Master of Science

Master of Science

Overview
A Master of Science is a postgraduate academic
Postgraduate education
Postgraduate education involves learning and studying for degrees or other qualifications for which a first or Bachelor's degree generally is required, and is normally considered to be part of higher education...

 master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

 awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is typically studied for in the sciences including the social sciences.

In Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 and Uruguay
Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration. The admission to a Master program (Castilian: Maestría; Portuguese: Mestrado) in an Brazilian, Argentine or Uruguayan University requires the full completion of an undergraduate degree, as well Licentiate
Licentiate
Licentiate is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a licence. The term may derive from the Latin licentia docendi, meaning permission to teach. The term may also derive from the Latin licentia ad practicandum, which signified someone who held a certificate of competence to...

's degree as Professorate degree of four to five years long from any recognized university.
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Encyclopedia
A Master of Science is a postgraduate academic
Postgraduate education
Postgraduate education involves learning and studying for degrees or other qualifications for which a first or Bachelor's degree generally is required, and is normally considered to be part of higher education...

 master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

 awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is typically studied for in the sciences including the social sciences.

Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay


In Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 and Uruguay
Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration. The admission to a Master program (Castilian: Maestría; Portuguese: Mestrado) in an Brazilian, Argentine or Uruguayan University requires the full completion of an undergraduate degree, as well Licentiate
Licentiate
Licentiate is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a licence. The term may derive from the Latin licentia docendi, meaning permission to teach. The term may also derive from the Latin licentia ad practicandum, which signified someone who held a certificate of competence to...

's degree as Professorate degree of four to five years long from any recognized university. Under the accomplishment of the Magister Scientiæ thesis dissertation, that in years of formal education, is generally equivalent to a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
A Ph.D. is a Doctor of Philosophy, an academic degree.Ph.D. may also refer to:* Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*Piled Higher and Deeper, a web comic strip*PhD: Phantasy Degree, a Korean comic series* PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

 or Doctorate
Doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...

 in universities of North America or Europe given the Bologna
Bologna process
The purpose of the Bologna Process is the creation of the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention...

 comparison system among academic programs.

Australia


Australian universities commonly have coursework or research based Master of Science courses for graduate students. They typically run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. Research based Masters degrees are usually accompanied by an extensive thesis before completion. In some universities, as in the University of Melbourne an intensive 1 year Master is offered before getting into the Ph.D program with the name of "Bachelor of Sciencie with Honours".

Bangladesh


In Bangladesh, every universities, including Dkaka University and Rajshahi University
Rajshahi University
Rajshahi University or University of Rajshahi is a public university located in Rajshahi, a city in north-western Bangladesh...

, have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science (BSc), any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline.

Czech Republic


The Czech Republic is using two Master Degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name.
The older system requires a 5-years programme. The new system takes only 2 years, but requires
a previously completed 3-year bachelor programme (a Bc. title).

Germany


The Master of Science (M.Sc.) academic degree has been recently introduced in Germany, as the once common Diplom
Diplom
A Diplom is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland , Greece, Hungary, Russia, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Ukraine...

programmes typically lasting four to five years were replaced by separate three-year bachelor and two-year master programs. It is awarded in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields, and, depending on the focus of studies, also in engineering, business or economics. The completion of a scientific thesis
Thesis
A dissertation or thesis is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings...

 is required. All Master's degrees in Germany are designed to certify an equal level of education and qualify for a doctorate
Doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...

 program.

The degree Master of Science is often awarded in English form, but institutions can alternatively award it in the German form, Magister der Wissenschaften. The graduate needs to use it as awarded and cannot choose which form to use.

India


Similar to United States or UK. The M.Sc. is mostly a "taught" programme spanning 2 years. Some universities stress on research more than others.

Netherlands


Similar to Germany. A graduate who is awarded the title Master of Science may still use the previously awarded Dutch title ingenieur (for graduates who followed a technical or agricultural programme) or doctorandus (in all other cases).

Norway


The Master of Science academic degree has been recently introduced, and has replaced the previous award forms "Sivilingeniør" (civil engineer, a.k.a. engineering master) and "Hovedfag" (academic master). Both were awarded after 5 years university-level studies and required the completion of a scientific thesis.

"Siv.ing", is a protected title exclusively awarded to engineering students who completed a five year education at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology . Historically there was no Bachelor's degree involved, and todays program is a five years Master's degree education. The "Siv.ing" title is in the process of being phased out, replaced by (for now, complemented by) the "M.Sc" title. By and large, "Siv.ing" is a title tightly being held on to for the sake of tradition. In academia, the new program offers separate three-year bachelor and two-year master programs. It is awarded in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields. The completion of a scientific thesis is required. All Master's degrees are designed to certify a level of education and qualify for a doctorate program.

Pakistan


Pakistan inherited its conventions pertaining to higher education from United Kingdom after independence in 1947. Master of Science degree is typically abbreviated as M.Sc. (as in United Kingdom) and which is awarded after 16 years of education. Recently, in pursuance to some of the reforms by the Higher Education Commission (the regulatory body of higher education in Pakistan), the traditional 2-year Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree has been replaced by the 4-year Bachelor of Science degree, which is abbreviated as B.S. to enable the Pakistani degrees at par with the rest of the world. Subsequently, students who pass 4-year B.S. degree that is awarded after 16 years of education are then eligible to apply for M.S. degree, which is considered at par with Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) degree.

Poland


The Polish equivalent of Master of Science is "magister" (abbreviation "mgr", placed before one's name, like Dr). In the 2001, the MSc programs typically lasting 5 years were replaced by separate 3-year bachelor programs (termed "licencjat") and 2-year master programs. The degree is awarded mostly in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields, and economics, but also in the arts and other disciplines. In engineering and agricultural sciences, it is extended to "mgr inż." (which literally means "master engineer"). The completion of a research thesis
Thesis
A dissertation or thesis is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings...

 is required. All Master's degrees in Poland qualify for a doctorate
Doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...

 program.

Sweden


The Master of Science academic degree has, like in Germany, recently been introduced in Sweden. Students studying Master of Science in Engineering programmes are rewarded both the English Master of Science Degree, but also the Swedish equivalent "Teknologie masterexamen" and "Civilingenjör".

United Kingdom and Ireland


The M.Sc. is typically a "taught" postgraduate degree, involving lectures, examination, and a short project. Taught masters programmes involve 1 or 2 years of full-time study (or the equivalent period part-time). Some universities also offer research MSc programmes, where a longer project or set of projects is undertaken full-time.

Until recently, both the undergraduate and postgraduate masters degrees were awarded without grade or class (like the class of an honours degree). Nowadays however, masters degrees are normally classified into the categories of Pass and Distinction, with some universities also using an intermediate Merit category.

The Master of Science degree should not be confused with the more recent M.Sci., or Master in Science degree, now offered by UK institutions. This is an extended undergraduate degree, with honours
British undergraduate degree classification
The British undergraduate degree classification system is a grading scheme for undergraduate degrees in the United Kingdom...

 awarded, and is intended to better prepare students for postgraduate study. Many research universities are now demanding M.Sci. degrees for entry to Ph.D.
Ph.D.
A Ph.D. is a Doctor of Philosophy, an academic degree.Ph.D. may also refer to:* Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*Piled Higher and Deeper, a web comic strip*PhD: Phantasy Degree, a Korean comic series* PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

 research programmes.

This education pattern in United Kingdom is also followed in Hong Kong SAR and in many Commonwealth Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 such as Malta
Malta
Malta , officially known as the Republic of Malta , is a Southern European country consisting of an archipelago situated in the centre of the Mediterranean, south of Sicily, east of Tunisia and north of Libya, with Gibraltar to the west and Alexandria to the east.Malta covers just over in...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

.

United States


The Master of Arts
Master of Arts (postgraduate)
A Master of Arts from the Latin Magister Artium, is a type of Master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The M.A. is usually contrasted with the M.S. or M.Sc. degrees...

(Magister Artium) and Master of Science (Magister Scientiæ) degrees are the two primary types in most subjects and may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or (more typically) a mixture.

Admission to a master's program is normally contingent upon holding a bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

, and progressing to a doctoral
Doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...

 program may require a master's degree. In some fields or graduate programs, work on a doctorate can begin immediately after the bachelor's degree. Some programs provide for a joint bachelor's and master's degree after about five years. Some universities use the Latin degree names, and due to the flexibility of word order in Latin
Latin grammar
The grammar of Latin, like that of other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflected; consequently, it allows for a large degree of flexibility in choosing word order...

, Artium Magister (AM) or Scientiæ Magister (SM) may be used at some schools.

See also

  • Master of Science in Accounting
  • Master of Science in Administration
    Master of Science in Administration
    The Master of Science in Administration is a post-graduate degree that is a relatively new field of study that came into existences in the mid-to-late 1970s. The MSA provides broad preparation for a variety of administrative positions in a wide range of organizations...

  • Master of Science in Corporate Communication
  • Master of Science in Project Management
  • Master of Science in Economics
  • Master of Science in Engineering
    Master of Science in Engineering
    A Master of Science in Engineering or Master of Science is an academic degree to be differentiated from a Master of Engineering....

  • Master of Science in Finance
  • Master of Science in Information Systems
    Master of Science in Information Systems
    The Master of Science in Information Systems , Master of Science in Management Information Systems is a specialized master's degree program usually offered in a University's College of Business. The MSIS degree is designed for those managing information technology, especially the information...

  • Master of Science in Information Technology
    Master of Science in Information Technology
    A Master of Science in Information Technology is a type ofpostgraduate academic master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. This degree is typically studied for in information technology and computer science...

  • Master of Science in Management
    Master of Science in Management
    Master of Science in Management, abbreviated MSc or MSM, is a Master of Science academic degree that is common throughout the United States and Europe. It is similar to the MBA degree, and often requires a dissertation before a graduate is admitted to it. The MSc is a research-oriented program...

  • Master of Science in Nursing
    Master of Science in Nursing
    A Master of Science in Nursing is an advanced-level postgraduate degree for registered nurses and is considered an entry-level degree for nurse educators and managers. The degree also may prepare a nurse to seek a career as a nurse administrator, health policy expert, or clinical nurse leader...

  • Master of Science in Taxation
    Master of Science in Taxation
    The Master of Science in Taxation is a professional graduate degree specifically designed for individuals that desire to become tax specialists. An alternate degree title is "Master of Taxation" or "Master Business Taxation" . A student taking a MST program studies tax law and its application...

  • Master of Science in Geographic Information Science and Systems
    Master of Science in Geographic Information Science and Systems
    A Master of Science in Geographic Information Science and Systems, or Master of Science in Geographic Information Science, or Master of Science in Geographic Information Systems ., MSc GIS) is a postgraduate academic master's degree awarded by universities in a large number of countries...

  • Master of Social Science
    Master of Social Science
    A Master of Social Science is a taught Master's degree which has a number of different meanings dependent upon the education system in question.-Finland & Sweden :...