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Molten salt battery

Molten salt battery

Overview
Molten salt batteries or liquid sodium battery are a class of primary cell
Primary cell
A primary cell is any kind of battery in which the electrochemical reaction is not reversible, rendering the cell non-rechargeable. A common example of a primary cell is the disposable battery. Unlike a secondary cell, the reaction cannot be reversed by running a current into the cell; the chemical...

 and secondary cell high-temperature electric battery that use molten salt
Molten salt
Molten salt refers to a salt that is in the liquid phase that is normally a solid at standard temperature and pressure . A salt which is normally liquid at STP is usually called a room temperature ionic liquid, although technically molten salts are a class of ionic liquids.-Uses:Molten salts have...

s as an electrolyte
Electrolyte
In chemistry, an electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive. The most typical electrolyte is an ionic solution, but molten electrolytes and solid electrolytes are also possible....

. They offer both a higher energy density through the proper selection of reactant pairs as well as a higher power density by means of a high-conductivity molten salt
Salt
In chemistry, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are composed of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral...

 electrolyte
Electrolyte
In chemistry, an electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive. The most typical electrolyte is an ionic solution, but molten electrolytes and solid electrolytes are also possible....

. They are used in services where high energy density
Energy density
Energy density is a term used for the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume. Often only the useful or extractable energy is quantified, which is to say that chemically inaccessible energy such as rest mass energy is ignored...

 and high power density
Power density
Power density is the amount of power per unit volume....

 are required. These features make rechargeable molten salt batteries a preferred energy storage to balance out environment-dependent power plants (solar, wind, etc.), and a promising technology for powering electric vehicle
Electric vehicle
An electric vehicle , also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion...

s.
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Encyclopedia
Molten salt batteries or liquid sodium battery are a class of primary cell
Primary cell
A primary cell is any kind of battery in which the electrochemical reaction is not reversible, rendering the cell non-rechargeable. A common example of a primary cell is the disposable battery. Unlike a secondary cell, the reaction cannot be reversed by running a current into the cell; the chemical...

 and secondary cell high-temperature electric battery that use molten salt
Molten salt
Molten salt refers to a salt that is in the liquid phase that is normally a solid at standard temperature and pressure . A salt which is normally liquid at STP is usually called a room temperature ionic liquid, although technically molten salts are a class of ionic liquids.-Uses:Molten salts have...

s as an electrolyte
Electrolyte
In chemistry, an electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive. The most typical electrolyte is an ionic solution, but molten electrolytes and solid electrolytes are also possible....

. They offer both a higher energy density through the proper selection of reactant pairs as well as a higher power density by means of a high-conductivity molten salt
Salt
In chemistry, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are composed of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral...

 electrolyte
Electrolyte
In chemistry, an electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive. The most typical electrolyte is an ionic solution, but molten electrolytes and solid electrolytes are also possible....

. They are used in services where high energy density
Energy density
Energy density is a term used for the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume. Often only the useful or extractable energy is quantified, which is to say that chemically inaccessible energy such as rest mass energy is ignored...

 and high power density
Power density
Power density is the amount of power per unit volume....

 are required. These features make rechargeable molten salt batteries a preferred energy storage to balance out environment-dependent power plants (solar, wind, etc.), and a promising technology for powering electric vehicle
Electric vehicle
An electric vehicle , also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion...

s. Operating temperature
Operating temperature
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates. The device will operate effectively within a specified temperature range which varies based on the device function and application context, and ranges from the minimum operating temperature to the...

s of 400 °C (752 °F) to 700 °C (1,292 °F), however, bring problems of thermal management and safety, and place more stringent requirements on the rest of the battery components. Some newer designs, such as the ZEBRA battery, operate at a lower temperature range of 245 °C (473 °F) to 350 °C (662 °F).

Primary cells


Referred to as thermal batteries the electrolyte is solid and inactive at normal ambient temperatures. Thermally activated (“thermal”) batteries were conceived by the Germans
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 and were used in the V-2 rocket
V-2 rocket
The V-2 rocket , technical name Aggregat-4 , was a ballistic missile that was developed at the beginning of the Second World War in Germany, specifically targeted at London and later Antwerp. The liquid-propellant rocket was the world's first long-range combat-ballistic missile and first known...

s. Dr. Georg Otto Erb is credited with developing the molten-salt battery that used the heat of the rocket to keep the salt liquid during its mission. The technology was brought to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 in 1946 and was immediately adapted to replace the troublesome liquid-based systems that had previously been used to power artillery
Artillery
Originally applied to any group of infantry primarily armed with projectile weapons, artillery has over time become limited in meaning to refer only to those engines of war that operate by projection of munitions far beyond the range of effect of personal weapons...

 proximity fuzes. These batteries have been used for ordnance applications (e.g., proximity fuzes) since World War II and, subsequent to that, in nuclear weapons. They are the primary power source for many missiles such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder
AIM-9 Sidewinder
The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried mostly by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. The missile entered service with United States Air Force in the early 1950s, and variants and upgrades remain in active service with many air forces...

, MIM-104 Patriot
MIM-104 Patriot
The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. It is manufactured by the Raytheon Company of the United States. The Patriot System replaced the Nike Hercules system as the U.S. Army's primary High to Medium...

, BGM-71 TOW
BGM-71 TOW
The BGM-71 TOW is an anti-tank missile. "BGM" is a weapon classification that stands for "Multiple Environment , Surface-Attack , Missile ". "TOW" is an acronym that stands for "Tube-launched, Optically-tracked, Wire command data link, guided missile"...

, BGM-109 Tomahawk
BGM-109 Tomahawk
The Tomahawk is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. Introduced by General Dynamics in the 1970s, it was designed as a medium- to long-range, low-altitude missile that could be launched from a surface platform. It has been improved several times and, by way of corporate divestitures...

 and others. In these batteries the electrolyte is immobilized when molten by a special grade of magnesium oxide
Magnesium oxide
Magnesium oxide , or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium . It has an empirical formula of and consists of a lattice of Mg2+ ions and O2– ions held together by ionic bonds...

 that holds it in place by capillary action
Capillary action
Capillary action, or capilarity, is the ability of a liquid to flow against gravity where liquid spontanously rise in a narrow space such as between the hair of a paint-brush, in a thin tube, or in porous material such as paper or in some non-porous material such as liquified carbon fiber, or in a...

. This powdered mixture is pressed into pellets to form a separator between the anode
Anode
An anode is an electrode through which electric current flows into a polarized electrical device. Mnemonic: ACID ....

 and cathode
Cathode
A cathode is an electrode through which electric current flows out of a polarized electrical device. Mnemonic: CCD .Cathode polarity is not always negative...

 of each cell in the battery stack. As long as the electrolyte (salt) is solid, the battery is inert and remains inactive. Each cell also contains a pyrotechnic heat source
Pyrotechnic heat source
A pyrotechnic heat source, also called heat pellet, is a pyrotechnic device based on a pyrotechnic composition with a suitable igniter. Its role is to produce controlled amount of heat...

 which is used to heat the cell to the typical operating temperature of 400 - 550C.

There are two types of design. One uses a fuze strip (containing barium chromate
Barium chromate
Barium chromate is a fine light yellow powder with the formula BaCrO4. The chromium occurs in the +6 oxidation state. It is an oxidizing agent, and produces a green flame when heated, the result of barium ions.-Reactions:...

 and powdered zirconium
Zirconium
Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. The name of zirconium is taken from the mineral zircon. Its atomic mass is 91.224. It is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that resembles titanium...

 metal in a ceramic paper) along the edge of the heat pellets to initiate burning. The fuze strip is typically fired by an electrical igniter
Electric match
An electric match is a device that uses an externally applied electric current to ignite a combustible compound.-Use:Electric matches can be used in any application where source of heat is needed at a precisely controlled point in time, typically to ignite a propellant or explosive...

 or squib
Squib (explosive)
A squib is a miniature explosive device used in a wide range of industries, from special effects to military applications. It resembles a tiny stick of dynamite, both in appearance and construction, although with considerably less explosive power...

 by application of electric current through it. The second design uses a center hole in the middle of the battery stack into which the high-energy electrical igniter fires a mixture of hot gases and incandescent particles. The center-hole design allows much faster activation times (tens of milliseconds) vs. hundreds of milliseconds for the edge-strip design. Battery activation can also be accomplished by a percussion primer, similar to a shotgun shell
Shotgun shell
A shotgun shell is a self-contained cartridge loaded with lead shot or shotgun slug designed to be fired from a shotgun....

. It is desired that the pyrotechnic source be gasless. The standard heat source typically consist of mixtures of iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

 powder and potassium perchlorate
Potassium perchlorate
Potassium perchlorate is the inorganic salt with the chemical formula KClO4. Like other perchlorates, this salt is a strong oxidizer and potentially reacts with many organic substances...

 in weight ratios of typically 88/12, 86/14, and 84/16. The higher the potassium perchlorate level, the higher the heat output (nominally 200, 259, and 297 calories/gram
Gram
The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

, respectively).

This property of unactivated storage has the double benefit of avoiding deterioration of the active materials during storage and at the same time it eliminates the loss of capacity due to self-discharge
Self-discharge
Self-discharge is a phenomenon in batteries in which internal chemical reactions reduce the stored charge of the battery without any connection between the electrodes...

 until the battery is called into use. They can thus be stored indefinitely (over 50 years) yet provide full power in an instant when it is required. Once activated, they provide a high burst of power for a short period (a few tens of seconds) to over 60 minutes or more, with power output ranging from a few watt
Watt
The watt is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units , named after the Scottish engineer James Watt . The unit, defined as one joule per second, measures the rate of energy conversion.-Definition:...

s to several kilowatts. The high power capability is due to the very high ionic conductivity
Ionic conductivity
Ionic conduction is the movement of an ion from one site to another through defects in the crystal lattice of a solid. Ionic conduction is one aspect of current....

 of the molten salt, which is three orders of magnitude or more greater than that of sulfuric acid in a lead-acid
Lead-acid battery
Lead–acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Despite having a very low energy-to-weight ratio and a low energy-to-volume ratio, their ability to supply high surge currents means that the cells maintain a relatively large...

 car battery
Car battery
An automotive battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile. Usually this refers to an SLI battery to power the starter motor, the lights, and the ignition system of a vehicle’s engine...

. Older thermal batteries used calcium
Calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

 or magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and common oxidation number +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and ninth in the known universe as a whole...

 anode
Anode
An anode is an electrode through which electric current flows into a polarized electrical device. Mnemonic: ACID ....

s, with cathodes of calcium chromate
Calcium chromate
Calcium chromate is a bright yellow solid. It normally occurs as the dihydrate.-Properties:Calcium chromate loses water at 200 °C. Calcium chromate reacts with organic matter or reducing agents to form chromium. Calcium chromate will react explosively with hydrazine...

 or vanadium or tungsten oxides
Tungsten trioxide
Tungsten oxide, also known as tungsten trioxide or tungstic anhydride, WO3, is a chemical compound containing oxygen and the transition metal tungsten. It is obtained as an intermediate in the recovery of tungsten from its minerals. Tungsten ores are treated with alkalis to produce WO3...

, but lithium
Lithium
Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. It is represented by the symbol Li, and it has the atomic number 3. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly...

-alloy anodes replaced these in the 1980s, with lithium-silicon
Silicon
Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. A tetravalent metalloid, it is less reactive than its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly above it in the periodic table, but more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table...

 alloys being favored over the older lithium-aluminum alloys. The corresponding cathode for use with the lithium-alloy anodes is mainly iron disulfide (pyrite) with cobalt disulfide being used for high-power applications. The electrolyte is normally a eutectic mixture of lithium chloride
Lithium chloride
Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl. The salt is a typical ionic compound, although the small size of the Li+ ion gives rise to properties not seen for other alkali metal chlorides, such as extraordinary solubility in polar solvents and its hygroscopic...

 and potassium chloride
Potassium chloride
The chemical compound potassium chloride is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. In its pure state, it is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance, with a crystal structure that cleaves easily in three directions. Potassium chloride crystals are...

. More recently, other lower-melting, eutectic electrolytes based on lithium bromide
Lithium bromide
Lithium bromide, or LiBr, is a chemical compound of lithium and bromine. Its extreme hygroscopic character makes LiBr useful as a desiccant in certain air conditioning systems.-Production and properties:...

, potassium bromide
Potassium bromide
Potassium bromide is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the United States. Its action is due to the bromide ion...

, and lithium chloride or lithium fluoride
Lithium fluoride
Lithium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula LiF. It is the lithium salt of hydrofluoric acid. This white solid is a simple ionic compound. Its structure is analogous to that of sodium chloride, but it is much less soluble in water. It is mainly used as a component of molten...

 have also been used to provide longer operational lifetimes; they are also better conductors. The so-called "all-lithium" electrolyte based on lithium chloride
Lithium chloride
Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl. The salt is a typical ionic compound, although the small size of the Li+ ion gives rise to properties not seen for other alkali metal chlorides, such as extraordinary solubility in polar solvents and its hygroscopic...

, lithium bromide
Lithium bromide
Lithium bromide, or LiBr, is a chemical compound of lithium and bromine. Its extreme hygroscopic character makes LiBr useful as a desiccant in certain air conditioning systems.-Production and properties:...

, and lithium fluoride
Lithium fluoride
Lithium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula LiF. It is the lithium salt of hydrofluoric acid. This white solid is a simple ionic compound. Its structure is analogous to that of sodium chloride, but it is much less soluble in water. It is mainly used as a component of molten...

 (no potassium salts) is also used for high-power applications, because of its high ionic conductivity.

These batteries are used almost exclusively for military applications i.e. "one-shot" weapons such as guided missiles. However, the same technology was also studied by Argonne National Laboratories in the 1980s for possible use in electric vehicle
Electric vehicle
An electric vehicle , also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion...

s, since the technology is rechargeable.

A radioisotope thermal generator, e.g. pellets of 90SrTiO4, can be used for long-term delivery of heat for the battery after activation, keeping it in molten state.http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4054724.html

Secondary cells


Since the mid-1960s much development work has been undertaken on rechargeable batteries using sodium
Sodium
Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

 (Na) for the negative
Electrical polarity
Electrical polarity is present in every electrical circuit. Electrons flow from the negative pole to the positive pole. In a direct current circuit, one pole is always negative, the other pole is always positive and the electrons flow in one direction only...

 electrode
Electrode
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit...

s. Sodium is attractive because of its high reduction potential
Reduction potential
Reduction potential is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced. Reduction potential is measured in volts , or millivolts...

 of -2.71 volt
Volt
The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. The volt is named in honor of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta , who invented the voltaic pile, possibly the first chemical battery.- Definition :A single volt is defined as the...

s, its low weight, its non-toxic nature, its relative abundance and ready availability and its low cost. In order to construct practical batteries, the sodium must be used in liquid form. Since the melting point
Melting point
The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard atmospheric pressure...

 of sodium is 98 °C (208.4 °F) this means that sodium based batteries must operate at high temperatures, typically in excess of 270 °C (518 °F).

Sodium-sulfur battery
Sodium-sulfur battery
A sodium–sulfur battery or liquid metal battery is a type of molten metal battery constructed from sodium and sulfur . This type of battery has a high energy density, high efficiency of charge/discharge and long cycle life, and is fabricated from inexpensive materials...

 and lithium sulfur battery
Lithium sulfur battery
The lithium–sulfur battery is a rechargeable galvanic cell with a very high energy density. By virtue of the low atomic weight of lithium and moderate weight of sulfur, Li–S batteries are relatively light; about the density of water. They were demonstrated on the longest and highest-altitude...

 comprise two of the more advanced systems of the molten salt batteries. The NaS battery has reached a more advanced developmental stage than its lithium counterpart; it is more attractive since it employs cheap and abundant electrode materials. Thus the first commercial battery produced was the sodium-sulfur battery which used liquid sulfur
Sulfur
Sulfur or sulphur is the chemical element with atomic number 16. In the periodic table it is represented by the symbol S. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow...

 for the positive electrode and a ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

 tube of beta-alumina solid electrolyte
Beta-alumina solid electrolyte
Beta-alumina solid electrolyte is a fast ion conductor material used as a membrane in several types of molten salt electrochemical cell...

 (BASE) for the electrolyte. Corrosion of the insulators was found to be a problem in the harsh chemical environment as they gradually became conductive and the self-discharge rate increased. A further problem of dendritic-sodium growth in Na/S batteries led to the development of the ZEBRA battery. The possibility of construction of Potassium-ion battery
Potassium-ion battery
The potassium-ion battery was first invented by the American/Iranian chemist, Ali Eftekhari, in 2004 as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries. The battery uses Prussian blue as the cathode material for its stability, the prototype could be successfully used for millions of cycles...

 by molten electrolyte has been recently patented.

ZEBRA battery


The ZEBRA battery operates at 245 °C (473 °F) and utilizes molten
Mölten
Mölten is a comune in South Tyrol in the Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about 60 km north of Trento and about 12 km northwest of Bolzano .-Geography:...

 sodium aluminumchloride (NaAlCl4), which has a melting point of 157 °C (314.6 °F), as the electrolyte. The negative electrode is molten sodium. The positive electrode is nickel
Nickel
Nickel is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile...

 in the discharged state and nickel chloride in the charged state. Because nickel and nickel chloride are nearly insoluble in neutral and basic melts, intimate contact is allowed, providing little resistance
Electrical resistance
The electrical resistance of an electrical element is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that element; the inverse quantity is electrical conductance, the ease at which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical...

 to charge transfer. Since both NaAlCl4 and Na are liquid at the operating temperature, a sodium-conducting β-alumina ceramic is used to separate the liquid sodium from the molten NaAlCl4. This battery was invented in 1985 by the Zeolite Battery Research Africa Project (ZEBRA) group led by Dr. Johan Coetzer at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research is South Africa's central and premier scientific research and development organisation. It was established by an act of parliament in 1945 and is situated on its own campus in the city of Pretoria...

 in Pretoria, South Africa, hence the name ZEBRA battery. In 2009, the battery had been under development for more than 20 years. The technical name for the battery is Na-NiCl2 battery.

The ZEBRA battery has an attractive specific energy and power (90 Wh/kg and 150 W/kg). For comparison, LiFePO4 lithium iron phosphate batteries store 90–110 Wh/kg and the more common LiCoO2 lithium ion batteries store 150–200 Wh/kg. Nano Lithium-Titanate Batteries
Lithium-titanate battery
The lithium–titanate battery is a type of rechargeable battery, which has the advantage of being faster to charge than other lithium-ion batteries. Some analysts speculate that lithium–titanate batteries will power electric cars of the future....

 store 72 Wh/kg energy and can provide a power of 760 W/kg . The ZEBRA's liquid electrolyte freezes at 157 °C (314.6 °F), and the normal operating temperature range is 270 °C (518 °F) to 350 °C (662 °F).

The β-alumina solid electrolyte that has been developed for this system is very stable, both to sodium metal and the sodium aluminumchloride. The primary elements used in the manufacture of ZEBRA batteries, Na
Sodium
Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

, Cl
Chlorine
Chlorine is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is the second lightest halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17. The element forms diatomic molecules under standard conditions, called dichlorine...

 and Al
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

 have much higher worldwide reserves and annual production than the Li
Lithium
Lithium is a soft, silver-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. It is represented by the symbol Li, and it has the atomic number 3. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly...

 used in Li-ion batteries. Lifetimes of over 1500 cycles and five years have been demonstrated with full-sized batteries, and over 3000 cycles and eight years with 10- and 20-cell modules.

Vehicles powered by ZEBRA batteries


Vehicles powered by ZEBRA batteries have covered more than 2 million km. Modec
Modec
Modec was a Coventry, UK electric vehicle manufacturer, specialising in Commercial vehicles in the N2 category. It unveiled its first model in April 2006 and announced its intention to commence series production in March 2007, with the first production vehicles destined for Tesco...

 Electric Van uses ZEBRA batteries for the 2007 model and the IVECO daily 3.5 ton delivery vehicle was announced in mid 2010 The Th!nk City
Th!nk City
The Th!nk City is a small two-seater or 2+2-seater highway capable electric car produced by Think Global and production partner Valmet Automotive, with a top speed of and an all-electric range of on a full charge....

also offers a ZEBRA battery option. In 2011, the US Postal Service began testing five delivery vans that had been converted to all-electric power, one of which uses a ZEBRA battery.

When not in use, ZEBRA batteries are typically left under charge so that they will remain molten and be ready for use when needed. If shut down and allowed to solidify, a reheating process must be initiated that may require up to two days to restore the battery pack to the desired temperature and impart a full charge. This reheating time varies depending on the state-of-charge of the batteries at the time of their shut down, battery-pack temperature, and power available for reheating. After a full shut down of the battery pack, three to four days will usually elapse before a fully charged battery pack loses enough energy to cool and solidify.