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Music of Pakistan

Music of Pakistan

Overview
The music of Pakistan includes diverse elements ranging from music from various parts of South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 as well as Central Asian
Music of Central Asia
Central Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian cultures. Central Asian music most often uses the pentatonic scale....

, Persian, Turkish, Arabic and modern day Western popular music
Popular music
Popular music belongs to any of a number of musical genres "having wide appeal" and is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional music, which are typically disseminated academically or orally to smaller, local...

 influences. With these multiple influences, a distinctive Pakistani sound has been formed.

In poetry
Poetry
Poetry is a form of literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning...

, the ghazal
is a poetic form consisting of couplet
Couplet
A couplet is a pair of lines of meter in poetry. It usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter.While traditionally couplets rhyme, not all do. A poem may use white space to mark out couplets if they do not rhyme. Couplets with a meter of iambic pentameter are called heroic...

s which share a rhyme
Rhyme
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds in two or more words and is most often used in poetry and songs. The word "rhyme" may also refer to a short poem, such as a rhyming couplet or other brief rhyming poem such as nursery rhymes.-Etymology:...

 and a refrain
Refrain
A refrain is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the "chorus" of a song...

. Each line must share the same meter.
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Encyclopedia
The music of Pakistan includes diverse elements ranging from music from various parts of South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 as well as Central Asian
Music of Central Asia
Central Asian music encompasses numerous different musical styles originating from a large number of Asian cultures. Central Asian music most often uses the pentatonic scale....

, Persian, Turkish, Arabic and modern day Western popular music
Popular music
Popular music belongs to any of a number of musical genres "having wide appeal" and is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional music, which are typically disseminated academically or orally to smaller, local...

 influences. With these multiple influences, a distinctive Pakistani sound has been formed.

Ghazal


In poetry
Poetry
Poetry is a form of literary art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its apparent meaning...

, the ghazal
is a poetic form consisting of couplet
Couplet
A couplet is a pair of lines of meter in poetry. It usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter.While traditionally couplets rhyme, not all do. A poem may use white space to mark out couplets if they do not rhyme. Couplets with a meter of iambic pentameter are called heroic...

s which share a rhyme
Rhyme
A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds in two or more words and is most often used in poetry and songs. The word "rhyme" may also refer to a short poem, such as a rhyming couplet or other brief rhyming poem such as nursery rhymes.-Etymology:...

 and a refrain
Refrain
A refrain is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the "chorus" of a song...

. Each line must share the same meter. Etymologically, the word literally refers to "the mortal cry of a gazelle
Gazelle
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella, or formerly considered to belong to it. Six species are included in two genera, Eudorcas and Nanger, which were formerly considered subgenera...

". The animal is called Ghizaal, from which the English word gazelles stems, or Kastori haran (where haran refers to deer) in Urdu. Ghazals are traditionally expressions of love, separation and loneliness, for which the gazelle is an appropriate image. A ghazal can thus be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation of the lover and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 10th century Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 verse. It is derived from the Persian qasida
Qasida
The qaṣīdaᵗ , in Arabic: قصيدة, plural qasā'id, قــصــائـد; in Persian: قصیده , is a form of lyric poetry that originated in preIslamic Arabia...

. The structural requirements of the ghazal are more stringent than those of most poetic forms traditionally written in English. In its style and content it is a genre which has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central theme of love and separation. It is considered by many to be one of the principal poetic forms the Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 civilization offered to the eastern Islamic world.

The ghazals can be sung both for men and women, as an expression of love/beauty.

The ghazal spread into South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 in the 12th century under the influence of the new Islamic Sultanate courts and Sufi mystics. Exotic to the region, as is indicated by the very sounds of the name itself when properly pronounced as ġazal. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Urdu poetry
Urdu poetry
Urdu poetry is a rich tradition of poetry and has many different types and forms. Borrowing much from the Persian language, it is today an important part of Pakistani and North Indian culture....

, today, it has influenced the poetry of many languages. Most Ghazal singers are trained in classical music and sing in either Khyal
Khyal
Khyal is the modern genre of classical singing in North India. Its name comes from an Arabic word meaning "imagination". It is thought to have developed out of the qawwali singing style. It appeared more recently than dhrupad, is a more free and flexible form, and it provides greater scope for...

 or Thumri
Thumri
Thumri is a common genre of semi-classical Indian music.The text is romantic or devotional in nature, and usually revolves around a girl's love for Krishna. The lyrics are usually in Uttar Pradesh dialects of Hindi called Poorbi and Brij Bhasha...

.

Famous classical composers and performers

  • Roshan Ara Begum
    Roshan Ara Begum
    Roshan Ara Begum became one of the most important woman in the history of Hindustani classical music. In Pakistan she is revered as Mallika-e-Mauseeqi or Queen of Music...

  • Abida Parveen
    Abida Parveen
    Abida Parveen , is a Pakistani singer of Sindhi descent and one of the foremost exponents of Sufi music . She sings mainly ghazals, Urdu love songs, and her forte, Kafis, a solo genre accompanied by percussion and harmonium, using a repertoire of songs by Sufi poets...

  • Ahmed Rushdi
    Ahmed Rushdi
    Ahmed Rushdi, SI, PP was a versatile Pakistani playback singer who worked in film music and was "an important contributor to the Golden Age of Pakistani film music." Rushdi is acclaimed as one of the greatest singers ever lived in south asia and was a natural baritone, yet could sing high tenor...

  • Amanat Ali Khan
    Amanat Ali Khan
    Ustad Amanat Ali Khan was a Pakistani classical/ghazal singer, from the Patiala gharana. He was honoured with the 'Pride of Performance' award by the government of Pakistan...

  • Farida Khanum
    Farida Khanum
    Farida Khanum is a Pakistani Ghazal singer from Punjab. The Times of India has called her "Malika-e-Ghazal" ....

  • Noor Jehan
    Noor Jehan
    Noorjehan or Noorjehan was the adopted stage name for Allah Wasai who was a legendary singer and actress in British India and Pakistan. Her career spanned seven decades...

  • Ghulam Ali
  • Iqbal Bano
    Iqbal Bano
    Iqbal Bano , PP was a highly acclaimed female Ghazal singer from Pakistan. She was best known for her semi-classical Urdu ghazal songs and classical thumris, but also sang easy-listening numbers in 1950s films....

  • Malika Pukhraj
    Malika Pukhraj
    Malika Pukhraj was a highly popular singer of Pakistan. She was generally called as "Malika" meaning "The Queen." She is extremely popular for her rendition of Hafeez Jalandhri's song, Abhi to main jawan hoon , which is enjoyed by millions not only in Pakistan, but also in India...

  • Munni Begum
    Munni Begum
    Munni Begum is a famous Pakistani ghazal Singer. Her real name is Nadira . She is based in Chicago, IL, USA.-Early life:Munni Begum was born in Murshidabad, West Bengal, India. The youngest child of seven children, she first started taking music lessons from the famous singer Ustad Khwaja Ghulam...

  • Mehdi Hassan
    Mehdi Hassan
    Mehdi Hassan is a Pakistani ghazal singer and a former playback singer for Lollywood. He is famously known as the 'King of ghazal' . He has ruled the Pakistan film industry along with Ahmed Rushdi...

  • Naheed Akhtar
    Naheed Akhtar
    Naheed Akhtar is a Pakistani playback singer. She was discovered by veteran musician M. Ashraf in the mid-1970s.Naheed Akhtar was a successful replacement for Runa Laila, who left Pakistan the same year. Her debut film was "Nanha Farishta" in 1974 and that year she climbed to the top with super...

  • Nayyara Noor
    Nayyara Noor
    Nayyara Noor is a Pakistani playback singer who is also considered one of the South Asia's foremost exponents in the Ghazal genre.-Biography:...

  • Tahira Syed
    Tahira Syed
    Tahira Syed is a Ghazal and folk singer in Pakistan. She is the daughter of vocalist Begum Malika Pukhraj, and was the former wife of Naeem Bokhari.- Music career :...

  • Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
  • Tina Sani
    Tina Sani
    Tina Sani is a Pakistani female singer renowned for her classical and semi-classical Urdu Ghazals.-Early life:Tina Sani was born in Dhaka, at the time East Pakistan. She studied in Kabul before moving to Karachi, where she earned a diploma in design...

  • Sabri Brothers
    Sabri Brothers
    The Sabri Brothers are a Qawwali party from Pakistan.-Original members:The Sabri Brothers originally consisted of Ghulam Farid Sabri , Maqbool Ahmed Sabri , Kamal Sabri The Sabri Brothers (Urdu: صابری برادران) are a Qawwali party from Pakistan.-Original members:The Sabri Brothers originally...

  • Aziz Mian
    Aziz Mian
    Aziz Mian Qawwal was one of Pakistan's leading traditional qawwals and also famous for singing ghazals in a unique style of qawwali. Aziz is still one of the most popular qawwals of South Asia...


Qawwali




Qawwali is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis
Chishti Order
The Chishtī Order is a Sufi order within the mystic branches of Islam which was founded in Chisht, a small town near Herat, Afghanistan about 930 CE. The Chishti Order is known for its emphasis on love, tolerance, and openness. The doctrine of the Chishti Order is based on walāya, which is a...

. Qawwali is a vibrant musical tradition that stretches back more than 700 years. Originally performed mainly at Sufi shrines throughout the subcontinent, it has also gained mainstream popularity. Qawwali music received international exposure through the work of the late Aziz Mian
Aziz Mian
Aziz Mian Qawwal was one of Pakistan's leading traditional qawwals and also famous for singing ghazals in a unique style of qawwali. Aziz is still one of the most popular qawwals of South Asia...

, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan and sabri brothers
Sabri Brothers
The Sabri Brothers are a Qawwali party from Pakistan.-Original members:The Sabri Brothers originally consisted of Ghulam Farid Sabri , Maqbool Ahmed Sabri , Kamal Sabri The Sabri Brothers (Urdu: صابری برادران) are a Qawwali party from Pakistan.-Original members:The Sabri Brothers originally...

, largely due to several releases on the Real World label, followed by live appearances at WOMAD festivals. Listeners, and often artists themselves are transported to a state of wajad
Wajad
Ecstasy is called Wajd by Sufis: it is especially cultivated among the Chishtis. This bliss is the sign of spiritual development and also the opening for all inspirations and powers. This is the state of eternal peace, which purifies from all sins. Only the most advanced Sufis can experience Wajd...

, a trance-like state where they feel at one with God, generally considered to be the height of spiritual ecstasy in Sufism
Sufism
Sufism or ' is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a '...

. The roots of Qawwali can be traced back to 8th century Persia, however, Qawwali in the form we know it today was essentially created by Amir Khusrau in the late 13th century.

During the first major migration from Persia, in the 11th century, the musical tradition of Sama
Sema
Sama is a Sufi ceremony performed as dhikr. Sama means "listening", while dhikr means "remembrance". These rituals often includes singing, playing instruments, dancing, recitation of poetry and prayers, wearing symbolic attire, and other rituals...

 migrated to South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

. Rumi and his Mevlana order of Sufism have been the propagators of Sama in Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

. Amir Khusrau of the Chisti order
Tariqah
A tariqa is an Islamic religious order. In Sufism one starts with Islamic law, the exoteric or mundane practice of Islam and then is initiated onto the mystical path of a tariqa. Through spiritual practices and guidance of a tariqa the aspirant seeks ḥaqīqah - ultimate truth.-Meaning:A tariqa is a...

 of Sufis is credited with fusing the Persian and South Asian musical traditions, to create Qawwali as well as the classical music tradition
Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music found throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. The style is sometimes called North Indian Classical Music or Shāstriya Sangeet...

. The word "Sama" is used (or is the preferred name) in Central Asia and Turkey, for forms very similar to Qawwali while in Pakistan, the formal name used for a session of Qawwali is "Mehfil-e-Sama".

Humnawa



A group of qawwali musicians, called Humnawa in Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, typically consists of eight or nine men — women are usually excluded from traditional Muslim music as respectable women are traditionally prohibited from singing in public gatherings. although these traditions are changing (due to strong western media influence)— including a lead singer, one or two side singers, one or two harmoniums (which may be played by lead singer, side singer or someone else), and percussion. If there is only one percussionist, he plays the tabla
Tabla
The tabla is a popular Indian percussion instrument used in Hindustani classical music and in popular and devotional music of the Indian subcontinent. The instrument consists of a pair of hand drums of contrasting sizes and timbres...

 and dholak
Dholak
The Dholak is a North Indian, Pakistani and Nepalese double-headed hand-drum Madal. The name dholki may also refer to a slightly different instrument that uses high-pitch tabla style syahi masala on its treble skin. This instrument is also known as Naal or Dholki....

, usually the tabla with the left hand and the dholak with the right. Often there will be two percussionists, in which case one might play the tabla and the other the dholak. There is also a chorus of four or five men who repeat key verses, and who aid and abet percussion by hand-clapping. The performers sit in two rows — the lead singer, side singers and harmonium players in the front row, and the chorus and percussionists in the back row.

Famous composers and performers

  • Munshi Raziuddin
    Munshi Raziuddin
    Munshi Raziuddin Ahmed Khan was a renowned Pakistani Qawwal and classical musician in India and Pakistan and a researcher of music. He belongs to the best-known gharana of Qawwali, Qawwal Bachchon Ka Gharana of Delhi. Initially, he performed in the court of the Nizam of Hyderabad. However, after...

  • Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan
  • Sabri Brothers
    Sabri Brothers
    The Sabri Brothers are a Qawwali party from Pakistan.-Original members:The Sabri Brothers originally consisted of Ghulam Farid Sabri , Maqbool Ahmed Sabri , Kamal Sabri The Sabri Brothers (Urdu: صابری برادران) are a Qawwali party from Pakistan.-Original members:The Sabri Brothers originally...

  • Qawwal Bahauddin
  • Qawwal Abdullah Manzoor Niazi
  • Aziz Mian Qawwal
  • Qawwal iqbal bandanawazi

Religious


There is a large number of hamd and nasheed singers in Pakistan. This is a type of Islamic religious music where poetical verses of the love for God (Allah) is expressed. Some of the most famous artists include: Ustad Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, along with his nephew Rahat Fateh Ali Khan, the Sabri Brothers
Sabri Brothers
The Sabri Brothers are a Qawwali party from Pakistan.-Original members:The Sabri Brothers originally consisted of Ghulam Farid Sabri , Maqbool Ahmed Sabri , Kamal Sabri The Sabri Brothers (Urdu: صابری برادران) are a Qawwali party from Pakistan.-Original members:The Sabri Brothers originally...

, Hafiz Marghoub Ahmad Hamdani, Qari Waheed Zafar and Alhaj Muhammad Owais Raza Qadri
Alhaj Muhammad Owais Raza Qadri
Muhammad Owais Raza Qderi is a Pakistani who has travelled widely as a Naat khawan .-Biography:...

.

Hamd


'Hamd' is also used extensively in Christian religious music from Pakistan and all over the world where people from this region are found.'Hamd' is not the exclusive domain of any religion. As pointed out - it denotes praise to God, it is more extensively used in the Muslim world. It is usually used in conjunction with the Sanna and referred to as 'Hamd - o - Sanna'.

Dafli



The dafli, also popularly known as daf, dappler or tambourine, is a must for weddings. Made of wooden ring with a double row of bells and a playing surface with a 10" diameter, our dafli is a perfect accompaniment to the dholki. The pleasant sound of the dafli will elevate the tempo and mood of all celebrations. Easy to play with no beforehand practice required - with these daflis anyone can add to the music played in weddings and other celebrations.

Classical



Classical music of Pakistan is based on Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music found throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. The style is sometimes called North Indian Classical Music or Shāstriya Sangeet...

, tracing its roots to India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 before Partition
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

. It has two main principles, ‘sur’ (musical note) and ‘lai’ (rhythm). The systematic organization of musical notes into a scale is known as a raag
Raga
A raga is one of the melodic modes used in Indian classical music.It is a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is made...

. The arrangement of rhythm (lai) in a cycle is known as taal
Tala (music)
Tāla, Taal or Tal is the term used in Indian classical music for the rhythmic pattern of any composition and for the entire subject of rhythm, roughly corresponding to metre in Western music, though closer conceptual equivalents are to be found in other Asian classical systems such as the notion...

. Improvisation plays a major role during a performance.

The major genres of classical music in Pakistan are dhrupad
Dhrupad
Dhrupad is a vocal genre in Hindustani classical music, said to be the oldest still in use in that musical tradition. Its name is derived from the words "dhruva" and "pada"...

 and khayal. Dhrupad is approaching extinction in Pakistan despite vocalists like Ustad Hafeez Khan and Ustad Afzal Khan have managed to keep this art form alive. Khayal is the most popular genre of classical music in North India and Pakistan.

Tari Khan
Tari Khan
Tari Khan is a master tabla player from Pakistan.Abdul Sattar 'Tari' Khan hails from a traditional Rababi family . His father was a classical vocalist. At fourteen, he formally became a student of Ustad Shaukat Hussain Khan. Three years later he performed at the death anniversary of tabla master...

 is a classical tabla player from Pakistan. Talib Hussain was one of the last remaining pakhawaj players of Pakistan and was a recognized practioner of the Punjab style.

Regional


Pakistani folk music deals with subjects surrounding daily life in less grandiose terms than the love and emotion usually contained in its traditional and classical counterpart. In Pakistan, each province has its own variation of popular folk music.

Pakistan has created many famous singers in this discipline such as the late Alam Lohar
Alam Lohar
Muhammad Alam Lohar was a prominent Punjabi folk music singer of Pakistan.He died in 1979 in an accident. He is also credited with popularizing the term and song Jugni.-Early life:...

, who was very influential in the period of 1940 until 1979: he created the concept of "jugni" and this has been a folk song ever since, and he sang heer, sufiana kalaams, mirza, sassi and many more famous folk stories. Other famous folk singers include Sain Zahoor
Sain Zahoor
Saieen Zahoor or Saeen Zahur Ahmad is a leading Sufi musician from Pakistan. He has spent most of his life singing in Sufi shrines, and didn't produce a record until 2006, when he was nominated for the BBC World Music awards based on word of mouth.He emerged as the "best BBC voice of the year...

 and Alam Lohar
Alam Lohar
Muhammad Alam Lohar was a prominent Punjabi folk music singer of Pakistan.He died in 1979 in an accident. He is also credited with popularizing the term and song Jugni.-Early life:...

 from Punjab
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

 and Allan Fakir
Allan Fakir
Allan Fakir , a Pakistani folk singer is a one of the foremost exponents of sufi music in Pakistan. He is particularly known for his ecstatic style of performance marked with extreme devotional rhetoric and sufi dance singing...

 and Mai Bhaghi
Mai Bhaghi
Mai Bhaghi is a legendary folk singer of Sindh. She was born in thar desert.Not much is known about her date of birth or death. Much of her songs are in thari language. Many of her songs have been telecasted from Pakistan Television.-See also:...

 from Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

, Akhtar Chanal Zahri
Akhtar Chanal Zahri
Akhtar Chanal Zahri is a famous Pakistani folk singer. He is famous for his singing in Coke Studio season 4.In 1964 Akhtar Chanal started taking formal singing lessons from an ustaad...

 from Baluchistan and Zarsanga from North-West Frontier Province
North-West Frontier Province
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province and various other names, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the north-west of the country...

 who is considered the queen of Pashto folk music.

Balochi



The music of Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

 province is very rich and full of varieties due to the many different types of languages which are spoken in the province, including Balochi
Balochi language
Balochi is a Northwestern Iranian language. It is the principal language of the Baloch of Balochistan, Pakistan, eastern Iran and southern Afghanistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Brahui. It is designated as one of nine official languages of Pakistan.-Vowels:The Balochi vowel...

, Pashto, Brahui, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 and Saraiki
Saraiki language
Saraiki , transliterated as Sirāikī and sometimes spelled Seraiki and Saraiki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages. It is a language spoken in the heart of Pakistan...

. Balochi music stems basically from Persian Music due to the close proximity of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. Although Balochi singers have still not made a mark on the Pakistani music scene, there are many Balochi singers and these include; Ali Reza Askani, Aref Baloch, Asim Baloch.

Punjabi


Music from the Punjab
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

 province includes many different varieties. The traditional music utilizes instruments like the dhol
Dhol
Dhol can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drum widely used, with regional variations, throughout the Indian subcontinent and nearby regions. Its range of distribution in India and Pakistan primarily includes northern areas such as the Assam Valley, Bengal, Gujarat,...

, flute
Flute
The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening...

, dholak
Dholak
The Dholak is a North Indian, Pakistani and Nepalese double-headed hand-drum Madal. The name dholki may also refer to a slightly different instrument that uses high-pitch tabla style syahi masala on its treble skin. This instrument is also known as Naal or Dholki....

, and tumbi
Tumbi
The Tumbi or Toombi is a traditional North Indian instrument from Punjab. The tumbi was invented and popularized by the renowned folk-singer of Punjab "Lal Chand Yamla Jatt". In the 1960s, 70s and 80s most of the Punjabi singers used the Tumbi...

. The most commonly recognized form of Punjabi music, bhangra, is based on drum rhythms of the dhol. Its modern popularity has led to the use of new instruments and electronic sound sampling. Bhangra is a Punjabi folk dance that has become popular all over Pakistan. Bhangra and Panjabi folk songs have been an integral part of the fertile provinces cultural history and many themes are related to harvest and cultivation. Others still draw on the poetic history of the province which transcend ethnic and religious boundaries.

Potohari



potohari has a rich tradition of poetry recital accompanied by SITAR, GHARA, TABLA, HARMONIUM and DHOLAK, these poems are called [POTOHARI SHER]http://potoharisher.com/ and are often highly lyrical and somewhat humorous and secular in nature, although there are plenty of religious sher..

Sindhi



Music from Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 province is sung in Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

, and is generally performed in either the "Baits" or "Waee" styles. The Baits style is vocal music in Sanhoon (low voice) or Graham (high voice). Waee instrumental music is performed in a variety of ways using a string instrument. Waee, also known as Kafi, is found in the surrounding areas of Balochistan
Balochistan (Pakistan)
Balochistan is one of the four provinces or federating units of Pakistan. With an area of 134,051 mi2 or , it is the largest province of Pakistan, constituting approximately 44% of the total land mass of Pakistan. According to the 1998 population census, Balochistan had a population of...

, Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

, and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

. Common instruments used in Sindhi regional music include the Yaktaro, Narr, and Naghara.

Kashmiri



The predominant language found in Pakistan's Northern Areas has an extensive oral history which dates back several thousand years. With the increase in tourism to Pakistan's Northern Areas and increased domestic as well as international awareness of the local folk music, the Shinha folk traditions have managed to stay alive and vibrant. A dardic language with considerable Persian influence is found in Pakistan's Chitral region in the North West of the country. Khowar folk music had considerable patronage particularly during the rule of the Mehtars in the last century. Folk music in this region has remained relatively pure and unscathed by modern influences due to the relative isolation of this district. The arrival of many refugees from the adjacent Nuristan province of Afghanistan and the subsequent increase in commercial activity in Chitrali bazaars allowed this local form of music to flourish in the past few decades.

Siraiki



Siraiki is spoken by 13.9 million people in southern Punjab
Punjab (Pakistan)
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan, with approximately 45% of the country's total population. Forming most of the Punjab region, the province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, the Pakistani province of Sindh to the...

 and northern Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

. Atta Ullah Essa Khelvi Khan
Attaullah Khan Essa Khailwi
Attaullah Khan Niazi Esakhelvi is a Pakistani Pride of Performance award-winning musician from Isakhel, Mianwali, Punjab. He is traditionally considered a Seraiki artist, but most of his music albums are in either Punjabi or Urdu...

 is one of the most famous Siraiki singers in Pakistan, hailing from Mianwali
Mianwali
Mianwali is the capital city of Mianwali District and situated in the north-west of Punjab province, Pakistan. The city is located on the eastern bank of the Indus River...

. Siraiki media has significantly developed and has brought more talent onto the national level, such as Kook TV and Rohi Tv. The Siraiki language is often considered the sweetest of all Pakistani languages, hence the popularity of Siraki music is nationwide. The great late Pathanay Khan
Pathanay Khan
Pathanay Khan was a great Seraiki folk singer from Pakistan. He sang mostly Kafis or Ghazals , which were largely based on the Sufi poetry of Khwaja Ghulam Farid and Shah Hussain...

 also did considerable work in the field of Siraiki music. His songs such as Mera Ishq Vi Tu and Charakay De are still loved by masses and equally appreciated by non-Siraiki speakers. Another star of this language is world renowned folk singer Reshma. She has rendered some beautiful songs in Saraiki along with Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 and Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 for which she gained fame across Pakistan and internationally. A new voice from Mianwali is also attracting people Ali Imran Awan.

Gilgiti


The predominant language found in Gilgit
Gilgit
Gilgit is a city in northern PakistanGilgit may refer to other terms related with the area of the city:* Gilgit River* Gilgit Valley* Gilgit District* Gilgit Agency * Gilgit Airport...

  in Pakistan's Gilgit-Baltistan has an extensive oral history which dates back several thousand years. With the increase in tourism to Pakistan's Northern Areas and increased domestic as well as international awareness of the local folk music, the Shinha folk traditions have managed to stay alive and vibrant.Wakhi
Wakhi language
Wakhi is an Indo-European language in the branch of Eastern Iranian language family and is intimately related to other Southeastern Iranian languages in the Pamir languages group.-Classification and Distribution:...

 and Brushaski also lie in this type of music. Dadang (drum made with the skin of goat) and Damal (a pair of drums also made with the same skin but it sounds different) are the most prominent instrument played in this type of music. Flute is also a part of it. The wakhi music was started by Pir Nasir-e-Khisrow in Sixteenth century. It included Rubab and Daf. The history and heritage of every type of music are similar in every language of this region so this type of music is used for each language i.e. (shina, wakhi, brushaski, khuwar and balti).

Khowar



A dardic language with considerable Persian influence is found in Pakistan's Chitral region in the North West of the country. Khowar folk music had considerable patronage particularly during the rule of the Mehtars in the last century. Folk music in this region has remained relatively pure and unscathed by modern influences due to the relative isolation of this district. The arrival of many refugees from the adjacent Nuristan province of Afghanistan and the subsequent increase in commercial activity in Chitrali bazaars allowed this local form of music to flourish in the past few decades.

Pashto



Pashto music is commonly found in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas are a semi-autonomous tribal region in the northwest of Pakistan, lying between the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, and the neighboring country of Afghanistan. The FATA comprise seven Agencies and six FRs...

, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and in Pakistan's major urban centres such as Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

, Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi , locally known as Pindi, is a city in the Pothohar region of Pakistan near Pakistan's capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. Rawalpindi is the fourth largest city in Pakistan after Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad...

, Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

, Sialkot
Sialkot
Sialkot is a city in Pakistan situated in the north-east of the Punjab province at the foothills of snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. It is the capital of Sialkot District. The city is about north-west of Lahore and only a few kilometers from Indian-controlled Jammu.The...

 and Multan
Multan
Multan , is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about from Islamabad, from Lahore and from Karachi...

, genres include Tappa
Tappa
Tappa is a city and a municipal council in Sangrur district in the Indian state of Punjab.-Demographics: India census, Tappa had a population of 18,887. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Tappa has an average literacy rate of 57%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male...

, Charbeta, Neemkai, Loba, Shaan and Badala. The Tappa is believed to be one of the oldest forms of Pashto poetry; it comprises two unequal meters, with the second longer than the first. Charbetta is the most popular form of poetry, and epic poem which focuses on heroic figures. The music is sung at a fast tempo by two or more singers. Neemakai is composed by Pashto women, expressing a range of issues from daily life. Loba is another form of Pashto folk song composed as a dramatic dialogue, often to tell romantic tales. Shaan is a celebratory song performed at occasions such as marriage and child birth. Although Badala is a type of Pashto folk music, it is normally sung by professional musicians. It is an epic poem set to composed music which is performed with instruments such harmonium, drums and tabla. The Rubab, a kind of lute is an essential part of Pasthtu folk music. This music is uncommon as the ruling MMA
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal is a coalition of Islamist parties that was formed in 2002 to electorally challenge the Pakistan Parliament's incumbent parties...

 has restricted the use of music in the province. In recent years, the Pashto music industry has been given official patronage through television and increased support by Pakistani listeners who have begun to appreciate classic and traditional Pashto poetry.

Persian/Afghan refugees



Persian is spoken mainly in the North West of Pakistan but there are also considerable Persian speaking inhabitants in Pakistan's major urban centres of Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

, Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

 and Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

. During and after the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan and subsequent arrival of millions of Afghan refugees to Pakistan, much of the Afghan (Dari/Persian) music industry was kept alive by performances and recordings made in Pakistan. After more than 20 years, Persian folk music has made considerable and often subtle contributions the overall Pakistani music industry. singers from Afghanistan regularly perform throughout Pakistan particularly at weddings and other formal functions. Singers such as Mehdi Hassan
Mehdi Hassan
Mehdi Hassan is a Pakistani ghazal singer and a former playback singer for Lollywood. He is famously known as the 'King of ghazal' . He has ruled the Pakistan film industry along with Ahmed Rushdi...

, Iqbal Bano
Iqbal Bano
Iqbal Bano , PP was a highly acclaimed female Ghazal singer from Pakistan. She was best known for her semi-classical Urdu ghazal songs and classical thumris, but also sang easy-listening numbers in 1950s films....

, Farida Khanum
Farida Khanum
Farida Khanum is a Pakistani Ghazal singer from Punjab. The Times of India has called her "Malika-e-Ghazal" ....

  and Abida Parveen
Abida Parveen
Abida Parveen , is a Pakistani singer of Sindhi descent and one of the foremost exponents of Sufi music . She sings mainly ghazals, Urdu love songs, and her forte, Kafis, a solo genre accompanied by percussion and harmonium, using a repertoire of songs by Sufi poets...

 have sung ghazals in Persian such as those of Amir Khosraw.

Modern


Pakistani music in the 21st century revitalized itself to become a popular sound throughout the region and world. Pakistan music today has a rich blend of classical
Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music found throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. The style is sometimes called North Indian Classical Music or Shāstriya Sangeet...

 and Pakistani folk music with western sounds leading the music industry to rebuild and re-establish itself. The industry began to pick up in late 2003, when media laws in Pakistan became more relaxed, and resulted in a mass explosion of private Pakistani television channels.

Pop


Pakistani pop music is attributed to have given birth to the genre
Pop music
Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented toward a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes.- Definitions :David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop...

 in the South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

n region with Ahmed Rushdi
Ahmed Rushdi
Ahmed Rushdi, SI, PP was a versatile Pakistani playback singer who worked in film music and was "an important contributor to the Golden Age of Pakistani film music." Rushdi is acclaimed as one of the greatest singers ever lived in south asia and was a natural baritone, yet could sing high tenor...

's song ‘Ko-Ko-Korina’ in 1966 Composed by Music Mestro Sohail Rana and has since then been adopted in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and lately Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

 as a pioneering influence in their respective pop cultures. Veterans like Runa Laila
Runa Laila
Runa Laila is a singer of the Indian subcontinent who is from Bangladesh. She started her career from Pakistan film industry and is effective in Ghazals also. She made a hit pair with famous singer Ahmed Rushdi after replacing Mala. She also has done numerous playbacks for movies in Bangladesh,...

 started the pop industry in Bangladesh while the fifteen-years old pop sensation Nazia Hassan
Nazia Hassan
Nazia Hassan was an iconic Pakistani pop singer. Her song "Aap Jaisa Koi" from the Indian film Qurbani made her a legend and pop icon in Pakistan and all of South Asia in the 1980s, where she is admired and loved even today, years after her death...

 with her brother Zohaib Hassan
Zohaib Hassan
Zoheb Hassan is a self retired Pakistani pop icon, who left the music industry after the sad demise of his sister and sub-continental pop legend, Nazia Hassan.-Career:Zoheb Hassan was born on November 18, 1966....

 ushered the birth of pop music in South Asia tailing on the success of her British endeavours.

From Rushdi's pop hits to songs sung by the Hassan siblings, to bands including Junoon, Vital Signs
Vital Signs (band)
Vital Signs were a Pakistani Pop rock band that formed in Rawalpindi in 1986. The group was formed by Rohail Hyatt and Shahzad Hasan , who were soon joined by Nusrat Hussain and Junaid Jamshed...

, Hadiqa Kiyani
Hadiqa Kiyani
Hadiqa Kiani is a Pakistani singer-songwriter, and philanthropist.Kiani rose to fame in 1995 with her debut album Raaz. Kiani received instant fame and was nominated and won numerous awards in Pakistan as well as International awards. Since her debut, she has released five albums, all receiving...

, Jal and Strings
Strings (band)
Strings are an internationally acclaimed pop rock band comprising two members from Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The band was initially formed by four college students, Bilal Maqsood , Faisal Kapadia , Rafiq Wazir Ali and Kareem Bashir Bhoy in 1988...

, Abrar-ul-Haq
Abrar-ul-Haq
Abrar-ul-Haq is a Pakistani pop, bhangra and folk singer. On his first album "Billo De Ghar" his name appears as simply "Abrar". Before becoming a singer, he was a geography teacher at the Aitchison College in Lahore.- Life :Abrar has kept the year of his birth a secret, so as to not reveal his age...

 to Shehzad Roy
Shehzad Roy
Shehzad Roy is a singer and humanitarian from Karachi, Pakistan. With five hit albums under his belt, including the 2008 Qismat Apney Haath Mein , he is also the president and founder of Zindagi Trust, a non-profit charitable organization, that seeks to educate the underprivileged children of...

 the Pakistani pop industry has steadily spread throughout South Asia and today is the most popular genre in Pakistan. “Dil Dil Pakistan
Dil Dil Pakistan
Dil Dil Pakistan is a patriotic song from Pakistan. It was released in 1987 by the Pakistani pop band, Vital Signs. It was included in the band's debut album Vital Signs 1 in 1989.-Popularity:...

” sung by Vital Signs was voted the third most popular song in the world by a BBC poll. In 1998 Channel V declared the "Best International Group Award" to Junoon among Aqua, Boyzone, The Prodigy and Back Street Boys.

Some overseas Pakistanis have also entered into Pakistani pop music scene from abroad, such as UK based Adnan Sami Khan, UK based hip-hop artist 21 Perspective, Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

 based Shahzaman, New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 based DJ Aphlatoon
DJ Aphlatoon
DJ Aphlatoon is known as the first Pakistani remix producer. He was the first DJ to release two albums containing only Pakistani songs remixed with hip hop, reggae and techno beats....

 and Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 based Imran Khan
Imran Khan (singer)
Imran Khan is a Dutch-born Punjabi singer of Pakistani origin who gained success after the release of his first single "Ni Nachleh" in 2007. His debut album Unforgettable was released on 27 July 2009.-Biography:...

.

Rock


Rock music in Pakistan has become very popular in Pakistan. A landmark event occurred in 2003 when the Pakistani group Strings's song, Najane Kyun
Najane Kyun
"Najane Kyun" is a song by Strings released on the 2004 soundtrack for the film Spider-Man 2. This track is on the Pakistani version of the soundtrack...

 became a featured single on the Urdu Soundtrack for Spider-Man 2
Spider-Man 2
Spider-Man 2 is a 2004 American superhero film directed by Sam Raimi, written by Alvin Sargent and developed by Alfred Gough, Miles Millar, and Michael Chabon. It is the second film in the Spider-Man film franchise based on the fictional Marvel Comics character Spider-Man...

. Rock music has developed so much in Pakistan, that it already has two sub-genres. The Pakistani band Junoon popularised a genre of music called Sufi rock
Sufi rock
Sufi rock is a subgenre of rock music that combines rock with classical sufi music traditions. It emerged in the early 1990s and became widely popular in the late 1990s in Pakistan. The term "sufi rock" was coined in 1993 by writer Nadeem F...

 (influenced from legend Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan) that blended traditional Pakistani folk and Sufi music with western rock. Also bands like Jal,Call,Mauj and Roxen has done great job over the years.Jal and Call had a decent fan following in India as well while Roxen`s soundtrack from Indian film Awarapan made everyone felt their presence on both sides of borders as well. Also Arif Lohar made a huge success with a rock folk album in 2006 called 21st century Jugni: this album was successful worldwide, and in India won 3 awards at the Alpha Punjabi Awards ceremony for best International Punjabi vocalist and best remixed and best folk rock album. The Pakistan rock industry has been getting large over the years, New bands are coming in and bringing their own style on the mainstream. The Pakistani rock industry can be sub-divided in various genres of rock such as progressive rock, metal, hard rock etc. More recently bands suck as Takatak, Odyssey and Dementia have brought on a metal revolution in Punjab, specially Lahore, greatly spreading heavy metal music in the region. It ha spread outside of Pakistan through the diaspora too: most notably, Brit-Asian 21 Perspective's song entitled 'Rahila' was an excellent fusion of British and sub-Continental styles.

Hip hop



Pakistani hip hop is a blend of traditional Pakistani
Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music found throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. The style is sometimes called North Indian Classical Music or Shāstriya Sangeet...

 musical elements with modern hip hop
Hip hop
Hip hop is a form of musical expression and artistic culture that originated in African-American and Latino communities during the 1970s in New York City, specifically the Bronx. DJ Afrika Bambaataa outlined the four pillars of hip hop culture: MCing, DJing, breaking and graffiti writing...

 music and is achieved by using various Pakistani languages
Languages of Pakistan
Languages of Pakistan include two official languages: Urdu, which is also Pakistan's national language and lingua franca, and English. Additionally, Pakistan has four major provincial languages: Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Farsi and Balochi, as well as three major regional languages: Saraiki, Hindko...

 as well as incorporating traditional percussion like the tabla
Tabla
The tabla is a popular Indian percussion instrument used in Hindustani classical music and in popular and devotional music of the Indian subcontinent. The instrument consists of a pair of hand drums of contrasting sizes and timbres...

 and dhol
Dhol
Dhol can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drum widely used, with regional variations, throughout the Indian subcontinent and nearby regions. Its range of distribution in India and Pakistan primarily includes northern areas such as the Assam Valley, Bengal, Gujarat,...

 and other instrumentation like the sitar
Sitar
The 'Tablaman' is a plucked stringed instrument predominantly used in Hindustani classical music, where it has been ubiquitous since the Middle Ages...

. Pakistani hip hop is perceived differently by the major branches of the Pakistani diaspora
Pakistani diaspora
The Pakistani diaspora, or an overseas Pakistani is a Pakistani citizen who has migrated to another country or a person of Pakistani origin who is born outside Pakistan. There are approximately 7 million Pakistanis living abroad...

, where Pakistani Americans often adopt hip hop at an early age and make it an important aspect of their "American identity". Conversely, Pakistani Britons were first exposed to hip hop as an American export. Overseas Pakistanis
Pakistani diaspora
The Pakistani diaspora, or an overseas Pakistani is a Pakistani citizen who has migrated to another country or a person of Pakistani origin who is born outside Pakistan. There are approximately 7 million Pakistanis living abroad...

 have aided in the popularity and promotion of hip hop in Pakistan. In recent years, local Pakistani hip hop artists have begun to emerge in underground scenes in large cities such as Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

, Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

 and Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

. The lyrical expression of cultural identity
Cultural identity
Cultural identity is the identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as one is influenced by one's belonging to a group or culture. Cultural identity is similar to and has overlaps with, but is not synonymous with, identity politics....

 and addressing Pakistan's political and social problems is vital in making hip hop a popular growing genre. It is mainly performed in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, and Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

.

Filmi



Pakistan's film industry known as "Lollywood
Lollywood
Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry based in the city of Lahore. The word "Lollywood" was first coined in the summer of 1989 in the now defunct magazine "Glamour" published from Karachi by a gossip columnist Saleem Nasir. The film industry in Lahore started in 1929 with the opening of...

" is based in Lahore
Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

. One of the most famous singers of the Pakistan film industry is Noor Jehan
Noor Jehan
Noorjehan or Noorjehan was the adopted stage name for Allah Wasai who was a legendary singer and actress in British India and Pakistan. Her career spanned seven decades...

 (Malika-e-Tarranum). Noor Jehan had a brief and successful acting career before devoting herself completely to music. She sang extensively for Pakistani films and also sang Ghazals, folk songs and patriotic songs (milli naghmay) for Pakistan television. The most famous male singer of Pakistan film industry is Ahmed Rushdi
Ahmed Rushdi
Ahmed Rushdi, SI, PP was a versatile Pakistani playback singer who worked in film music and was "an important contributor to the Golden Age of Pakistani film music." Rushdi is acclaimed as one of the greatest singers ever lived in south asia and was a natural baritone, yet could sing high tenor...

 (Melody Prince) who is also known as Magician of voice. Rushdi is one of the most versatile singers of south asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

 and his songs had a great impact on Indian and Bangaladesh music industry. He ruled film industry for thirty years. Ahmed Rushdi undisputedly remains the only playback singer of Pakistan who was master of all moods and expressions. Until the 1970s Pakistani film music enjoyed a robust period of creative activity with a great number of songs acquiring popularity across the sub-continent. The major music directors of this period (with the noted exception of Khawaja Khurshid Anwar
Khawaja Khurshid Anwar
Khwaja Khurshid Anwar was a filmmaker, writer, director and music composer who gained extreme popularity both in India and Pakistan...

) were mostly rababis. Some of the great names were: Master Inayat Hussain, Ghulam Ahmed Chishti
Ghulam Ahmed Chishti
Ghulam Ahmed Chishti was a Pakistani music composer, attributed as being one of the founders of Pakistani film music. He is also sometimes referred to as Baba Chishti....

, Rashid Attre, Nisar Bazmi
Nisar Bazmi
Nisar Bazmi was a composer and music director of Pakistan film industry. Bazmi remained one of the most famous musicians of subcontinent. He also introduced new singers like Alamgir. The duo of composers Laxmikant-Pyarelal were musicians with Bazmi in India before partition...

, Sohail Rana
Sohail Rana
Sohail Rana is a Pakistani music composer for films. He was introduced by actor Waheed Murad in Pakistan film industry and gained popularity when singer Ahmed Rushdi sang his compositions in such films like Arman and Doraha. He is now based in Canada.-Early Life and career:Sohail Rana was born in...

, Ustad Tasadduq, M. Ashraf, Master Abdullah, Feroz Nizami, Tufail Farooqi, Robin Ghosh
Robin Ghosh
Robin Ghosh is a musician and music composer. Famous playback singer Ahmed Rushdi has a notable contribution to Ghosh's success...

 and Ustad Nazar. During the early 1980s Urdu film and music quality declined as the result of various factors. The dominance of trend-setting music directors who had experience of seasoned pre-partition artists declined and they were replaced by a new and younger generation who tapped the Punjabi film market.

Music journalism


Music journalism in Pakistan has grown tremendously over the years, especially with the growth of the country's pop music industry and underground rock culture. Popular music journalism was uncommon in the country till about 1985 when Karachi's tabloid, The Star
The Star (Pakistan)
The Star is Pakistan's most widely read English Language evening newspaper. It was founded in 1953, in Karachi, Pakistan.It is published as part of the Dawn Group of Newspapers by Pakistan Herald Publications Limited . Focusing on controversial and current issues, the STAR has gained a reputation...

started printing reviews written by Farrukh Moriani who is also considered to be the country's first ever pop music critic. At the end of the eighties and with the coming of the Liberal government of Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto
Benazir Bhutto was a democratic socialist who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from 1988 until 1990 and 1993 until 1996....

 in 1988, the once repressed and frowned upon (by the Islamist dictatorship of General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq), Pakistani pop music emerged from the underground and started gaining mainstream popularity. With this came another pioneering Pakistani music and fashion critic Fifi Haroon who was amongst the first in the country to undertake full features on the growing local music scene. Another frontrunner in this regard was Mohammed Ali Tim, but it wasn't until the arrival of the Farjad Nabi (at The News International
News International
News International Ltd is the United Kingdom newspaper publishing division of News Corporation. Until June 2002, it was called News International plc....

) and Aysha Aslam (at The Herald) and Nadeem F. Paracha
Nadeem F. Paracha
Nadeem Farooq Paracha , , is a left-liberal Pakistani journalist, cultural critic, satirist and short story writer.-Early life:...

 that music journalism began to be taken seriously.

Producers


Music production seems to have stayed in the shadows in the Pakistan music industry. Behind the successes of some of the top talent in the country, there were almost always music producers who never got their due credit.
  • Aamir Hasan - who produced various artists including Junoon

  • Mekaal Hasan
    Mekaal Hasan
    Mekaal Hasan is a leading Pakistani musician and record producer from Lahore. He has worked in the capacity of a guest artist and/or record producer in the music industry of Pakistan with many Pakistani bands and solo artists at home and abroad. He is also the leader and composer for Mekaal Hasan...

    - a member of the Meekal Hasan Band
    Mekaal Hasan
    Mekaal Hasan is a leading Pakistani musician and record producer from Lahore. He has worked in the capacity of a guest artist and/or record producer in the music industry of Pakistan with many Pakistani bands and solo artists at home and abroad. He is also the leader and composer for Mekaal Hasan...

     and one of the most talented musicians in Pakistan who has produced great hits like "Aadat" for Jal The Band, "Sampooran" and "Andohlan" for his own band.

  • Rohail Hyatt
    Rohail Hyatt
    Rohail Hyatt is a Pakistani musician, producer, and a rock music artist known for his work with the popular 1990s pop band Vital Signs. He is one of the finest music producers in Pakistan. He is the man behind Coke Studio, from Pakistan.-Vital Signs:...

    - a member of Vital Signs
    Vital Signs (band)
    Vital Signs were a Pakistani Pop rock band that formed in Rawalpindi in 1986. The group was formed by Rohail Hyatt and Shahzad Hasan , who were soon joined by Nusrat Hussain and Junaid Jamshed...

     who produced all the Vital Signs albums and albums for various other artists like Awaz
    Awaz
    Awaz were a Pakistani pop band that formed in Karachi in 1992. The group was formed by Haroon Rashid, lead vocalist, who was soon joined by keyboardist Faakhir Mehmood and lead guitarist Asad Ahmed...

    , Rahat Fateh Ali Khan, Ali Azmat
    Ali Azmat
    Ali Azmat is a Ali Azmat is a...

    . He has worked with big names such as Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Ustaad Saami and Fareed Ayaz. He produced the background music for the hit Pakistani film Khuda Kay Liye and produced the song "Jiya Dhadak Dhadak Jaye" for the film Kalyug. He is also a producer of Coke Studio
    Coke Studio
    Coke Studio is a Pakistani television series featuring live music performances. Although it is adapted from the original Brazilian show named Estúdio Coca-Cola, it is fundamentally different from the original version where the show was a concert style show whereas the Pakistani version records its...


  • Zeeshan Parwez
    Zeeshan Parwez
    Zeeshan Parwez is a Pakistani Music Artist. The duo of Sajid & Zeeshan , have recently released their first album, One Light Year At Snail Speed. He is also a director, his first show being On The Fringe, which is hosted by Fasi Zaka. He is known for his videos with various artists, Like Mekaal...


  • Sachal Music (official site) - Izzat Majeed and Mushtaq Soofi produce artists including the popular Sachal Studio Orchestra (jazz and bossa nova), Mian Sheharyar, Hariharan, Ustad Fateh Ali Khan of Gwalior, Reshma, Mehnaz, Wazir Afzal, Qadir Shaggan, Ustad Nazar Hussain. and

See also


  • Culture of Pakistan
    Culture of Pakistan
    The society and culture of Pakistan comprises numerous diverse cultures and ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Muhajirs, Makrani in the south; Baloch and Pashtun in the west; and the ancient Dardic, Wakhi and Burusho communities in the north...

  • History of Pakistani pop music
  • Pakistani hip hop
    Pakistani hip hop
    Pakistani hip hop is a new genre of Pakistani music. In recent years, local Pakistani hip hop artists have begun to emerge in underground scenes in large cities such as Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore. The lyrical expression of cultural identity and addressing Pakistan's political and social problems...

  • List of Pakistani musicians
  • List of Pakistani film singers
  • List of Pakistani folk singers
  • List of Pakistani ghazal singers
  • List of Pakistani qawwali singers
  • List of Pakistani musical groups
  • List of songs about Pakistan
  • Filmi pop
    Filmi pop
    Filmi pop is a term first coined by Pakistani music journalist, M Ali Tim in 1990 but made famous by the country's most influential pop critic, Nadeem F. Paracha...

  • National Academy of Performing Arts
    National Academy of Performing Arts
    The National Academy of Performing Arts is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.NAPA was established as an institution to conserve and teach performing arts and music to students in Pakistan.- NAPA :...

  • Karachi: The Musical
    Karachi: The Musical
    Karachi: The Musical is Pakistan's first original Broadway style Urdu musical. Set in the Lyari area of Karachi, the story revolves around an aspiring boxer, Saif Salam, who travels from Mailsi to train with the country's best boxing coach, Ghulam Bashir...


External links


Audio clips: Traditional music of Pakistan. Musée d'Ethnographie de Genève. Accessed November 25, 2010.