The prokaryotes are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus , or any other membrane-bound organelles. The organisms that have a cell nucleus are called eukaryotes. Most prokaryotes are unicellular, but a few such as myxobacteria have multicellular stages in their life cycles...
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. The Alberts text discusses how the "cellular building blocks" move to shape developing embryos....
organization), such as bacteria.
The taxon Monera was first proposed as a phylum by Ernst Haeckel in 1866; subsequently, the taxon was raised to the rank of kingdom in 1925 by Édouard Chatton, gaining common acceptance, and the last commonly accepted mega-classication with the taxon Monera was the five-kingdom classification system established by Robert Whittaker in 1969.
Under the three-domain system
The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains. In particular, it emphasizes the separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria...
Taxonomy is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification. The field of taxonomy, sometimes referred to as "biological taxonomy", revolves around the description and use of taxonomic units, known as taxa...
, which was established in 1990 and reflects the evolutionary history of life as currently understood, the organisms found in kingdom Monera have been divided into two domains
In biological taxonomy, a domain is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms, higher than a kingdom. According to the three-domain system of Carl Woese, introduced in 1990, the Tree of Life consists of three domains: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya...
The Archaea are a group of single-celled microorganisms. A single individual or species from this domain is called an archaeon...
Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals...
(with Eukarya as the third domain).