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Lillian Hellman

Lillian Hellman

Overview
Lillian Florence "Lily" Hellman (June 20, 1905 – June 30, 1984) was an American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 playwright, linked throughout her life with many left-wing
Left-wing politics
In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

 causes. She was romantically involved for 30 years with mystery and crime writer Dashiell Hammett
Dashiell Hammett
Samuel Dashiell Hammett was an American author of hard-boiled detective novels and short stories, and political activist. Among the enduring characters he created are Sam Spade , Nick and Nora Charles , and the Continental Op .In addition to the significant influence his novels and stories had on...

 (and was the inspiration for his character Nora Charles
Nick and Nora Charles
Nick and Nora Charles are fictional characters created by Dashiell Hammett in his novel The Thin Man. The characters were later adapted for film in a series of movies between 1934 and 1947; for radio from 1941 to 1950; for television from 1957 through 1959; as a Broadway musical in 1991; and as a...

), and was also a long-time friend and literary executor
Literary executor
A literary executor is a person with decision-making power in respect of a literary estate. According to Wills, Administration and Taxation: a practical guide "A will may appoint different executors to deal with different parts of the estate...

 of author Dorothy Parker
Dorothy Parker
Dorothy Parker was an American poet, short story writer, critic and satirist, best known for her wit, wisecracks, and eye for 20th century urban foibles....

.

Lillian Hellman was born in New Orleans, Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

, into a Jewish
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

 family.
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Quotations

There are people who eat earth and eat all the people on it like in the Bible with the locusts. And other people who stand around and watch them eat.

The Little Foxes (1939)

Cynicism is an unpleasant way of saying the truth.

The Little Foxes (1939)

For every man who lives without freedom, the rest of us must face the guilt.

The Watch on the Rhine (1941)

Lonely people, in talking to each other can make each other lonelier.

The Autumn Garden (1951)

I am prepared to waive the privilege against self-incrimination and to tell you everything you wish to know about my views or actions if your committee will agree to refrain from asking me to name other people. If the committee is unwilling to give me this assurance, I will be forced to plead the privilege of the fifth amendment at the hearing.

Letter to HUAC (May 19, 1952)

A man should be jailed for telling lies to the young.

Candide (1956) a comic operetta based upon the satire by Voltaire.

We will not think noble because we are not noble. We will not live in beautiful harmony because there is no such thing in this world, nor should there be. We promise only to do our best and to live out our lives. Dear God, that's all we can promise in truth.

Candide (1956)

Nothing, of course, begins at the time you think it did.

An Unfinished Woman (1969)

I do not believe in recovery. The past with its pleasures, its rewards, its foolishness, its punishments, is there for each of us forever, and it should be.

Scoundrel Time (1976)
Encyclopedia
Lillian Florence "Lily" Hellman (June 20, 1905 – June 30, 1984) was an American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 playwright, linked throughout her life with many left-wing
Left-wing politics
In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

 causes. She was romantically involved for 30 years with mystery and crime writer Dashiell Hammett
Dashiell Hammett
Samuel Dashiell Hammett was an American author of hard-boiled detective novels and short stories, and political activist. Among the enduring characters he created are Sam Spade , Nick and Nora Charles , and the Continental Op .In addition to the significant influence his novels and stories had on...

 (and was the inspiration for his character Nora Charles
Nick and Nora Charles
Nick and Nora Charles are fictional characters created by Dashiell Hammett in his novel The Thin Man. The characters were later adapted for film in a series of movies between 1934 and 1947; for radio from 1941 to 1950; for television from 1957 through 1959; as a Broadway musical in 1991; and as a...

), and was also a long-time friend and literary executor
Literary executor
A literary executor is a person with decision-making power in respect of a literary estate. According to Wills, Administration and Taxation: a practical guide "A will may appoint different executors to deal with different parts of the estate...

 of author Dorothy Parker
Dorothy Parker
Dorothy Parker was an American poet, short story writer, critic and satirist, best known for her wit, wisecracks, and eye for 20th century urban foibles....

.

Early life


Lillian Hellman was born in New Orleans, Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

, into a Jewish
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

 family. Her father was Max Hellman, a New Orleans shoe salesman, and her mother was Julia Newhouse of Demopolis, Alabama
Demopolis, Alabama
Demopolis is the largest city in Marengo County, Alabama, United States. The population was 7,483 at the time of the 2010 United States Census....

. Julia Newhouse's parents were Leonard Newhouse, a Demopolis liquor dealer, and Sophie Marx, of a successful Jewish Demopolis banking family. The discord between the Marx and Hellman families was to later serve as the inspiration for Hellman's play, The Little Foxes
The Little Foxes
The Little Foxes is a 1939 play by Lillian Hellman. Its title comes from Chapter 2, Verse 15 in the Song of Solomon in the King James version of the Bible, which reads, "Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines: for our vines have tender grapes." Set in a small town in Alabama in...

.

Although her mother and most of her family had converted to Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

, from a young age Hellman attended both St. Louis Cathedral and Temple Beth Israel. During most of her childhood she spent half of each year in New Orleans, in a boarding home run by her aunts, and the other half in New York City.

Writing


Hellman's most famous plays include The Children's Hour
The Children's Hour (play)
The Children's Hour is a 1934 stage play written by Lillian Hellman. It is a drama set in an all-girls boarding school run by two women, Karen Wright and Martha Dobie. An angry student, Mary Tilford, runs away from the school and to avoid being sent back she tells her grandmother that the two...

(1934), The Little Foxes
The Little Foxes
The Little Foxes is a 1939 play by Lillian Hellman. Its title comes from Chapter 2, Verse 15 in the Song of Solomon in the King James version of the Bible, which reads, "Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines: for our vines have tender grapes." Set in a small town in Alabama in...

(1939), and Toys in the Attic
Toys in the Attic (play)
-Plot:Set in New Orleans following the Great Depression, it focuses on the Berniers sisters, two middle-aged spinsters who have sacrificed their own ambitions to look after their ne'er-do-well younger brother Julian, whose grandiose dreams repeatedly lead to financial disasters...

(1960).

Hellman was fond of including younger characters in her plays. The Children's Hour (1934), takes place in a children's school and the antagonist of the play, Mary, is a young girl. In The Little Foxes (1939), an important sub-plot revolves around the potential marriage of the youngest characters in the play, Leo and Alexandra.

Hellman also wrote three autobiographical memoirs: An Unfinished Woman: A Memoir (1969), Pentimento
Pentimento (book)
Pentimento: A Book of Portraits is a 1973 autobiographical book by American writer Lillian Hellman, which details the author's purported relationship with Julia, a woman who resisted the Nazis in pre-war Germany.-Film adaptation:...

(1973), and Scoundrel Time (1976). The Oscar
Academy Awards
An Academy Award, also known as an Oscar, is an accolade bestowed by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers...

-winning film Julia was based on Pentimento.

Upon the film's release, in 1977, New York psychiatrist Muriel Gardiner claimed that she was the basis for the title character and that she had never known Hellman. Hellman denied that the character was based on Gardiner. However, the fact that Hellman and Gardiner had the same lawyer (Wolf Schwabacher
Wolf Schwabacher
Wolf Schwabacher was a prominent Jewish entertainment lawyer, a partner in the New York law firm of Hays, Wolf, Schwabacher, Sklar & Epstein, whose clients included the Marx Brothers, Lillian Hellman, and Erskine Caldwell....

), that the lawyer had been privy to Gardiner's memoirs, and that the events in the film conform to those in the memoirs, have led some to conclude that they had been appropriated by Hellman without attribution to Gardiner.

In his widely-praised biography, Lillian Hellman: the Image, the Woman, author William Wright
William Wright (author)
William Wright is an American author, editor and playwright. He is best known for his non fiction writing covering a wildly divergent list of subjects: from the April in Paris Ball to genetics and behavior to true crime and grand opera.Frank Rich wrote a highly favorable review of Wrights book...

 left no doubt that Hellman's Julia was based on Muriel Gardiner. In a lead review in the Sunday New York Times Book Review, Frank Rich
Frank Rich
Frank Rich is an American essayist and op-ed columnist who wrote for The New York Times from 1980, when he was appointed its chief theatre critic, until 2011...

 described this as the definitive biography of Hellman and cites Wright's concern for the facts, "which he has diligently collected, documented and analyzed." Gardiner, who died in 1985, told Wright that Hellman had called her and tried in vain to set up a meeting. Wright later wrote The Julia Wars, a play based on the legal battle between Hellman and Mary McCarthy
Mary McCarthy (author)
Mary Therese McCarthy was an American author, critic and political activist.- Early life :Born in Seattle, Washington, to Roy Winfield McCarthy and his wife, the former Therese Preston, McCarthy was orphaned at the age of six when both her parents died in the great flu epidemic of 1918...

 over Hellman's honesty, which devolved over Hellman's Gardiner/Julia fiction.

Wright also confirmed that Hellman had fictionalized her adventures with Ernest Hemingway in her first memoir, An Unfinished Woman; and he was able to debunk many of the myths Hellman had created about her imagined suffering as a result of the Hollywood blacklist
Hollywood blacklist
The Hollywood blacklist—as the broader entertainment industry blacklist is generally known—was the mid-twentieth-century list of screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other U.S. entertainment professionals who were denied employment in the field because of their political beliefs or...

. In Wright's view, the fraudulence of so much of her non-fiction writing "doesn't diminish Hellman's creative achievement."

Blacklist and aftermath


Hellman appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee
House Un-American Activities Committee
The House Committee on Un-American Activities or House Un-American Activities Committee was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security"...

 in 1950. At the time, HUAC was well aware that Hellman's longtime lover Dashiell Hammett
Dashiell Hammett
Samuel Dashiell Hammett was an American author of hard-boiled detective novels and short stories, and political activist. Among the enduring characters he created are Sam Spade , Nick and Nora Charles , and the Continental Op .In addition to the significant influence his novels and stories had on...

 had been a Communist Party member. Asked to name names of acquaintances with communist affiliations, Hellman said she delivered a prepared statement, which read in part:
As a result, Hellman was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studios
Hollywood blacklist
The Hollywood blacklist—as the broader entertainment industry blacklist is generally known—was the mid-twentieth-century list of screenwriters, actors, directors, musicians, and other U.S. entertainment professionals who were denied employment in the field because of their political beliefs or...

 for many years. However, David Frum
David Frum
David J. Frum is a Canadian American journalist active in both the United States and Canadian political arenas. A former economic speechwriter for President George W. Bush, he is also the author of the first "insider" book about the Bush presidency...

 calls the claim that Hellman gave the remark about "this year's fashions" to HUAC "wholly fictitious." Hellman claimed that the committee room broke into applause after her speech, which Frum also says is fictional. Prior to World War II, as a member of the League of American Writers
League of American Writers
The League of American Writers was an association of American novelists, playwrights, poets, journalists, and literary critics launched by the Communist Party USA in 1935...

 with Hammett, she had served on its Keep America Out of War Committee during the period of the Hitler–Stalin pact.

In Two Invented Lives: Hellman and Hammett, author Joan Mellen wrote that Hellman "invented her life, so that by the end even she was uncertain about what had been true." Mellen noted that while Hellman had excoriated anti-Communist liberals such as Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan was an American director and actor, described by the New York Times as "one of the most honored and influential directors in Broadway and Hollywood history". Born in Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, to Greek parents originally from Kayseri in Anatolia, the family emigrated...

 in her memoirs for directing their energies against Communists rather than against fascists or capitalists, she held a double standard on the subject of free speech when it came to her own critics. Author Diana Trilling
Diana Trilling
Diana Trilling was an American literary critic and author, one of the New York Intellectuals. Born Diana Rubin, she married the literary and cultural critic Lionel Trilling in 1929....

 publicly accused Hellman of pressuring her publisher, Little Brown, to cancel its contract with Trilling, who had written a collection of essays defending herself and her husband Lionel Trilling
Lionel Trilling
Lionel Trilling was an American literary critic, author, and teacher. With wife Diana Trilling, he was a member of the New York Intellectuals and contributor to the Partisan Review. Although he did not establish a school of literary criticism, he is one of the leading U.S...

 against Hellman's charges.

Hellman had shaded the truth on some accounts of her life, including the assertion that she knew nothing about the Moscow Trials
Moscow Trials
The Moscow Trials were a series of show trials conducted in the Soviet Union and orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the Great Purge of the 1930s. The victims included most of the surviving Old Bolsheviks, as well as the leadership of the Soviet secret police...

 in which Stalin had purged the Soviet Communist Party of Party members who were then liquidated. Hellman had actually signed petitions (An Open Letter to American Liberals) applauding the guilty verdict and encouraged others not to cooperate with John Dewey
John Dewey
John Dewey was an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology...

's committee that sought to establish the truth behind Stalin's show trials. The latter denounced the "fantastic falsehood that the USSR and totalitarian states are basically alike."

Hellman had also opposed the granting of political asylum to Stalin's political enemy Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky , born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein, was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army....

 by the United States, after the Soviet Union instructed the Communist Party USA
Communist Party USA
The Communist Party USA is a Marxist political party in the United States, established in 1919. It has a long, complex history that is closely related to the histories of similar communist parties worldwide and the U.S. labor movement....

 to oppose his asylum.

As late as 1969, according to Mellen, Hellman told Dorothea Strauss that her husband was a "malefactor" because he had published the work of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was aRussian and Soviet novelist, dramatist, and historian. Through his often-suppressed writings, he helped to raise global awareness of the Gulag, the Soviet Union's forced labor camp system – particularly in The Gulag Archipelago and One Day in the Life of...

. Mellen quotes her as saying "If you knew what I know about American prisons, you would be a Stalinist, too." Mellen continues, "American justice allowed her now to maintain good faith with the tyrant who had, despite his methods, industrialized the 'first socialist state.'"

Hellman's feud with Mary McCarthy
Mary McCarthy (author)
Mary Therese McCarthy was an American author, critic and political activist.- Early life :Born in Seattle, Washington, to Roy Winfield McCarthy and his wife, the former Therese Preston, McCarthy was orphaned at the age of six when both her parents died in the great flu epidemic of 1918...

 formed the basis for the play Imaginary Friends
Imaginary Friends (play)
Imaginary Friends is a play by Nora Ephron. It includes songs with music by Marvin Hamlisch and lyrics by Craig Carnelia.-Plot:The play focuses on writers Lillian Hellman and Mary McCarthy, who reunite in hell and reflect on their decades-long antagonistic relationship...

by Nora Ephron
Nora Ephron
Nora Ephron is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, novelist, playwright, journalist, author, and blogger.She is best known for her romantic comedies and is a triple nominee for the Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay; for Silkwood, When Harry Met Sally... and Sleepless in...

. McCarthy famously said of Hellman on The Dick Cavett Show
The Dick Cavett Show
The Dick Cavett Show has been the title of several talk shows hosted by Dick Cavett on various television networks, including:* ABC daytime ...

that "every word she writes is a lie, including 'and' and 'the'." Hellman replied by filing a US$2,500,000 slander suit against McCarthy, Dick Cavett
Dick Cavett
Richard Alva "Dick" Cavett is a former American television talk show host known for his conversational style and in-depth discussion of issues...

, and PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

. McCarthy in turn produced evidence that Hellman had shaded the truth on some accounts of her life, including some of the information that later appeared in Mellen's book. Cavett said he sympathized more with McCarthy than Hellman in the lawsuit, but "everybody lost" as a result of it. Norman Mailer
Norman Mailer
Norman Kingsley Mailer was an American novelist, journalist, essayist, poet, playwright, screenwriter, and film director.Along with Truman Capote, Joan Didion, Hunter S...

 attempted to mediate through an article he published in The New York Times
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper founded and continuously published in New York City since 1851. The New York Times has won 106 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any news organization...

.

Death


Hellman died on June 30, 1984, at age 79 from a heart attack at her home on Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts, known for being an affluent summer colony....

.

Trivia

  • At the time of her death, Hellman was still in litigation with Mary McCarthy
    Mary McCarthy (author)
    Mary Therese McCarthy was an American author, critic and political activist.- Early life :Born in Seattle, Washington, to Roy Winfield McCarthy and his wife, the former Therese Preston, McCarthy was orphaned at the age of six when both her parents died in the great flu epidemic of 1918...

    , and the suit was dropped by Hellman's executors.

  • Hellman is a main character in the play Cakewalk by Peter Feibleman
    Peter Feibleman
    Peter Feibleman is an American author and screenwriter. He has won critical acclaim for his novels and has received multiple awards for his writings including a Guggenheim Award in 1960 and a Golden Pen Award in 1983. He has also written a number of plays and screenplays.-Life:Feibleman was born in...

    , which is about Hellman's relationship with a younger novelist. Hellman did have a long relationship with Feibleman, and the other main character in the play is somewhat based on him. Actress Elaine Stritch
    Elaine Stritch
    Elaine Stritch is an American actress and vocalist. She has appeared in numerous stage plays and musicals, feature films, and many television programs...

     portrays Hellman in the audiobook version of the play.

  • Hellman appears in the fifteenth episode of the nineteenth season of The Simpsons
    The Simpsons
    The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie...

    , in Lisa's hallucination
    Hallucination
    A hallucination, in the broadest sense of the word, is a perception in the absence of a stimulus. In a stricter sense, hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious and awake state in the absence of external stimuli which have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid,...

    , urging her to take up smoking. The same episode also jokingly and incorrectly identified Hellman as the creator of Hellman's Mayonnaise.
    Hellmann's and Best Foods
    Hellmann's and Best Foods are brand names that are used for the same line of mayonnaise and other food products. The Hellmann's brand is sold in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, and also in Latin America, Europe, Middle East and Canada...


  • Hellman is also the subject of the Chuck Palahniuk
    Chuck Palahniuk
    Charles Michael "Chuck" Palahniuk is an American transgressional fiction novelist and freelance journalist. He is best known for the award-winning novel Fight Club, which was later made into a film directed by David Fincher and starring Brad Pitt, Edward Norton, and Helena Bonham Carter...

     book Tell-All. The novel reinvents her as a "larger than life Super Hero" and follows her incredible life and exploits, as she wrote about them in her memoir "An Unfinished Woman".

  • Hellman is also the subject of the Rosemary Mahoney
    Rosemary Mahoney
    Rosemary Mahoney is an American non-fiction writer.She grew up in Milton, Massachusetts. She graduated from St. Paul's School...

     book A Likely Story. The novel describes a two month period Mahoney spent as live-in help for Hellman during the summer before her senior year of high school.

Works


  • The Children's Hour
    The Children's Hour (play)
    The Children's Hour is a 1934 stage play written by Lillian Hellman. It is a drama set in an all-girls boarding school run by two women, Karen Wright and Martha Dobie. An angry student, Mary Tilford, runs away from the school and to avoid being sent back she tells her grandmother that the two...

    (1934)
  • The Dark Angel
    The Dark Angel (1935 film)
    The Dark Angel is a 1935 film which tells the story of three childhood friends, two male, one female. When the woman chooses one of the men to marry, the other, jealous, sends his rival off into a dangerous situation during wartime...

    (1935)
  • These Three
    These Three
    These Three is a 1936 American drama film directed by William Wyler. The screenplay by Lillian Hellman is based on her 1934 play The Children's Hour....

    (1936)
  • Days To Come (1936)
  • Dead End
    Dead End
    Dead End is a 1937 crime drama film. It is an adaptation of the Sidney Kingsley 1935 Broadway play of the same name. It stars Humphrey Bogart, Joel McCrea, and Sylvia Sidney...

    (1937)
  • The North Star
    The North Star (1943 film)
    The North Star is a 1943 war film produced and distributed by RKO Radio Pictures. It was directed by Lewis Milestone and written by Lillian Hellman. The film starred Anne Baxter, Dana Andrews, Walter Huston, Walter Brennan and Erich von Stroheim...

    (1943)
  • The Little Foxes
    The Little Foxes
    The Little Foxes is a 1939 play by Lillian Hellman. Its title comes from Chapter 2, Verse 15 in the Song of Solomon in the King James version of the Bible, which reads, "Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines: for our vines have tender grapes." Set in a small town in Alabama in...

    (1939 play)
  • Watch on the Rhine
    Watch on the Rhine
    Watch on the Rhine is a 1943 American drama film directed by Herman Shumlin. The screenplay by Dashiell Hammett is based on the 1941 play of the same title by Lillian Hellman.-Plot:...

    (1941)
  • The Little Foxes
    The Little Foxes (film)
    The Little Foxes is a 1941 American drama film directed by William Wyler. The screenplay by Lillian Hellman is based on her 1939 play of the same name...

    (1941 screenplay)
  • Another Part of the Forest
    Another Part of the Forest
    Another Part of the Forest is a 1946 play by Lillian Hellman, a prequel to her 1939 drama The Little Foxes.-Plot synopsis:Set in the fictional town of Bowden, Alabama in June 1880, the plot focuses on the wealthy, ruthless, and innately evil Hubbard family and their rise to prominence...

    (1946)
  • The Autumn Garden
    The Autumn Garden
    The Autumn Garden is a 1951 play by Lillian Hellman. The play is set in September, 1949 in a summer home in a resort on the Gulf of Mexico, about 100 miles from New Orleans. The play is a study of the defeats, disappointments and diminished expectations of people reaching middle age. For...

    (1951)
  • Candide (operetta)
    Candide (operetta)
    Candide is an operetta with music composed by Leonard Bernstein, based on the novella of the same name by Voltaire. The operetta was first performed in 1956 with a libretto by Lillian Hellman; but since 1974 it has been generally performed with a book by Hugh Wheeler which is more faithful to...

    (1957)
  • Toys in the Attic
    Toys in the Attic (play)
    -Plot:Set in New Orleans following the Great Depression, it focuses on the Berniers sisters, two middle-aged spinsters who have sacrificed their own ambitions to look after their ne'er-do-well younger brother Julian, whose grandiose dreams repeatedly lead to financial disasters...

    (1960)
  • The Big Knockover (preface) (1963)
  • An Unfinished Woman: A Memoir (1969)
  • Pentimento
    Pentimento (book)
    Pentimento: A Book of Portraits is a 1973 autobiographical book by American writer Lillian Hellman, which details the author's purported relationship with Julia, a woman who resisted the Nazis in pre-war Germany.-Film adaptation:...

    (1973)
  • Scoundrel Time (1976)
  • Maybe (1980)

Footnotes



Wright, William, Lillian Hellman, the Image and the Woman, 1986, Simon and Schuster.

Rich, Frank (November 23, 1986) Slamming Through Life, The New York Times Book Review of Lillian Hellman, the Image, the Woman.

External links