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Mogadishu

Mogadishu

Overview


Mogadishu popularly known as Xamar, is the largest city in Somalia
Somalia
Somalia , officially the Somali Republic and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory...

 and the nation's capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

. Located in the coastal Benadir
Benadir
Benadir is a coastal region of Somalia. It covers most of the Indian Ocean coast of the country, from the Gulf of Aden to the Juba River, containing the capital of Mogadishu. The name comes from Persian bandar, which means port , a fact that reflects the region's importance to Persian and Arab...

 region on the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

, the city has served as an important port for centuries.

Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was historically inhabited by hunter-gatherer
Hunter-gatherer
A hunter-gatherer or forage society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was the ancestral subsistence mode of Homo, and all modern humans were...

s of Bushman
Bushmen
The indigenous people of Southern Africa, whose territory spans most areas of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola, are variously referred to as Bushmen, San, Sho, Barwa, Kung, or Khwe...

 physical stock. These were later joined by Cushitic
Cushitic languages
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family spoken in the Horn of Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Sudan and Egypt. They are named after the Biblical character Cush, who was identified as an ancestor of the speakers of these specific languages as early as AD 947...

 agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies.
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Encyclopedia


Mogadishu popularly known as Xamar, is the largest city in Somalia
Somalia
Somalia , officially the Somali Republic and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory...

 and the nation's capital
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

. Located in the coastal Benadir
Benadir
Benadir is a coastal region of Somalia. It covers most of the Indian Ocean coast of the country, from the Gulf of Aden to the Juba River, containing the capital of Mogadishu. The name comes from Persian bandar, which means port , a fact that reflects the region's importance to Persian and Arab...

 region on the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

, the city has served as an important port for centuries.

Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was historically inhabited by hunter-gatherer
Hunter-gatherer
A hunter-gatherer or forage society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was the ancestral subsistence mode of Homo, and all modern humans were...

s of Bushman
Bushmen
The indigenous people of Southern Africa, whose territory spans most areas of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola, are variously referred to as Bushmen, San, Sho, Barwa, Kung, or Khwe...

 physical stock. These were later joined by Cushitic
Cushitic languages
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family spoken in the Horn of Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Sudan and Egypt. They are named after the Biblical character Cush, who was identified as an ancestor of the speakers of these specific languages as early as AD 947...

 agro-pastoralists, who would go on to establish local aristocracies. Starting in the late 9th or 10th centuries, Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

 and Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 traders also began to settle in the region.

During its medieval Golden Age, Mogadishu was ruled by the Somali-Arab Muzaffar dynasty, a vassal of the Ajuuraan State
Ajuuraan State
The Ajuuraan state or Ajuuraan sultanate was a Somali Muslim empire that ruled over large parts of East Africa in the Middle Ages. Through a strong centralized administration and an aggressive military stance towards invaders, the Ajuuraan Empire successfully resisted an Oromo invasion from the...

. It subsequently fell under the control of an assortment of local Sultanates and polities, most notably the Gobroon Dynasty
Gobroon Dynasty
The Gobroon dynasty or Geledi sultanate was a Somali royal house that ruled parts of East Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries. It was established by the Ajuuraan soldier Ibrahim Adeer, who had defeated various vassals of the Ajuuraan Empire and established the House of Gobroon...

. The city later became the capital of Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland , also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy from the 1880s until 1936 in the region of modern-day Somalia. Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Sultanate of Hobyo and the Majeerteen Sultanate, the territory was later acquired by Italy through various...

 in the colonial period.

After the ousting of the Siad Barre
Siad Barre
Mohamed Siad Barre was the military dictator and President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991. During his rule, he styled himself as Jaalle Siyaad ....

 regime and the ensuing civil war
Somali Civil War
The Somali Civil War is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia. The conflict, which began in 1991, has caused destabilisation throughout the country, with the current phase of the conflict seeing the Somali government losing substantial control of the state to rebel forces...

, various militias fought for control of the city, later to be replaced by the Islamic Courts Union. The ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups, notably Al Shabaab, which have since been fighting the Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
The Transitional Federal Government is the current internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia. It was established as one of the Transitional Federal Institutions of government as defined in the Transitional Federal Charter adopted in November 2004 by the Transitional...

 and its AMISOM allies. With a change in administration in late 2010, federal control of Mogadishu steadily expanded. The pace of territorial gains also greatly accelerated, as more trained government and AMISOM troops entered the city. In early August 2011, government troops and their AMISOM partners had reportedly succeeded in forcing out Al-Shabaab from the parts of the city that the group had previously controlled.

Etymology


The name "Mogadishu" is held to be derived from the Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 مقعد شاه Maq'ad-i-Shah ("The seat of the Shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

"), a reflection of the city's early Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 influence.

Early history




Tradition and old records assert that southern Somalia, including the Mogadishu area, was inhabited in early historic times by hunter-gatherer
Hunter-gatherer
A hunter-gatherer or forage society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was the ancestral subsistence mode of Homo, and all modern humans were...

s of Bushman
Bushmen
The indigenous people of Southern Africa, whose territory spans most areas of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, and Angola, are variously referred to as Bushmen, San, Sho, Barwa, Kung, or Khwe...

 stock. Although most of these early inhabitants are believed to have been either overwhelmed, driven away or, in some cases, assimilated by later migrants to the area, physical traces of their occupation survive in certain ethnic minority groups inhabiting modern-day Jubaland
Jubaland
Jubaland , also known as Azania or the Juba Valley and formerly as Trans-Juba , is an autonomous region in southern Somalia. Its eastern border lies 40–60 km east of the Jubba River, stretching from Gedo to the Indian Ocean, while its western side flanks the North Eastern Province in...

 and other parts of the south. The latter descendants include relict populations such as the Eile, the Wa-Ribi, and especially the Wa-Boni. By the time of the arrival of peoples from the Cushitic
Cushitic languages
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family spoken in the Horn of Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Sudan and Egypt. They are named after the Biblical character Cush, who was identified as an ancestor of the speakers of these specific languages as early as AD 947...

 Rahanweyn
Rahanweyn
The Rahanweyn is a Somali clan, composed of two major sub-clans, the Digil and the Mirifle. It makes up about 17% of the population of Somalia, and is one of the five major Somali clans residing in the Horn of Africa.-Overview:The Digil sub-clan mainly consists of farmers and coastal people, while...

 or Digil and Mirifle clan confederacy, who would go on to establish a local aristocracy, other Cushitic groups affiliated with the Oromo
Oromo people
The Oromo are an ethnic group found in Ethiopia, northern Kenya, .and parts of Somalia. With 30 million members, they constitute the single largest ethnic group in Ethiopia and approximately 34.49% of the population according to the 2007 census...

 (Wardai) and Ajuuraan (Ma'adanle) had already formed settlements of their own in the sub-region.

According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and India...

, a Greek travel document dating from the turn of the Common Era, maritime trade already connected peoples in the Mogadishu area with other communities along the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

 coast.
The Sultanate of Mogadishu later developed with the immigration of Emozeidi Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

s, a community whose earliest presence dates back to the 9th or 10th century. This evolved into the Muzaffar dynasty, a joint Somali
Somali people
Somalis are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa, also known as the Somali Peninsula. The overwhelming majority of Somalis speak the Somali language, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family...

-Arab federation of rulers, and Mogadishu became closely linked with the powerful Somali Ajuuraan State
Ajuuraan State
The Ajuuraan state or Ajuuraan sultanate was a Somali Muslim empire that ruled over large parts of East Africa in the Middle Ages. Through a strong centralized administration and an aggressive military stance towards invaders, the Ajuuraan Empire successfully resisted an Oromo invasion from the...

.

Following his visit to the city, the 12th century Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

n historian Yaqut al-Hamawi
Yaqut al-Hamawi
Yāqūt ibn-'Abdullah al-Rūmī al-Hamawī) was an Islamic biographer and geographer renowned for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world. "al-Rumi" refers to his Greek descent; "al-Hamawi" means that he is from Hama, Syria, and ibn-Abdullah is a reference to his father's name, Abdullah...

 wrote that it was inhabited by dark-skinned Berbers, the ancestors of the modern Somalis.

For many years, Mogadishu stood as the pre-eminent city in the بلاد البربر Bilad-ul-Barbar ("Land of the Berbers
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

"), which was the medieval Arabic term for the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden. It is the easternmost projection of the African continent...

.

By the time of the Moroccan
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

 traveller Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta , or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din , was a Muslim Moroccan Berber explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla...

's appearance on the Somali coast in 1331, the city was at the zenith of its prosperity. Battuta described Mogadishu as "an exceedingly large city" with many rich merchants, which was famous for its high quality fabric
Textile
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands...

 that it exported to Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, among other places. He added that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan
Sultan
Sultan is a title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", and "dictatorship", derived from the masdar سلطة , meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who...

 originally from Berbera
Berbera
Berbera is a city and seat of Berbera District in Somaliland, a self-proclaimed Independent Republic with de facto control over its own territory, which is recognized by the international community and the Somali Government as a part of Somalia...

 in northern Somalia who spoke both Somali
Somali language
The Somali language is a member of the East Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Its nearest relatives are Afar and Oromo. Somali is the best documented of the Cushitic languages, with academic studies beginning before 1900....

 (referred to by Battuta as Mogadishan, the Benadir
Benadir
Benadir is a coastal region of Somalia. It covers most of the Indian Ocean coast of the country, from the Gulf of Aden to the Juba River, containing the capital of Mogadishu. The name comes from Persian bandar, which means port , a fact that reflects the region's importance to Persian and Arab...

 dialect of Somali) and Arabic with equal fluency. The Sultan also had a retinue of wazir
Vizier
A vizier or in Arabic script ; ; sometimes spelled vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir, or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in a Muslim government....

s (ministers), legal experts, commanders, royal eunuch
Eunuch
A eunuch is a person born male most commonly castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences...

s, and other officials at his beck and call.

The Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 would later attempt to occupy the city, but never managed to take it. The Hawiye
Hawiye
The Hawiye is a Somali clan. Members of the clan primarily live in central and southern Somalia, in the Ogaden and the North Eastern Province , and in smaller numbers in other countries. Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their ancestry to Irir Samaale...

 Somali, however, were successful in defeating the Ajuuraan State and bringing about the end of Muzaffar rule.

1800s-1950s


By 1892, Mogadishu was under the joint control of the Somali Geledi Sultanate
Gobroon Dynasty
The Gobroon dynasty or Geledi sultanate was a Somali royal house that ruled parts of East Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries. It was established by the Ajuuraan soldier Ibrahim Adeer, who had defeated various vassals of the Ajuuraan Empire and established the House of Gobroon...

 (which, also holding sway over the Shebelle region in the interior, was at the height of its power) and the Arab Sultan of Zanzibar.

In 1892, Ali bin Said
Ali bin Said of Zanzibar
Sayyid Ali bin Said Al-Busaid, GCSI, was the fourth Sultan of Zanzibar. He ruled Zanzibar from February 13, 1890 to March 5, 1893, and was succeeded by his nephew, Hamad bin Thuwaini Al-Busaid.-Titles:...

 leased the city to Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. Italy purchased the city in 1905 and made Mogadishu the capital of the newly-established Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland , also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy from the 1880s until 1936 in the region of modern-day Somalia. Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Sultanate of Hobyo and the Majeerteen Sultanate, the territory was later acquired by Italy through various...

. After World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, the surrounding territory came under Italian control with some resistance.

Thousands of Italian colonists moved to live in Mogadishu and founded small manufacturing companies. They also developed some agricultural areas around the capital such as the Villaggio duca degli Abruzzi and the Genale.

In the 1930s, new buildings and avenues were built. A 114 km narrow-gauge railway was laid from Mogadishu to Jowhar
Jowhar
Jowhar is the capital town of the Shabeellaha Dhexe region of Somalia . Along with Baidoa, it used to form the joint administrative capital of the Transitional Federal Government, which captured it from the Islamic Courts Union....

, then called "Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi". An asphalted road, the Strada Imperiale, was also constructed, intended to link Mogadishu to Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia...

.

Mogadishu remained the capital of Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland
Italian Somaliland , also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy from the 1880s until 1936 in the region of modern-day Somalia. Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Sultanate of Hobyo and the Majeerteen Sultanate, the territory was later acquired by Italy through various...

 throughout the existence of the latter, and became the capital of independent Somalia
Somalia
Somalia , officially the Somali Republic and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory...

 in 1960.

Modern history



Rebel forces entered and took the city in 1990, forcing the then President of Somalia, Mohamed Siad Barre, to flee in 1991 to Kenya
Kenya
Kenya , officially known as the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa that lies on the equator, with the Indian Ocean to its south-east...

. One faction proclaimed Ali Mahdi Muhammad
Ali Mahdi Muhammad
Ali Mahdi Muhammad was president of Somalia from January 1991 to November 1991. He rose to power when Mohamed Farrah Aidid forced then president Mohamed Siad Barre out of office. Muhammad, however, was not able in that time to exert control over the country...

 president, another Mohamed Farrah Aidid
Mohamed Farrah Aidid
General Mohamed Ali Farrah Aidid was a controversial Somali military leader, often described as a warlord. A former general and diplomat, he was the chairman of the United Somali Congress and later led the Somali National Alliance...

. A contingent of United States Marines
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 landed near Mogadishu on December 9, 1992 to spearhead the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping is an activity that aims to create the conditions for lasting peace. It is distinguished from both peacebuilding and peacemaking....

 forces during Operation Restore Hope, in which Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 and Malaysia also participated.

Following Operation Restore Hope, tension escalated when militia loyal to warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid attacked Pakistani peacekeeping troops, killing 24 soldiers. In response, the US deployed Task Force Ranger, a contingent of US special operations forces, including Army Rangers, Delta operators, and specialized aviation units to Somalia. Their mission was to capture or kill Aidid and dismantle his clan leadership structure. The operation
Operation Gothic Serpent
Operation Gothic Serpent was a military operation conducted by special operations forces of the United States with the primary mission of capturing warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid...

 culminated in a fierce street battle between SNA militia and US soldiers on October 3-4, 1993. During the battle, SNA soldiers successfully shot down two US Army MH-60 Black Hawk helicopters which crashed within the Aidid-controlled sections of the city. The Rangers immediately secured one of the crash sites and held off the attacking SNA forces through the night while awaiting support from a UN armored convoy which arrived the following morning. During the battle, 18 U.S. soldiers died and 73 were injured. The Malaysian forces lost one soldier and had seven injured, while the Pakistanis suffered two injured. Casualties on the Somali side were heavy, with estimates on fatalities ranging from 500 to over 2,000 people. The Somali casualties were a mixture of SNA forces, clan militia, and local civilians, many of whom took up arms against the US forces. After the battle, one or more US casualties of the conflict were dragged through the streets of Mogadishu by crowds of local civilians and SNA forces. Two days later, a mortar round fell on the U.S. compound, killing one U.S. soldier, and injuring another twelve.

Mogadishu was subsequently run by competing warlord
Warlord
A warlord is a person with power who has both military and civil control over a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. The term can also mean one who espouses the ideal that war is necessary, and has the means and authority to engage in war...

s until 2006, when Islamists
Islamism
Islamism also , lit., "Political Islam" is set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only a religion but also a political system. Islamism is a controversial term, and definitions of it sometimes vary...

 and businessmen formed a successful coalition government, which came to be known as the Islamic Courts Union (ICU). The ICU seized control of the entire country, except for the town of Baidoa
Baidoa
Baidoa is a city in south-central Somalia, situated by road northwest of the capital Mogadishu. It is the capital of the Bay region, which is traditionally inhabited by the Digil and Mirifle clans....

, which was held by the Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
The Transitional Federal Government is the current internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia. It was established as one of the Transitional Federal Institutions of government as defined in the Transitional Federal Charter adopted in November 2004 by the Transitional...

, the internationally recognized government of Somalia. Later that same year, the Ethiopian military ousted the ICU and restored the internationally-recognized government, which had long remained in exile in Kenya, with Baidoa being its only Somali foothold.

Mogadishu was the scene of bitter warfare and devastation caused by fighting
War in Somalia (2006–present)
The War in Somalia was an armed conflict involving largely Ethiopian and Somali Transitional Federal Government forces and Somali troops from Puntland versus the Somali Islamist umbrella group, the Islamic Court Union , and other affiliated militias for control of the country. There is a clear...

 between Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

n and Somali government troops, and Islamist guerrillas. Fighting escalated in March–April 2007
Battle of Mogadishu (March–April 2007)
The Battle of Mogadishu began on 21 March 2007 in the Shirkole area of Mogadishu between Somali Transitional Federal Government forces and Ethiopian troops, and Islamist insurgents.-First round of fighting:...

, November 2007
Battle of Mogadishu (November 2007)
The November 2007 Battle of Mogadishu was a series of confrontations in Mogadishu, Somalia in which 91 people died, mostly civilians killed by Ethiopian troops....

 and April 2008
Battle of Mogadishu (2008)
The 2008 Battle of Mogadishu began when Ethiopian soldiers started entering insurgent-held parts of the city which sparked heavy street fighting. Between 126 and 142 people died in the fighting.- Timeline :...

 with hundreds of civilian casualties. In October 2008, the BBC reported that the city had been "abandoned by at least half of its residents", and that there were "street after ruined street of bombed-out buildings in the center of Mogadishu".
As of 2008, a 2,700-strong African Union
African Union
The African Union is a union consisting of 54 African states. The only all-African state not in the AU is Morocco. Established on 9 July 2002, the AU was formed as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity...

 peacekeeping force is attempting to bring stability and security to the city, as well as providing medical aid to the population.

Since May 8, 2009, there has been an increase in violence reportedly leading to the displacement of more than 165,000 of the inhabitants. The violence has culminated in several suicide bomb attacks, normally rare occurrences in Somalia. The attacks have claimed many lives, amongst them Mohamed Hussein Addow, a legislative politician and the third high-profile public killing in as many days throughout the country.

During the holy month of Ramadan
Ramadan
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, which lasts 29 or 30 days. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking and sex during daylight hours and is intended to teach Muslims about patience, spirituality, humility and...

 in 2010, Al-Shabaab militants launched one of their largest offensives ever. The Transitional Federal Government's troops and their AMISOM allies managed to successfully fend off the attack, marking the turning of the tide for battle of control over the city. A new government was subsequently elected in November of the year, which, in its first 50 days in power, has managed to make steady gains in territory. By May 2011, the TFG and its AMISOM allies managed to secure control of 60% of Mogadishu, where 80% of the city's population now lives. With almost a thousand newly-trained government troops, augmented by an additional 4000 AMISOM soldiers, the pace of territorial gains greatly accelerated. In early August 2011, after two weeks of heavy fighting, government troops and their AMISOM partners had reportedly succeeded in forcing out Al-Shabaab insurgents from the parts of the city that the militants had previously controlled.

Ethnic groups


Mogadishu is a multi-ethnic city. Its original core population consisted of Bushmen aboriginals, and later Cushitic, Arab and Persian migrants. During the Arab slave trade
Arab slave trade
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab World, mainly Western Asia, North Africa, East Africa and certain parts of Europe during their period of domination by Arab leaders. The trade was focused on the slave markets of the Middle East and North Africa...

, many Bantu
Somali Bantu
The Somali Bantu are a minority ethnic group in Somalia. They primarily reside in southern Somalia, near the Juba and Shabelle rivers, and are the descendants of people from various Bantu ethnic groups originating from what are modern-day Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique who were sold into Somalia...

 peoples were brought in for agricultural work from the market in Zanzibar. The mixture of these various groups produced the Benadiri
Benadiri people
The Benadiri people , also known as Reer Xamar or "people of Mogadishu", are an ethnic group in Somalia.-Overview:The Benadiri traditionally live in Mogadishu, Merca and Barawa on the Benadir coast, and are principally engaged in business and fishing...

 or Reer Xamar (“People of Mogadishu”), a composite population unique to the larger Benadir region. In the colonial period, European expatriates, primarily Italians
Italian Somalians
Italian Somalis or Italo Somalis are Somali descendants from Italian colonists, as well as Italian long-term residents in Somalia.- History :...

, would also contribute to the city's cosmopolitan populace.

The main area of inhabitation of Bantu ethnic minorities in Somalia has historically been in village enclaves in the south; particularly between the Jubba
Jubba River
The Jubba River is a river in southern Somalia. It begins at the border with Ethiopia, where the Dawa and Ganale Dorya rivers meet, and flows directly south to the Indian Ocean, where it empties at the Goobweyn juncture.-History:...

 and Shebelle
Shebelle River
The Shebelle River begins in the highlands of Ethiopia, and then flows southeast into Somalia towards Mogadishu. Near Mogadishu, it turns sharply southwest, where it follows the coast. Below Mogadishu, the river becomes seasonal...

 river valleys as well as the Bakool
Bakool
-Overiew:It is bordered by the Ogaden and the Somalian regions of Hiiraan, Bay and Gedo.Bakool, like Gedo and Bay, as well as most parts of the Jubbada Dhexe region, used to be a part of the old Upper Region, which was subdivided in the mid 1980s...

 and Bay
Bay, Somalia
Bay is an administrative region in southern Somalia.-Overview:It is bordered by the Somalian regions of Bakool, Lower Shabele, Middle Juba and Gedo....

 regions, though a few subsisting as fishermen could also be found in areas further north. Beginning in the 1970s, more Bantus began moving to urban centers such as Mogadishu and Kismayo. By the late 1980s, over 40 percent of Mogadishu's population consisted of individuals from ethnic minority groups. The displacement caused by the onset of the civil war in the 1990s further increased the number of rural Bantu migrating to urban areas. As a consequence of these movements, Mogadishu's traditional demographic makeup has changed significantly over the years.

Geography


Mogadishu is located at 2°4′N 45°22′E. The Shebelle River
Shebelle River
The Shebelle River begins in the highlands of Ethiopia, and then flows southeast into Somalia towards Mogadishu. Near Mogadishu, it turns sharply southwest, where it follows the coast. Below Mogadishu, the river becomes seasonal...

 (Webiga Shabelle) rises in central Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

 and comes within 30 kilometres (18.6 mi) of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

 near Mogadishu before turning southwestward. Usually dry during February and March, the river provides water essential for the cultivation of sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum . Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six metres tall...

, cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

, and banana
Banana
Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red....

s.

Features of the city include the Hamarwein old town, the Bakaara Market
Bakaara Market
The Bakaara Market is an open market in Mogadishu, Somalia, and the largest in the nation. The name Bakaaraha derives from the Somali word for grain silo or storage, baqaar.The market was created in late 1972 during the reign of Mohamed Siad Barre...

, and the former resort of Gezira Beach
Gezira Beach
Gezira Beach is a former tourist attraction of the city of Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.In July 1989 Gezira beach was the site of a mass extrajudcial execution by security forces of 47 members of the Isaaq....

. The sandy beaches of Mogadishu are reported by the few Western travelers to be among the most beautiful in the world, offering easy access to vibrant coral reefs.

Administrative divisions



Mogadishu is situated in Banaadir
Banaadir
Banaadir is a region in southeastern Somalia.-Overview:The Somali term Banaadir derives from the original Persian word بندر bandar, meaning "port" or "harbour"...

, an administrative region (gobolka) in southeastern Somalia. The region itself is coextensive with the city and is much smaller than the historical province of Benadir
Benadir
Benadir is a coastal region of Somalia. It covers most of the Indian Ocean coast of the country, from the Gulf of Aden to the Juba River, containing the capital of Mogadishu. The name comes from Persian bandar, which means port , a fact that reflects the region's importance to Persian and Arab...

.

Mogadishu is thus officially divided into fourteen administrative districts:
  • Abdiaziz District
    Abdiaziz District
    Abdiaziz District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia.-External links:*...

  • Bondhere District
    Bondhere District
    Bondhere District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia....

  • Dharkenley District
    Dharkenley District
    Dharkenley District is a district of Banaadir, Somalia....

  • Hamar-Jajab District
    Hamar-Jajab District
    Hamar Jajab district is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia....

  • Hamar-Weyne District
    Hamar-Weyne District
    Hamar Weyne District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region Somalia....

  • Hodan District
    Hodan District
    Hodan District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia....

  • Howl-Wadag District
    Howl-Wadag District
    Hawle Wadag District is a district in the central Banaadir region of Somalia....

  • Kaaraan District
    Kaaraan District
    Karan District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia....

  • Shangaani District
    Shangaani District
    Shangani District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia....

  • Shibis District
    Shibis District
    Shibis District is a district of the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia. One of the oldest districts in Mogadishu, it is bordered by Karan District, Yaqshid District, Bondhere District and Abdiaziz District....

  • Waabari District
    Waabari District
    Waberi District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia....

  • Wadajir District
    Wadajir District
    Wadajir District is a district of the Awdal region in northwestern Somalia. Local control of the district is disputed between Awdalland, a proposed autonomous state, and Somaliland, a self-declared republic that is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia....

  • Wardhiigley District
    Wardhiigley District
    Wardhigley District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia....

  • Yaaqshiid District
    Yaaqshiid District
    Yaqshid District is a district in the southeastern Banaadir region of Somalia....


Climate


For a city situated so near the equator
Equator
An equator is the intersection of a sphere's surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and containing the sphere's center of mass....

, Mogadishu has a dry climate. It is classified as hot and semi-arid (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSh). Much of the land the city lies upon is desert
Desert
A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Most deserts have an average annual precipitation of less than...

 terrain. The city has a low annual rainfall of 427mm, most which falls in the wet season
Wet season
The the wet season, or rainy season, is the time of year, covering one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region occurs. The term green season is also sometimes used as a euphemism by tourist authorities. Areas with wet seasons are dispersed across portions of the...

. The rains are very variable from year to year, and drought
Drought
A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region...

 is a constant problem for the people living in Somalia.

Sunshine
Sunshine
Sunshine is sunlight, the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun, especially in the visible wavelengths.Sunshine may also refer to:-Film and television:*Sunshine , a historical film directed by István Szabó...

 is abundant in the city, averaging eight to ten hours a day year-round. It is lowest during the wet season, when there is some coastal fog and greater cloud coverage as warm air passes over the cool sea surface.

Economy



Mogadishu traditionally served as a commercial and financial center.
Before the introduction of mass-produced cloth from Europe and America, the textiles of Mogadishu were forwarded far and wide throughout the interior of the continent, as well as to Arabia and even as far as the Persian coast
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

.

The economy has recovered somewhat from the civil unrest, faring relatively better than other Somali cities, although the Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War
The Somali Civil War is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia. The conflict, which began in 1991, has caused destabilisation throughout the country, with the current phase of the conflict seeing the Somali government losing substantial control of the state to rebel forces...

 still presents many problems. Hotels and other businesses have hired private security militias to provide protection and ensure the normal course of business.

Principal industries include food and beverage processing and textiles, especially cotton gin
Cotton gin
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, a job formerly performed painstakingly by hand...

ning. The main market offers goods from food to electronic gadgets.

Hormuud Telecom
Hormuud Telecom
Hormuud Telecom Somalia Inc. is a privately held telecommunications company established in April 2002 in Somalia. It has its headquarters in Mogadishu.-Overview:More than 600 Somali investors have shares in Hormuud Telecom...

, the largest telecommunication
Telecommunication
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded...

s company in southern and central Somalia, has its headquarters in Mogadishu. Telcom
Telcom
Telcom is a telecommunications network operator in Somalia. It is the first major privately-owned company providing telecommunications services to Somali cities.-Overview:...

 is another telecommunications service provider
Telecommunications Service Provider
A telecommunications service provider or TSP is a type of communications service provider that has traditionally provided telephone and similar services...

 based in the city.

Jubba Airways
Jubba Airways
-History:It was founded in 1998 by two Calgary-based Somali entrepreneurs, Said Nur Qailie and Abdi Hashi Dalel.On May 1998, a month after the company had been established, the airline embarked on its first voyage...

 has its head office in Mogadishu.

Transportation



Road


Roads leading out of Mogadishu connect the city to other localities in Somalia and to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

 and Kenya
Kenya
Kenya , officially known as the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa that lies on the equator, with the Indian Ocean to its south-east...

. The city itself is cut into a several grid layouts by an extensive road network. Due to neglect brought on by the protracted civil war, there are few paved roads, but numerous unpaved and back streets throughout the city. The roads support the flow of both vehicular and pedestrian traffic. With the ouster of the Al-Shabaab rebels from the city in mid 2011, large-scale rehabilitation of roads and general infrastructure has begun.

Air


During the post-independence period, Mogadishu International Airport
Mogadishu International Airport
Aden Adde International Airport , formerly known as Mogadishu International Airport, is the international airport for Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia. It is named after Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, the first President of Somalia....

 offered flights to numerous global destinations. In the mid-1960s, the airport was enlarged to accommodate more international carriers, with the state-owned Somali Airlines
Somali Airlines
Somali Airlines was the flag carrier of Somalia.-History and destinations:The carrier was formed in March 1964 as the national airline of the country with the aid of Alitalia, which initially held a 50% controlling stake in the company, and the Somali government held the balance...

 providing regular trips to all major cities. By 1969, the airport's many landing grounds could also host small jets and DC 6B-type aircraft.

The facility grew considerably in size in the post-independence period after numerous successive renovation projects. With the outbreak of the civil war in the early 1990s, Mogadishu International Airport's flight services experienced routine disruptions and its grounds and equipment were largely destroyed. In the late 2000s, the K50 Airport
K50 Airport
-Overview:Its name is derived from its location, about 50 kilometres south of Mogadishu. In the late 2000s, K50 served as Mogadishu's main airport while Aden Adde International Airport briefly shut down due to the ongoing War in Somalia. Daallo Airlines operates routes to and from K50.-Airlines and...

, situated 50 kilometers south of the capital, served as the capital's main airport while Mogadishu International Airport, now renamed Aden Adde International Airport, briefly shut down. However, in the late 2010 period, the security situation in Mogadishu had significantly improved, with the federal government eventually managing to assume full control of the city by August of the following year.

In late 2010, SKA Air and Logistics, a Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

-based aviation firm that specializes in conflict zones, was contracted by Somalia's Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
The Transitional Federal Government is the current internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia. It was established as one of the Transitional Federal Institutions of government as defined in the Transitional Federal Charter adopted in November 2004 by the Transitional...

 to manage operations over a period of ten years at the re-opened Aden Adde International Airport. With concurrent activities in Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, among other complex areas, the company is expected to run security screening, passenger security and terminals. SKA staff has also begun re-training Somalian airport personnel for the purpose. Although flights and other airport operations are presently limited to daylight hours, the firm is working on expanding activities once runway lighting and other features have been restored.

As of 2011, the largest services using Adden Adde International Airport include the Somali-owned private carriers Jubba Airways
Jubba Airways
-History:It was founded in 1998 by two Calgary-based Somali entrepreneurs, Said Nur Qailie and Abdi Hashi Dalel.On May 1998, a month after the company had been established, the airline embarked on its first voyage...

 and Daallo Airlines
Daallo Airlines
Daallo Airlines is an airline, headquartered in the Dubai Airport Free Zone in Al Garhoud, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. With its main base at Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport, the airline operates scheduled services in East Africa and the Middle East...

, in addition to UN charter planes and African Express Airways
African Express Airways
African Express Airways is the second fully Kenyan designated airline to over 30 countries in four continents. The airline is largest and oldest privately owned in East Africa based at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi...

. The airport also offers flights to other Somalian cities such as Galkacyo, Berbera
Berbera
Berbera is a city and seat of Berbera District in Somaliland, a self-proclaimed Independent Republic with de facto control over its own territory, which is recognized by the international community and the Somali Government as a part of Somalia...

 and Hargeisa
Hargeisa
Hargeisa is a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somalia. With a population of approximately 2 million residents, it is the second largest city in the country. Hargeisa is the capital of Somaliland, a self-declared republic that is internationally recognized as an autonomous region...

, as well as international destinations like Djibouti
Djibouti (city)
The City of Djibouti is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Djibouti, a nation in the Horn of Africa. The biggest settlement on the Gulf of Tadjoura, it lies on a peninsula that separates that basin from the Gulf of Aden.-History:...

 and Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

.

Sea


Mogadishu leads Somalia in port traffic and still serves as a major seaport. While daily shipments bring in vehicles, foodstuffs and electronic goods, among other items, the port's monthly tax revenue never exceeded $900,000 due to kickbacks. In 2010, a new government was appointed to office, which then re-shuffled the port authority's staff. Monthly revenue from the city's port subsequently rose to a record $2.5 million.

Railway


There were projects during the 1980s to reactivate the 114 km railway between Mogadishu and Jowhar
Jowhar
Jowhar is the capital town of the Shabeellaha Dhexe region of Somalia . Along with Baidoa, it used to form the joint administrative capital of the Transitional Federal Government, which captured it from the Islamic Courts Union....

, built by the Italians in 1926 but dismantled in World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 by British troops. The Mogadishu-Villabruzzi Railway was planned in 1939 to reach Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia...

.

Federal


The Transitional Federal Government
Transitional Federal Government
The Transitional Federal Government is the current internationally recognized government of the Republic of Somalia. It was established as one of the Transitional Federal Institutions of government as defined in the Transitional Federal Charter adopted in November 2004 by the Transitional...

 (TFG) is the current internationally recognized federal government of Somalia. Based in Mogadishu, it constitutes the executive
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

 branch of government.

In November 2010, a new technocratic government was elected to office. In its first 50 days in office, the new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers, and initiated the implementation of a full biometric register for the security forces within a window of four months. Additional members of the Independent Constitutional Commission were also appointed to engage Somali constitutional lawyers, religious scholars and experts in Somali culture over the nation's upcoming new constitution, a key part of the government's Transitional Federal Tasks. In addition, high level federal delegations were dispatched to defuse clan-related tensions in several regions.

To improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics
Ethical code
An ethical code is adopted by an organization in an attempt to assist those in the organization called upon to make a decision understand the difference between 'right' and 'wrong' and to apply this understanding to their decision...

. An Anti-Corruption Commission with the power to carry out formal investigations and to review government decisions and protocols was also established so as to more closely monitor all activities by public officials. Furthermore, unnecessary trips abroad by members of government were prohibited, and all travel by ministers now require the Premier’s consent. A budget outlining 2011’s federal expenditures was also put before and approved by members of parliament, with the payment of civil service employees prioritized. In addition, a full audit of government property and vehicles is being put into place.

The Transitional Federal Government continues to reach out to both Somali and international stakeholders to help grow the administrative capacity of the Transitional Federal Institutions and to work toward eventual national elections in 2011, when the interim government's mandate expires.

Municipal


Mogadishu's municipal government is currently led by Mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

 Mohamed Nur
Mohamed Nur
Mohamed Nur is a Somali politician. He is the current Mayor of Mogadishu, a position to which he was appointed in 2010.-Personal life:Nur was raised in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia. He is married to Shamis, with whom he has six children....

, a former Labour Party
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

 member and business advisor to Islington Council
Islington London Borough Council
Islington London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Islington in Greater London, England. It is a London borough council, one of 32 in the United Kingdom capital of London. Islington is divided into 16 wards, each electing three councillors...

 in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

. Since taking office in 2010, Nur's administration has enacted a number of reforms in a bid to improve the city's security and service delivery, including starting a garbage collection program, erecting proper streetlights and providing around-the-clock electricity, sacking corrupt public officials, and offering formal police protection. The municipal government has also firmed up on traffic safety, fining motorists who drive without lights, in the wrong street lanes or carrying excessive loads.

Education



Despite the civil unrest, Mogadishu counts several institutions of higher learning.
Mogadishu University
Mogadishu University
Mogadishu University is a non-governmental university in Mogadishu, Somalia. As of 2011, its in the top 30 of African universities.-History:The idea to establish a non-governmental educational institution started in June 1993, after which time it took five years to develop and open the university...

 (MU) is a non-governmental university that is governed by a Board of Trustees and a University Council. It is the brainchild of a number of professors from the Somali National University as well as other Somali intellectuals who sought to find ways to provide post-secondary education in the wake of the civil war. Financed by the Islamic Development Bank
Islamic Development Bank
The Islamic Development Bank is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It was founded by the first conference of Finance Ministers of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference , convened 23 Dhu'l Qa'dah 1393 AH.The bank officially began its activities on...

 in Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, as well as other donor institutions, the university counts hundreds of young Somali graduates from its seven faculties, some of whom continue on to pursue Master's degrees abroad thanks to a scholarship program. Mogadishu University has established partnerships with several other academic institutions, including the University of Aalborg
University of Aalborg
Aalborg University is located in Aalborg, Denmark. With its opening in 1974 it became the fifth university in Denmark. In 1995 Esbjerg Engineering College was integrated in the university followed by the creation of the School of Architecture & Design in 1996, the inauguration of the Copenhagen...

 in Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, three universities in Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, seven universities in Sudan
Sudan
Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

, the University of Djibouti
Djibouti
Djibouti , officially the Republic of Djibouti , is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east...

, and two universities in Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

. It has also been scored among the 100 best universities in Africa in spite of the harsh environment, which has been hailed as a triumph for grass-roots initiatives.

The Somali National University, founded in 1954 during the "Italian Trust Administration of Somalia" (AFIS), has been closed indefinitely due to extensive damage.

Benadir University
Benadir University
Benadir University, or University of Benadir, abbreviated as BU, is a university located in Mogadishu, Somalia.-History:Benadir University was founded in 2002 as a medical school to help train Somali doctors.-Faculties:...

 (BU) was established in 2002 with the intention of training doctors. It has since expanded into other fields.

Due to human capital
Human capital
Human capitalis the stock of competencies, knowledge and personality attributes embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value. It is the attributes gained by a worker through education and experience...

 shortage in the country's private sector
Private sector
In economics, the private sector is that part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the state...

 management, the Somali Institute of Management and Administration Development (SIMAD) has given priority to the fields of business administration, information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 and accountancy
Accountancy
Accountancy is the process of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers. The communication is generally in the form of financial statements that show in money terms the economic resources under the control of management; the art lies in...

.

Media


There are a number of radio news agencies based in Mogadishu. These include HornAfrik and the Shabelle Media Network
Shabelle Media Network
Shabelle Media Network is a television and radio news organization. It was founded in 2002 in Merca, Somalia.-History:The Shebelle Media Network runs Radio Shabelle, which is one of the country's most respected privately-owned radio stations....

, the latter of which was in 2010 awarded the Media of the Year prize by the Paris-based journalism organisation, Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Without Borders is a France-based international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press. It was founded in 1985, by Robert Ménard, Rony Brauman and the journalist Jean-Claude Guillebaud. Jean-François Julliard has served as Secretary General since 2008...

 (RSF), despite facing considerable pressure and harassment from the local militias. The government-run station Radio Mogadishu
Radio Mogadishu
-History:Established during the colonial period in Italian Somaliland, Radio Mogadishu initially broadcasted news items in both Somali and Italian. The station was modernized with Russian assistance following independence in 1960, and began offering home service in Somali, Amharic and Oromo.After...

 also operates out of the city, as does the Somali National Television
Somali National Television
-Overview:Somali National Television is the principal public service broadcaster in Somalia. Headquartered in Mogadishu, the nation's capital, its main responsibility is to provide public service broadcasting throughout the country...

 network.

Sports


The city is home to Mogadishu Stadium, which plays host to the Somalia Cup
Somalia Cup
The Somalia Cup is the top knockout football tournament in Somalia. It was first held in 1977, and is an annual competition.-Winners:*1977 : The Somalia Cup is the top knockout [[football |football]] tournament in [[Somalia]]...

 and to football teams from the Somalia League
Somalia League
The Somalia League is the top football division in Somalia. It was created in 1961.-Clubs:As of 2011 season:-Previous winners:*1967 : Somali Police *1968 : Hoga...

. The New Somali Youth League grassroots organization based in Mogadishu has also started the Swap Gun for Job and Sports Campaign aimed at discouraging youngsters in the city from engaging in vice by offering them employment opportunities and sporting activities.

Music


Somali popular music enjoys a large audience in Mogadishu, and until recently, was widely sold. However, as the Islamist extremists gained control of parts of the city, they promptly banned all such music and forbade radio stations from playing it. The Transitional Federal Government has condemned this and other draconian edicts, and has worked to restore civil liberties as it steadily expands its control of Mogadishu. Most of the city's population has in turn responded by moving to government-controlled areas. On the 6th August 2011 it was reported that Al-Shabab had withdrawn from the parts of Mogadishu that it controlled, as a "strategic withdrawal" in preparation for a "counterattack".

Notable Mogadishans



  • Ayub Daud
    Ayub Daud
    somalia 11 | goals5 = 7Ayub Daud is a Somali footballer who plays as a forward/attacking midfielder for Juventus -Club career:-Juventus:Born in Somalia, Daud moved to Cuneo, Italy with his family at the age of five...

    , professional footballer
  • Fatima Siad
    Fatima Siad
    Fatima Siad is a Somali-Ethiopian fashion model. Raised in Boston, Massachusetts, she placed third on America's Next Top Model, Cycle 10.-Biography:...

    , fashion model
  • Hassan Abshir Farah, former Prime Minister of Somalia and Mayor of Mogadishu
  • Ali Mohammed Ghedi
    Ali Mohammed Ghedi
    Ali Mohamed Ghedi was the Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia from 2004 to 2007. He was relatively unknown in political circles upon his appointment as prime minister in November 2004. He is affiliated with the Abgaal subclan of Mogadishu's Hawiye clan, one of...

    , former Prime Minister of Somalia
  • Iman
    Iman (model)
    Iman Mohamed Abdulmajid , professionally known as Iman , is a Somali-American fashion model, actress and entrepreneur. A pioneer in the field of ethnic cosmetics, she is also noted for her charitable work. She is married to David Bowie.-Early life:Born in Mogadishu, Somalia, Iman is the daughter...

    , supermodel
  • K'naan
    K'naan
    K'naan , born Keinan Abdi Warsame in 1978, is a Somali Canadian poet, rapper, singer, songwriter and instrumentalist.-Biography:Born in Somalia, K'naan spent his childhood in Mogadishu and lived there during the Somali Civil War, which began in 1991. His aunt, Magool, was one of Somalia's most...

    , award-winning musician
  • Mo Farah, international track and field athlete
  • Mustafa Mohamed
    Mustafa Mohamed
    Mustafa Hassan Mohamed is a Somali-Swedish long-distance runner who mainly competes in the 3000 meter steeplechase.-Biography:Born in Mogadishu, Somalia, Mohamed moved to Sweden at the age of 11...

    , professional athlete
  • Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke
    Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke
    Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke is a Somali diplomat and politician. He is the former Prime Minister of Somalia.-Biography:...

    , former Prime Minister of Somalia
  • Rageh Omaar
    Rageh Omaar
    Rageh Omaar , is a Somali born British journalist and writer. His latest book Only Half of Me deals with the tensions between these two sides of his identity. He used to be a BBC world affairs correspondent, where he made his name reporting from Iraq...

    , award-winning journalist
  • Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, former Prime Minister of Somalia
  • Saba Anglana
    Saba Anglana
    Saba Anglana is a Somali-Italian actress and international singer.-Biography:Saba was born in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, during the regime of General Mohamed Siad Barre...

    , international singer and actress
  • Yasmin Warsame
    Yasmin Warsame
    Yasmin Abshir Warsame is a Somali-Canadian model and activist. In 2004, she was named "The Most Alluring Canadian" in a poll by Fashion magazine.-Biography:...

    , supermodel
  • Zahra Bani
    Zahra Bani
    Zahra Bani is a Somali-Italian javelin thrower.-Biography:In 1989, Bani moved to Torino, Italy from Somalia with her Italian father and Somali mother and started playing volleyball...

    , professional athlete
  • Shaykh Sufi
    Shaykh Sufi
    Abd Al-Rahman bin Abdallah al Shashi , popularly known as Shaykh Sufi, was a 19th century Somali scholar, poet, reformist and astrologist.-Life:...

    , 19th century scholar, poet, reformist and astrologist
  • Sa'id of Mogadishu
    Sa'id of Mogadishu
    Sa'id of Mogadishu was a 14th century Somali scholar and traveler.-Biography:Sa'id left Mogadishu as a teenager to study in Mecca and Medina, where he remained for 28 years gathering knowledge and gaining many disciples...

    , 14th century Islamic scholar and traveler

External links