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Marcus Livius Drusus (tribune)

Marcus Livius Drusus (tribune)

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The younger Marcus Livius Drusus, son of Marcus Livius Drusus
Marcus Livius Drusus (censor)
The elder Marcus Livius Drusus was set up as tribune by the Senate in 121 BC to undermine Gaius Gracchus' land reform bills. To do this, he proposed creating twelve colonies with 3,000 settlers each from the poorer classes, and relieving rent on property distributed since 133 BC...

, was tribune
Tribune
Tribune was a title shared by elected officials in the Roman Republic. Tribunes had the power to convene the Plebeian Council and to act as its president, which also gave them the right to propose legislation before it. They were sacrosanct, in the sense that any assault on their person was...

 of the plebeians
Plebs
The plebs was the general body of free land-owning Roman citizens in Ancient Rome. They were distinct from the higher order of the patricians. A member of the plebs was known as a plebeian...

 in 91 BC. In the manner of Gaius Gracchus
Gaius Gracchus
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus was a Roman Populari politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the ill-fated reformer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus...

, he set out with comprehensive plans, but his aim was to strengthen senatorial rule. He removed the jury courts from the jurisdiction of the equestrians in retaliation for their unjustified condemnation of Publius Rutilius Rufus
Publius Rutilius Rufus
Publius Rutilius Rufus was a Roman statesman, orator and historian of the Rutilius family, as well as great-uncle of Gaius Julius Caesar....

 in 92 BC and replaced it with a mixed jury of Senators and equestrians. He passed a bill that would have doubled the number of Senators from roughly 300 to 600, thus placating the most powerful of the equestrians who wished to become senators or have some of their family become senators. To gain support from the plebeians he set up a commission to grant them more land, both around Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

 and in new colonies (which was one of only two that was approved by the Senate during the late republic) and reduced the price of grain which he proposed to pay for by using devaluation of the currency. Up to this point Drusus managed to have the support of many of the leading senators including Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius was a Roman general and statesman. He was elected consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his dramatic reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, and reorganizing the...

. However, Drusus wanted to grant citizenship rights to the Italian
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 allies. This was vehemently opposed by many, he gradually lost support from the Senate, the equestrians, the Roman population, who did not want the Italians to become citizens, and wealthy Italian landlords who did not want to lose their land. The opposition was led by the Consul Lucius Marcius Philippus
Lucius Marcius Philippus (consul 91 BCE)
Lucius Marcius Philippus was a Roman orator and one of the most important politicians of the late Roman Republic. His strenuous opposition to the reforms of Marcus Livius Drusus during his consulate of 91 BCE, in defense of the "collusionist policy" of the governing class with the publicani...

 and by Drusus's brother-in-law, the Praetor Servilius Caepio
Quintus Servilius Caepio the Younger
Quintus Servilius Caepio the Younger was a Roman soldier and statesman. He was elected praetor in 91 BC, and fought for Rome during the Marsic Wars of the Italian Rebellion against Rome. His father was Quintus Servilius Caepio the Elder....

. It was revealed that the whole of non Roman Italy had sworn an oath to enter into his clientele if he managed to enfranchise them which would have given Drusus considerable power. In political retaliation for his proposal to grant citizenship to the Italian
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 allies, his previous bills were declared invalid on religious technicalities by the Senate led by Phillipus. Drusus refused to use his tribunician veto to prevent this from happening, his reasoning being that he wanted his bill to have a clear majority in the Senate. Soon after this, he was assassinated and the Italian allies revolted, starting the Social War of 91–88 BC.

His adopted son was Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus
Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus
Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus was a senator of the Roman Republic. He was born with the name Appius Claudius Pulcher, into the patrician family of the Claudii. According to Suetonius, Drusus was a direct descendant of the consul and censor Appius Claudius Caecus...

, father of the Empress Livia
Livia
Livia Drusilla, , after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14 also known as Julia Augusta, was a Roman empress as the third wife of the Emperor Augustus and his adviser...

.