 to cover a tour of Australia by Sir Thomas Beecham
Thomas Beecham
Sir Thomas Beecham, 2nd Baronet CH was an English conductor and impresario best known for his association with the London Philharmonic and the Royal Philharmonic orchestras. He was also closely associated with the Liverpool Philharmonic and Hallé orchestras...

, arriving in February 1940. Employed by Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

's The Herald
Herald Sun
The Herald Sun is a morning tabloid newspaper based in Melbourne, Australia. It is published by The Herald and Weekly Times, a subsidiary of News Limited, itself a subsidiary of News Corporation. It is available for purchase throughout Melbourne, Regional Victoria, Tasmania, the Australian Capital...

, Cardus found that he could not review concerts for an evening paper, so he moved to Sydney
Sydney
Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

 to work for the Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily broadsheet newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia. The newspaper is published six days a week. The newspaper's Sunday counterpart, The...

. He helped to lift the standard of musical criticism in Australia.

On Australian Broadcasting Corporation Radio
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly referred to as "the ABC" , is Australia's national public broadcaster...

, he hosted an hour-long programme, "The enjoyment of music", which enlarged the audience for classical music across the country. He also gave a weekly, ten-minute talk on music, illustrated by records, for the children's Argonauts Club
Argonauts Club
The Argonauts Club was an Australian children's radio program, first broadcast in 1933 on ABC Radio in Melbourne. Its format was devised by Nina Murdoch who had run the station's Children's Hour on 3LO and stayed on when that station was taken over by the Australian Broadcasting Commission...

 programme and regularly wrote on music and cricket for the ABC Weekly. Early in 1942, Cardus rented a small flat at Kings Cross, New South Wales
Kings Cross, New South Wales
Kings Cross is an inner-city locality of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is located approximately 2 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Sydney...

 where he was joined by his wife. There he wrote Ten Composers (1945), an autobiography (1947), and Second Innings (1950).

Later years


Cardus left Sydney in 1949 and returned to London. There being no job for him at The Manchester Guardian he wrote for The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times
The Sunday Times is a British Sunday newspaper.The Sunday Times may also refer to:*The Sunday Times *The Sunday Times *The Sunday Times *The Sunday Times...

, covering the 1948 Ashes
The Ashes
The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia. It is one of the most celebrated rivalries in international cricket and dates back to 1882. It is currently played biennially, alternately in the United Kingdom and Australia. Cricket being a summer sport, and the venues...

 series and was encouraged to believe that the paper's long-standing chief music critic, Ernest Newman
Ernest Newman
Ernest Newman was an English music critic and musicologist. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians describes him as "the most celebrated British music critic in the first half of the 20th century." His style of criticism, aiming at intellectual objectivity in contrast to the more subjective...

, who was 80, would soon be retiring, leaving a vacancy for Cardus. Newman did not retire, however, and Cardus moved to the Evening Standard
Evening Standard
The Evening Standard, now styled the London Evening Standard, is a free local daily newspaper, published Monday–Friday in tabloid format in London. It is the dominant regional evening paper for London and the surrounding area, with coverage of national and international news and City of London...

, where he was soon unhappy at the shortage of space allocated to his music reviews. He rejoined The Manchester Guardian in 1951 as its London music critic and occasional cricket writer. He toured Australia to cover England's cricket tours of 1950–1951 and 1954–1955.

He continued to write for The Guardian for the rest of his life and also wrote some articles for The Sunday Times after Newman's death. He died peacefully in his sleep shortly before his 87th birthday.

Reputation, honours and legacy


"Slight, lean and bespectacled, with a gnome-like appearance in his last years, Cardus was a familiar sight at Lord's or the Garrick Club
Garrick Club
The Garrick Club is a gentlemen's club in London.-History:The Garrick Club was founded at a meeting in the Committee Room at Theatre Royal, Drury Lane on Wednesday 17 August 1831...

, pipe in mouth and book under arm". Roger Covell
Roger Covell
Roger David Covell AM is an eminent Australian musicologist, critic and author. He is Professor Emeritus in the School of English, Media and Performing Arts at the University of New South Wales, in Sydney, and continues to contribute articles and reviews to the Sydney Morning Herald, where he...

 called him "a marvellous raconteur and monologuist with his all-weather overcoat". Cardus was never an "establishment" figure. Rupert Hart-Davis
Rupert Hart-Davis
Sir Rupert Charles Hart-Davis was an English publisher, editor and man of letters. He founded the publishing company Rupert Hart-Davis Ltd...

 and G. W. Lyttelton
George William Lyttelton
The Hon George William Lyttelton was a British teacher and littérateur. Known in his lifetime as an inspiring teacher of classics and English literature at Eton, and an avid sportsman and sports writer, he became known to a wider audience with the posthumous publication of his letters, which...

 encountered strong resistance when they sought to get him elected as a member of the Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club in London founded in 1787. Its influence and longevity now witness it as a private members' club dedicated to the development of cricket. It owns, and is based at, Lord's Cricket Ground in St John's Wood, London NW8. MCC was formerly the governing body of...

, and Cardus himself came to feel like an outsider at The Guardian. However, he was always highly regarded by professional cricketers (like Donald Bradman
Donald Bradman
Sir Donald George Bradman, AC , often referred to as "The Don", was an Australian cricketer, widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of all time...

) and by the greatest musicians: he managed to maintain close friendships with Sir Thomas Beecham
Thomas Beecham
Sir Thomas Beecham, 2nd Baronet CH was an English conductor and impresario best known for his association with the London Philharmonic and the Royal Philharmonic orchestras. He was also closely associated with the Liverpool Philharmonic and Hallé orchestras...

 and Sir John Barbirolli
John Barbirolli
Sir John Barbirolli, CH was an English conductor and cellist. Born in London, of Italian and French parentage, he grew up in a family of professional musicians. His father and grandfather were violinists...

, though the two conductors cordially disliked one another.

Cardus was awarded the Wagner
Richard Wagner
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, conductor, theatre director, philosopher, music theorist, poet, essayist and writer primarily known for his operas...

 Medal of the City of Bayreuth in 1963. He was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions...

 (CBE) in 1964, knight
Knight
A knight was a member of a class of lower nobility in the High Middle Ages.By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior....

ed in 1967, became an honorary member of the Royal Manchester College of Music
Royal Northern College of Music
The Royal Northern College of Music is a music school in Manchester, England. It is located on Oxford Road in Chorlton on Medlock, at the western edge of the campus of the University of Manchester and is one of four conservatories associated with the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music...

 in 1968 and an honorary member of the Royal Academy of Music
Royal Academy of Music
The Royal Academy of Music in London, England, is a conservatoire, Britain's oldest degree-granting music school and a constituent college of the University of London since 1999. The Academy was founded by Lord Burghersh in 1822 with the help and ideas of the French harpist and composer Nicolas...

 in 1972. His most personally valued honour was the presidency (1971–1972) of the Lancashire County Cricket Club
Lancashire County Cricket Club
Lancashire County Cricket Club represents the historic county of Lancashire in cricket's County Championship. The club was founded in 1864 as a successor to Manchester Cricket Club and has played at Old Trafford since then...

.

Cardus's books include: A Cricketer’s Book, 1921; Days in the Sun, 1924; ed. Musical Criticisms of Samuel Langford, 1929; The Summer Game, 1929; Cricket, 1930; Good Days, 1934; Australian Summer 1937; Music for Pleasure, 1942; English Cricket, 1945; Ten Composers, 1945 (translated into Swedish, 1947, and Japanese, 1964); Autobiography, 1947; The Essential Neville Cardus, ed. Rupert Hart-Davis, 1949, revised edition published as Cardus on Cricket: A Selection from the Cricket Writings of Sir Neville Cardus, ed. and introduced by Hart-Davis, 1977; Second Innings: More Autobiography, 1950; Cricket All the Year, 1952; ed. Kathleen Ferrier Memorial Book, 1954; Close of Play, 1956; Talking of Music, 1957; A Composer’s XI, 1958 (German trans. 1961); Sir Thomas Beecham: A Memoir, 1961; The Playfair Cardus, 1963; Gustav Mahler: His Mind and his Music, Vol. I, 1965; The Delights of Music: A Critic's Choice, 1966; Full Score, 1970; What Is Music?, ed. Margaret Hughes
Margaret Hughes (sportswriter)
Margaret Patricia Hughes was a sportswriter.Her first book, All On A Summer's Day , was described by Neville Cardus in his foreword to the book as "the first book on first-class cricket not written by a man"....

, 1977; Cardus in the Covers, 1978; Play Resumed with Cardus, 1979; A Fourth Innings with Cardus, 1981; The Roses Matches (1919-1939), 1982; Cardus on Music: A Centenary Collection, 1988.

After his death, Alan Gibson
Alan Gibson
Norman Alan Stanley Gibson was an English journalist, writer and radio broadcaster, best known for his work in connection with cricket, though he also sometimes covered football and rugby union...

 summed up Cardus's impact on cricket, writing:
"All cricket writers of the last half century have been influenced by Cardus, whether they admit it or not, whether they have wished to be or not, whether they have tried to copy him or tried to avoid copying him. He was not a model, any more than Macaulay, say, was a model for the aspiring historian. But just as Macaulay changed the course of the writing of history, Cardus changed the course of the writing of cricket. He showed what could be done. He dignified and illuminated the craft".


As a music critic, Cardus was the opposite of Ernest Newman's objective school of musical criticism. Cardus's romantic, instinctive response to music was in contrast with Newman's intellectual, analytical approach. A fellow critic wrote that Newman "probed into Music's vitals, put her head under deep X-ray and analysed cell-tissue. Cardus laid his head against her bosom and listened to the beating of her heart." Despite their different approaches, the two writers held each other in considerable regard. Yehudi Menuhin
Yehudi Menuhin
Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, OM, KBE was a Russian Jewish American violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in the United Kingdom. He was born to Russian Jewish parents in the United States, but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1970, and of the United Kingdom in 1985...

 wrote that Cardus "reminds us that there is an understanding of the heart as well as of the mind... in Neville Cardus, the artist has an ally".

The best of Cardus's cricket pieces were published in several volumes by Rupert Hart-Davis, but much of his writing on music – which he himself regarded as his more important work – has not been reprinted in book form. One attempt to fill this gap was Cardus on Music: A Centenary Collection edited by Donald Wright, published by Hamish Hamilton in 1988. When Cardus died on 28 February 1975, his obituary article in The Guardian was written by no fewer than three eminent writers: J. B. Priestley
J. B. Priestley
John Boynton Priestley, OM , known as J. B. Priestley, was an English novelist, playwright and broadcaster. He published 26 novels, notably The Good Companions , as well as numerous dramas such as An Inspector Calls...

, Hugo Cole, and John Arlott
John Arlott
Leslie Thomas John Arlott OBE was an English journalist, author and cricket commentator for the BBC's Test Match Special. He was also a poet, wine connoisseur and former police officer in Hampshire...

. More than 720 people attended his memorial service at St Paul's, Covent Garden
St Paul's, Covent Garden
St Paul's Church, also commonly known as the Actors' Church, is a church designed by Inigo Jones as part of a commission by Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford in 1631 to create "houses and buildings fitt for the habitacons of Gentlemen and men of ability" in Covent Garden, London, England.As well...

.

External links