Lancaster, Lancashire

Lancaster, Lancashire

Overview
Lancaster
is the county town
County town
A county town is a county's administrative centre in the United Kingdom or Ireland. County towns are usually the location of administrative or judicial functions, or established over time as the de facto main town of a county. The concept of a county town eventually became detached from its...

 of Lancashire
Lancashire
Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Although Lancaster is still considered to be the county town, Lancashire County Council is based in Preston...

, England. It is situated on the River Lune
River Lune
The River Lune is a river in Cumbria and Lancashire, England.It is formed at Wath, in the parish of Ravenstonedale, Cumbria, at the confluence of Sandwath Beck and Weasdale Beck...

 and has a population of 45,952. Lancaster is a constituent settlement of the wider City of Lancaster
City of Lancaster
The City of Lancaster , is a local government district of Lancashire, England, with the status of a city and non-metropolitan district. It is named after its largest settlement, Lancaster, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Morecambe, Heysham, and Carnforth, as well as...

, local government district which has a population of 133,914 and encompasses several outlying towns, including neighbouring Morecambe
Morecambe
Morecambe is a resort town and civil parish within the City of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. As of 2001 it has a resident population of 38,917. It faces into Morecambe Bay...

.

Long existing as a commercial, cultural and educational centre, Lancaster is the settlement that gives Lancashire its name.
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Encyclopedia
Lancaster
is the county town
County town
A county town is a county's administrative centre in the United Kingdom or Ireland. County towns are usually the location of administrative or judicial functions, or established over time as the de facto main town of a county. The concept of a county town eventually became detached from its...

 of Lancashire
Lancashire
Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Although Lancaster is still considered to be the county town, Lancashire County Council is based in Preston...

, England. It is situated on the River Lune
River Lune
The River Lune is a river in Cumbria and Lancashire, England.It is formed at Wath, in the parish of Ravenstonedale, Cumbria, at the confluence of Sandwath Beck and Weasdale Beck...

 and has a population of 45,952. Lancaster is a constituent settlement of the wider City of Lancaster
City of Lancaster
The City of Lancaster , is a local government district of Lancashire, England, with the status of a city and non-metropolitan district. It is named after its largest settlement, Lancaster, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Morecambe, Heysham, and Carnforth, as well as...

, local government district which has a population of 133,914 and encompasses several outlying towns, including neighbouring Morecambe
Morecambe
Morecambe is a resort town and civil parish within the City of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. As of 2001 it has a resident population of 38,917. It faces into Morecambe Bay...

.

Long existing as a commercial, cultural and educational centre, Lancaster is the settlement that gives Lancashire its name. Lancaster has several unique ties to the British monarchy
British monarchy
The monarchy of the United Kingdom is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, has reigned since 6 February 1952. She and her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties...

; the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
The House of Lancaster was a branch of the royal House of Plantagenet. It was one of the opposing factions involved in the Wars of the Roses, an intermittent civil war which affected England and Wales during the 15th century...

 was a branch of the English royal family, whilst the Duchy of Lancaster
Duchy of Lancaster
The Duchy of Lancaster is one of the two royal duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Cornwall. It is held in trust for the Sovereign, and is used to provide income for the use of the British monarch...

 holds large estates on behalf of Elizabeth II, who herself is also the Duke of Lancaster
Duke of Lancaster
There were several Dukes of Lancaster in the 14th and early 15th Centuries. See also Duchy of Lancaster.There were three creations of the Dukedom of Lancaster....

. Lancaster was granted city status
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...


in 1937 for its "long association with the crown" and because it was "the county town of the King's Duchy of Lancaster".

With its history based on its port and canal, Lancaster is an ancient settlement, dominated by Lancaster Castle
Lancaster Castle
Lancaster Castle is a medieval castle located in Lancaster in the English county of Lancashire. Its early history is unclear, but may have been founded in the 11th century on the site of a Roman fort overlooking a crossing of the River Lune. In 1164, the Honour of Lancaster, including the...

. It is also home to the collegiate and campus-based Lancaster University
Lancaster University
Lancaster University, officially The University of Lancaster, is a leading research-intensive British university in Lancaster, Lancashire, England. The university was established by Royal Charter in 1964 and initially based in St Leonard's Gate until moving to a purpose-built 300 acre campus at...

 and a campus of the University of Cumbria
University of Cumbria
The University of Cumbria is a university in Cumbria, England. Its headquarters are in Carlisle. and other major campuses are at Lancaster, Ambleside and Penrith. It was established in 2007, with roots extending back to the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts established in 1822 and...


History


In the Roman period, Lancaster was known as Calunium, which is apparent from epigraphic evidence. Little is known about Lancaster between the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century and the Norman Conquest in the late 11th century. Despite a lack of documentation from this period, it is likely that Lancaster was still inhabited. Lancaster was on the fringes of the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, and over time control may have changed from one to the other. The city's name, first recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
Domesday Book , now held at The National Archives, Kew, Richmond upon Thames in South West London, is the record of the great survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086...

 in 1086 as Loncastre, means 'Roman fort on the River Lune', from the Old English cæster.

Lancaster Castle
Lancaster Castle
Lancaster Castle is a medieval castle located in Lancaster in the English county of Lancashire. Its early history is unclear, but may have been founded in the 11th century on the site of a Roman fort overlooking a crossing of the River Lune. In 1164, the Honour of Lancaster, including the...

, partly built in the 13th century and enlarged by Elizabeth I, stands on the site of a Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 garrison
Garrison
Garrison is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base....

. Lancaster Castle is well known as the site of the infamous Pendle witch trials
Pendle witch trials
The trials of the Pendle witches in 1612 are among the most famous witch trials in English history, and some of the best recorded of the 17th century. The twelve accused lived in the area around Pendle Hill in Lancashire, and were charged with the murders of ten people by the use of witchcraft...

 in 1612. It was said that the court based in the castle (the Lancaster Assizes
Assizes
Assize or Assizes may refer to:Assize or Assizes may refer to:Assize or Assizes may refer to::;in common law countries :::*assizes , an obsolete judicial inquest...

) sentenced more people to be hanged
Hanging
Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature. The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death by suspension by the neck", though it formerly also referred to crucifixion and death by impalement in which the body would remain...

 than any other in the country outside of London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, earning Lancaster the nickname, "the Hanging Town".

The traditional emblem for the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
The House of Lancaster was a branch of the royal House of Plantagenet. It was one of the opposing factions involved in the Wars of the Roses, an intermittent civil war which affected England and Wales during the 15th century...

 is a red rose, the red rose of Lancaster
Red Rose of Lancaster
The Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower of Lancashire.The exact species or cultivar which the red rose relates to is uncertain, but it is thought to be Rosa gallica officinalis....

, similar to that of the House of York
House of York
The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three members of which became English kings in the late 15th century. The House of York was descended in the paternal line from Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, but also represented...

, which is a white rose. These names derive from the emblems of the Royal Duchies of Lancaster
Duchy of Lancaster
The Duchy of Lancaster is one of the two royal duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Cornwall. It is held in trust for the Sovereign, and is used to provide income for the use of the British monarch...

 and York
Duke of York
The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the British peerage. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of the British monarch. The title has been created a remarkable eleven times, eight as "Duke of York" and three as the double-barreled "Duke of York and...

 in the 15th century. This erupted into a civil war
Civil war
A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic, or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly-united nation state....

 over rival claims to the throne during the Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic civil wars for the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the houses of Lancaster and York...

.

In more recent times, the term "Wars of the Roses" has been applied to rivalry in sports between teams representing Lancashire
Lancashire
Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Although Lancaster is still considered to be the county town, Lancashire County Council is based in Preston...

 and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been increasingly undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have also been subject to periodic reform...

, not just the cities of Lancaster and York
York
York is a walled city, situated at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events throughout much of its two millennia of existence...

. It is also applied to the Roses Tournament
Roses Tournament
The Roses Tournament is an annual sports competition between Lancaster University and the University of York in England. It is organised by their respective Students' Unions, YUSU and LUSU. It takes its name from the 15th Century civil war, The Wars of the Roses, between the House of Lancaster...

 in which Lancaster and York universities compete every year.

Lancaster gained its first charter
Charter
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified...

 in 1193 as a market town
Market town
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the medieval period, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city...

 and borough
Borough
A borough is an administrative division in various countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing township although, in practice, official use of the term varies widely....

, but was not given city status until 1937. Many buildings in the city centre and along St. George's Quay date from the 19th century, built during a period when the port became one of the busiest in the UK; the fourth most important in the UK's slave trade. However, Lancaster's role as a major port was short lived, as the river began to silt up. Morecambe
Morecambe
Morecambe is a resort town and civil parish within the City of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. As of 2001 it has a resident population of 38,917. It faces into Morecambe Bay...

, Glasson Dock
Glasson Dock
Glasson Dock, also known as Glasson, is a village in England, south of Lancaster, at the mouth of the River Lune. It is in the City of Lancaster district of Lancashire.-History:...

 and Sunderland Point
Sunderland Point
Sunderland, commonly known as Sunderland Point, is a small village among the marshes, on a windswept peninsula between the mouth of the River Lune, and Morecambe Bay, in the City of Lancaster district of Lancashire, England...

 served as Lancaster's port for brief periods. Heysham
Heysham
Heysham is a large coastal village near Lancaster in the county of Lancashire, England. Overlooking Morecambe Bay, it is a ferry port with services to the Isle of Man and Ireland. Heysham is the site of two nuclear power stations which are landmarks visible from hills in the surrounding area...

 now serves as the district's main port.

Lancaster is primarily a service-oriented city. Products of Lancaster include animal feed
Compound feed
Compound feeds are feedstuffs that are blended from various raw materials and additives. These blends are formulated according to the specific requirements of the target animal...

, textiles, chemicals
Chemical industry
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials into more than 70,000 different products.-Products:...

, livestock
Livestock
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning...

, paper
Paper
Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets....

, synthetic fibre, farm machinery, HGV trailers
Trailer (vehicle)
A trailer is generally an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle. Commonly, the term trailer refers to such vehicles used for transport of goods and materials....

 and mineral fibres. In recent years, a high technology sector has emerged, as a result of Information Technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 and Communications
Telecommunication
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded...

 companies investing in the city.

On March 5, 2004, Lancaster was granted Fairtrade City status.

Lancaster was also home to the European headquarters of Reebok
Reebok
Reebok International Limited, a subsidiary of the German sportswear company Adidas since 2005, is a producer of Athletic shoes, apparel, and accessories. The name comes from the Afrikaans spelling of rhebok, a type of African antelope or gazelle...

. Following their merger with Adidas
Adidas
Adidas AG is a German sports apparel manufacturer and parent company of the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, TaylorMade-Adidas golf company , and Rockport...

, Reebok moved to Bolton
Bolton
Bolton is a town in Greater Manchester, in the North West of England. Close to the West Pennine Moors, it is north west of the city of Manchester. Bolton is surrounded by several smaller towns and villages which together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the...

 and Stockport
Metropolitan Borough of Stockport
The Metropolitan Borough of Stockport is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, in north west England, centred around the town of Stockport. It has a population of about 280,600 and includes the outyling areas of Cheadle and Cheadle Hulme, Marple, Bredbury, Reddish and Romiley...

 in 2007.

Governance


Lancaster and Morecambe
Morecambe
Morecambe is a resort town and civil parish within the City of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. As of 2001 it has a resident population of 38,917. It faces into Morecambe Bay...

 have grown into a single conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

 and are no longer administered separately. The former City
City
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

 and Municipal Borough
Municipal borough
Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002...

 of Lancaster and the Municipal Borough of Morecambe and Heysham
Morecambe and Heysham
Morecambe and Heysham was a municipal borough in Lancashire, England, from 1928 to 1974. It was formed by the merging of Morecambe urban district and Heysham urban district. The area now forms part of the City of Lancaster district....

 along with other authorities merged in 1974 to form the District of Lancaster
City of Lancaster
The City of Lancaster , is a local government district of Lancashire, England, with the status of a city and non-metropolitan district. It is named after its largest settlement, Lancaster, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Morecambe, Heysham, and Carnforth, as well as...

 within the shire county
Shire county
A non-metropolitan county, or shire county, is a county-level entity in England that is not a metropolitan county. The counties typically have populations of 300,000 to 1.4 million. The term shire county is, however, an unofficial usage. Many of the non-metropolitan counties bear historic names...

 of Lancashire. This was given city status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch to a select group of communities. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights other than that of calling itself a "city". Nonetheless, this appellation carries its own prestige and, consequently, competitions...

 and Lancaster City Council is the local governing body for the district.

Political representation



The city lies in the Lancaster and Fleetwood constituency for elections of Members of Parliament to the House of Commons
British House of Commons
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords . Both Commons and Lords meet in the Palace of Westminster. The Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 650 members , who are known as Members...

, and the North West which elects nine Members of the European Parliament
Member of the European Parliament
A Member of the European Parliament is a person who has been elected to the European Parliament. The name of MEPs differ in different languages, with terms such as europarliamentarian or eurodeputy being common in Romance language-speaking areas.When the European Parliament was first established,...

 (MEPs). The current MP for Lancaster and Fleetwood is Eric Ollerenshaw
Eric Ollerenshaw
Eric Ollerenshaw OBE is a British Conservative politician and the Member of Parliament for Lancaster and Fleetwood....

 of the Conservative Party
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom that adheres to the philosophies of conservatism and British unionism. It is the largest political party in the UK, and is currently the largest single party in the House...

.

In the late-1990s and early-first decade of the 21st century, the city council was under the control of the Morecambe Bay Independents (MBIs) who campaigned for an independent Morecambe
Morecambe
Morecambe is a resort town and civil parish within the City of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. As of 2001 it has a resident population of 38,917. It faces into Morecambe Bay...

 council. In 2003
their influence waned and Labour
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

 became the largest party on the council. They formed a 'trafficlight' coalition with the LibDems and Greens.

At the May, 2007 local elections, Labour lost ground to the Green
Green Party of England and Wales
The Green Party of England and Wales is a political party in England and Wales which follows the traditions of Green politics and maintains a strong commitment to social progressivism. It is the largest Green party in the United Kingdom, containing within it various regional divisions including...

s in Lancaster and the MBIs in Morecambe resulting in a no overall control
No overall control
Within the context of local councils of the United Kingdom, the term No Overall Control refers to a situation in which no single party achieves a majority of seats and is analogous to a hung parliament...

, with all parties represented in a PR administration.

The 2011 elections saw Labour emerge as the largest party. They formed a 'joint administrative arrangement' with the Greens.

Lancaster is one of the few places in the country where the Greens have a significant number of councillors (8 in 2011). They were first elected to the council in 1999.

A long-standing debate to determine the nature of a proposed high capacity road, that would link the port of Heysham
Heysham
Heysham is a large coastal village near Lancaster in the county of Lancashire, England. Overlooking Morecambe Bay, it is a ferry port with services to the Isle of Man and Ireland. Heysham is the site of two nuclear power stations which are landmarks visible from hills in the surrounding area...

 to the M6 motorway
M6 motorway
The M6 motorway runs from junction 19 of the M1 at the Catthorpe Interchange, near Rugby via Birmingham then heads north, passing Stoke-on-Trent, Manchester, Preston, Carlisle and terminating at the Gretna junction . Here, just short of the Scottish border it becomes the A74 which continues to...

 with the intention of reducing traffic congestion in the city centre, is one of the most prominent issues in local politics today.

Geography


Lancaster is the most northerly city in Lancashire, located three miles inland from Morecambe Bay
Morecambe Bay
Morecambe Bay is a large bay in northwest England, nearly due east of the Isle of Man and just to the south of the Lake District National Park. It is the largest expanse of intertidal mudflats and sand in the United Kingdom, covering a total area of 310 km².-Natural features:The rivers Leven,...

. The city is located on the River Lune
River Lune
The River Lune is a river in Cumbria and Lancashire, England.It is formed at Wath, in the parish of Ravenstonedale, Cumbria, at the confluence of Sandwath Beck and Weasdale Beck...

 (from which it derives its name), and the Lancaster Canal
Lancaster Canal
The Lancaster Canal is a canal in the north of England, originally planned to run from Westhoughton in Lancashire to Kendal in south Cumbria...

.

Wards in Lancaster

  • Bulk
  • Castle
  • Dukes
  • Ellel
  • John O'Gaunt (named after John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
    John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster , KG was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault...

    )
  • Scotforth
    Scotforth
    Scotforth is a civil parish and a suburb in the south of the city of City of Lancaster in Lancashire, England. It is home to Scotforth St Paul's Church of England Primary School and St Paul's Church. The parish had a population of 239 recorded in the 2001 census.Parts of Lancaster were made up of...

     East
  • Scotforth West
  • Skerton
    Skerton
    - Origin of the name :The history of Skerton begins in Saxon times, a village having existed on the North bank of the River Lune since time immemorial...

     East
  • Skerton West
  • University

Transport



The M6 motorway
M6 motorway
The M6 motorway runs from junction 19 of the M1 at the Catthorpe Interchange, near Rugby via Birmingham then heads north, passing Stoke-on-Trent, Manchester, Preston, Carlisle and terminating at the Gretna junction . Here, just short of the Scottish border it becomes the A74 which continues to...

 passes to the east of Lancaster, with junctions 33 and 34 to the south and north respectively. The A6 road passes through the city leading southwards to Preston, Chorley
Chorley
Chorley is a market town in Lancashire, in North West England. It is the largest settlement in the Borough of Chorley. The town's wealth came principally from the cotton industry...

 and Manchester
Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

 and northwards to Carnforth
Carnforth
- References :...

, Kendal
Kendal
Kendal, anciently known as Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish within the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England...

, Penrith
Penrith, Cumbria
Penrith was an urban district between 1894 and 1974, when it was merged into Eden District.The authority's area was coterminous with the civil parish of Penrith although when the council was abolished Penrith became an unparished area....

 and Carlisle.

Lancaster is served by the West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
The West Coast Main Line is the busiest mixed-traffic railway route in Britain, being the country's most important rail backbone in terms of population served. Fast, long-distance inter-city passenger services are provided between London, the West Midlands, the North West, North Wales and the...

 which runs through Lancaster railway station
Lancaster railway station
Lancaster railway station is a railway station that serves the city of Lancaster in Lancashire, England...

. This station was formerly named Lancaster Castle railway station in order to differentiate it from Lancaster Green Ayre railway station
Lancaster Green Ayre railway station
Lancaster Green Ayre railway station was the Midland Railway's station in the city of Lancaster in England. The line between Green Ayre and Morecambe was used for pioneering experimental electrification via overhead cable....

on the Leeds–Morecambe line, which closed in 1966. The Caton–Morecambe section of this railway is now used as a cycle path.

The main bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 operator in Lancaster is Stagecoach
Stagecoach Group
Stagecoach Group plc is an international transport group operating buses, trains, trams, express coaches and ferries. The group was founded in 1980 by the current chairman, Sir Brian Souter, his sister, Ann Gloag, and her former husband Robin...

, which operates over thirty services in Lancaster and Morecambe.

The Lancaster Canal
Lancaster Canal
The Lancaster Canal is a canal in the north of England, originally planned to run from Westhoughton in Lancashire to Kendal in south Cumbria...

 and River Lune
River Lune
The River Lune is a river in Cumbria and Lancashire, England.It is formed at Wath, in the parish of Ravenstonedale, Cumbria, at the confluence of Sandwath Beck and Weasdale Beck...

 also pass through the city. The nearest airport is Blackpool International, some 21 miles away.

In 2005, Lancaster was one of six English towns chosen to be cycling demonstration towns to promote the use of cycling as a means of transport.

Education


At Bailrigg
Bailrigg
Bailrigg is a village in Lancashire, England. The University of Lancaster campus is situated in Bailrigg, and the student radio station Bailrigg FM is named after the village.-Campus:...

, just south of the city, is Lancaster University
Lancaster University
Lancaster University, officially The University of Lancaster, is a leading research-intensive British university in Lancaster, Lancashire, England. The university was established by Royal Charter in 1964 and initially based in St Leonard's Gate until moving to a purpose-built 300 acre campus at...

, a research university, with an annual income of £149 million. The university employs 2,250 staff and has 17,415 registered students. It has one of only two business schools in the country to have achieved a 6 star research rating
Research Assessment Exercise
The Research Assessment Exercise is an exercise undertaken approximately every 5 years on behalf of the four UK higher education funding councils to evaluate the quality of research undertaken by British higher education institutions...

 and its Physics Department was recently rated #1
Research Assessment Exercise
The Research Assessment Exercise is an exercise undertaken approximately every 5 years on behalf of the four UK higher education funding councils to evaluate the quality of research undertaken by British higher education institutions...

 in England. InfoLab21 at the University is Centre of Excellence for Information and Communication Technologies. It is consistently the highest ranked university in the North West in newspaper league tables. In 2010 it was rated 10th nationally in The Times newspaper league table, 8th by The Independent and 6th by The Guardian. In the same year it was rated 124th worldwide in the Thompson Reuters league table, and 31st worldwide for arts and humanities.

Lancaster is also home to a campus of the University of Cumbria
University of Cumbria
The University of Cumbria is a university in Cumbria, England. Its headquarters are in Carlisle. and other major campuses are at Lancaster, Ambleside and Penrith. It was established in 2007, with roots extending back to the Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts established in 1822 and...

 – on the site of the former St Martin's College
St Martin's College
St Martin's College was a British Higher Education College with campuses in Lancaster, Ambleside and Carlisle, as well as sites in Whitehaven, Barrow and London. It provided undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the arts, humanities, business studies, teacher training, health and social care...

 – which was inaugurated in 2007. It provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the arts, social sciences, business, teacher training, health care and nursing.

Further education colleges

  • Lancaster and Morecambe College
    Lancaster and Morecambe College
    Lancaster and Morecambe College is a further education College situated on Torrisholme Road, halfway between Lancaster and Morecambe, Lancashire, England...

  • The Adult College, Lancaster
    The Adult College, Lancaster
    The Adult College is a adult education college located in the centre of Lancaster in Lancashire, England.The college was established in 1975, and moved to its current site on Quarry Road overlooking the Lancaster Canal in 1990...


Secondary schools

  • Lancaster Royal Grammar School
    Lancaster Royal Grammar School
    Lancaster Royal Grammar School is a voluntary aided, selective grammar school for boys in Lancaster, England. The school has been awarded specialist Technology College and Language College status. Old boys belong to The Old Lancastrians...

  • Lancaster Girls' Grammar School
    Lancaster Girls' Grammar School
    Lancaster Girls' Grammar School is a selective state grammar school for girls on Regent Street in Lancaster, England.-About LGGS:LGGS gained Technology College status in 1995, and Language College status in 2007, and has been consistently ranked among the top twenty performing secondary schools in...

  • Ripley St. Thomas C of E High School
    Ripley St. Thomas C of E High School
    Ripley St Thomas Church of England Academy is a mixed Church of England High School operating under Academy status, in the city of Lancaster in the north-west of England....

  • Our Lady's Catholic College
    Our Lady's Catholic College
    Our Lady's Catholic College is a mixed-sex secondary school for pupils aged 11-18. It is located in Lancaster in the North West of England. Formerly Our Lady's Catholic High School, its name changed after being awarded Specialist Sports College status in September 2003.-Famous People To...

  • Central Lancaster High School
    Central Lancaster High School
    Central Lancaster High School is a public state school in Lancaster, England. The school has been awarded specialist Arts College status. Central is a mixed sex public school for pupils aged 11-18. Central Lancaster High School has recently opened a sixth form, which was officially opened by the...

  • Lancaster Steiner School
    Lancaster Steiner School
    Lancaster Steiner School is a school in Lancaster, England, based on the principles of Waldorf education established by Rudolf Steiner. There is currently one Rainbow Toddlers group which meets at the Friends Meeting House in Lancaster. There is a kindergarten and a lower school both based at Lune...

  • Skerton Community High School
    Skerton Community High School
    Skerton Community High School is a secondary school in Skerton, Lancaster, England.-Foundation:Skerton Community High School was built by the Corporation of Lancaster in the early years of the 1930s, the foundation stone being laid on the 21st September 1932 and the building itself completed by...


Culture




Lancaster, as a historic city, offers an unusual level of contemporary cultural activity. The city is fortunate to have retained many fine examples of Georgian architecture
Georgian architecture
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1840. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United...

. Lancaster Castle
Lancaster Castle
Lancaster Castle is a medieval castle located in Lancaster in the English county of Lancashire. Its early history is unclear, but may have been founded in the 11th century on the site of a Roman fort overlooking a crossing of the River Lune. In 1164, the Honour of Lancaster, including the...

, the Priory Church of St. Mary
Lancaster Priory
Lancaster Priory, formerly St Mary's Church, Lancaster, is the parish church of the city of Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It is located near Lancaster Castle and has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. It is an active Anglican church in the deanery of...

 and the Edwardian Ashton Memorial
Ashton Memorial
The Ashton Memorial is a folly in Williamson Park, Lancaster, England built between 1907 and 1909 by millionaire industrialist Baron Ashton in memory of his second wife, Jessy, at a cost of over £80,000 The Ashton Memorial is a folly in Williamson Park, Lancaster, England built between 1907 and...

 are among many sites of historical importance.

The Lancaster Grand Theatre and the Dukes
Duke's Playhouse
The Dukes in Lancaster, England, formerly known as the Duke's Playhouse, is a professional producing theatre, currently producing six theatre productions a year. It also hosts outside companies and arts festivals. It has two auditoria, the larger seating approximately 313 and a newly refurbished...

 are two of the city's most notable venues for live performances. Lancaster also hosts 'The Play in the Park', a series of open-air performances in the award-winning Williamson Park. The university hosts public performances of theatre, music, exhibitions, contemporary dance and live art from UK and international companies. The university venues include the Nuffield Theatre, one of the largest professional studio theatres in Europe; the Peter Scott Gallery, holding the most significant collection of Royal Lancastrian ceramics in Britain and finally the Lancaster International Concerts series attracting nationally and internationally renowned classical and world-music artists. The Storey Gallery, sited in the Storey Creative Industries Centre, is a contemporary art gallery showing work by international artists. The Storey Creative Industries Centre also holds Lancaster's Litfest which organises and runs an annual literature festival. Lancaster also offers numerous museums, including Lancaster City Museum, Maritime Museum and Judges' Lodgings Museum
Judges Lodgings, Lancaster
The Judges Lodgings, formerly a town house and now a museum, is located in Castle Street, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building.-History:...

. Throughout the year, various festivals are held in and around the city, such as the Lancaster Jazz Festival and The Maritime Festival.

Cinemas in Lancaster are the independent Dukes Theatre and the mainstream VUE multiplex in the city centre. The 1930s art deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

 Regal Cinema closed in 2006.

Lancaster has a large arts community.

Every November the city hosts one of the biggest fireworks displays in the north west.

Sport



The city entertains contestants in the Lancaster International Youth Games, a multi-sport 'Olympic' style event, featuring competitors from Lancaster's twin towns: Rendsburg
Rendsburg
Rendsburg is a town on the River Eider and the Kiel Canal in the northeastern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the capital of the Kreis of Rendsburg-Eckernförde. As of 2006, it had a population of 28,476.-History:...

 (Germany), Perpignan
Perpignan
-Sport:Perpignan is a rugby stronghold: their rugby union side, USA Perpignan, is a regular competitor in the Heineken Cup and seven times champion of the Top 14 , while their rugby league side plays in the engage Super League under the name Catalans Dragons.-Culture:Since 2004, every year in the...

 (France), Viana do Castelo (Portugal), Aalborg
Aalborg
-Transport:On the north side of the Limfjord is Nørresundby, which is connected to Aalborg by a road bridge Limfjordsbroen, an iron railway bridge Jernbanebroen over Limfjorden, as well as a motorway tunnel running under the Limfjord Limfjordstunnelen....

 (Denmark), Almere
Almere
Almere is a planned city and municipality in the province of Flevoland, the Netherlands, bordering Lelystad and Zeewolde. The municipality of Almere comprises the districts Almere Stad, Almere Haven, Almere Buiten, Almere Hout, Almere Poort and Almere Pampus .Almere is the youngest city in the...

 (Netherlands), Lublin
Lublin
Lublin is the ninth largest city in Poland. It is the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 350,392 . Lublin is also the largest Polish city east of the Vistula river...

 (Poland) and Växjö
Växjö
Växjö is a city and the seat of Växjö Municipality, Kronoberg County, Sweden with 64 200 inhabitants in 2010. It is the administrative, cultural and industrial centre of Kronoberg County. Furthermore it is the episcopal see of the Diocese of Växjö. It has a population of about 64 200, out of a...

 (Sweden).

Cricket


Lancaster Cricket Club
Lancaster Cricket Club
Lancaster Cricket Club is an English cricket club sited near the River Lune in Lancaster. The club compete in the Northern League, with the 1st team being allocated a named professional for each season...

 is sited near the River Lune
River Lune
The River Lune is a river in Cumbria and Lancashire, England.It is formed at Wath, in the parish of Ravenstonedale, Cumbria, at the confluence of Sandwath Beck and Weasdale Beck...

 in Lancaster. They have two senior teams that participate in the Northern League.

Athletics


The local athletics track caters for all ages situated near the Salt Ayre Sports Centre in which the track is home to Lancaster and Morecambe AC.

Football


Lancaster's main football team, Lancaster City
Lancaster City F.C.
Lancaster City F.C. is an English football club based in Lancaster, Lancashire. The club are currently members of Northern Premier League Division One North and play at Giant Axe.-History:...

, play in the Northern Premier League Division One North
Northern Premier League Division One North
Division One North is one of the two second-tier divisions of the Northern Premier League. It is at tier 4 of the National League System, tier 8 of the English football league system...

.

Golf


Lancaster is home to many golf
Golf
Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes....

 clubs, including the Ashton Golf Centre, Lansil Golf Club, Forest Hills and Lancaster Golf Club.

Rowing


Lancaster John O' Gaunt Rowing Club
Lancaster John O' Gaunt Rowing Club
Lancaster John O'Gaunt Rowing Club is an English rowing club based at Lancaster on the River Lune. Its origins date back to 1842 making it the fifth oldest surviving rowing club in the United Kingdom outside the universities.-History:...

 is the fifth-oldest surviving rowing club in the UK. It competes nationally at regattas and heads races organised by British Rowing. The clubhouse is located next to the weir at Skerton
Skerton
- Origin of the name :The history of Skerton begins in Saxon times, a village having existed on the North bank of the River Lune since time immemorial...

.

Rugby union


Rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 is a very popular sport in the area with the local clubs being Vale of Lune RUFC
Vale of Lune RUFC
Vale Of Lune Rugby Union Football Club is an English rugby union club based in Lancaster that plays in the Northern Division....

 and Lancaster CATS.

Swimming


Lancaster's swimming club is 'Lancaster Amateur Swimming and Waterpolo Club' and they compete in a variety of competitions in the North West
North West England
North West England, informally known as The North West, is one of the nine official regions of England.North West England had a 2006 estimated population of 6,853,201 the third most populated region after London and the South East...

.They train at Salt Ayre.

Water polo


Lancaster is home to one of, if not the, top senior team in Great Britain. Water polo
Water polo
Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more goals. Game play involves swimming, treading water , players passing the ball while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a...

 is also the most successful sport in the Lancaster area. The Lancaster seniors hold a handful of water polo records and have won the national title ten times in the past thirteen years including a magnificent five consecutive years. They also have won the British Championship eight times in the past ten years, also including five consecutive years. On top of the impressive senior team Lancaster also has a highly successfully junior, youth & academy team. Lancaster City also provides Mini Water Polo for those children who want to have fun and learn about water polo. The local club is called Lancaster City Amateur Swimming & Water Polo Club and they train at Salt Ayre Sports Centre.

Gymnastics


Lancaster is home to SMARTAC Gym Club, http://smartac.co.uk , specialising in acro and with a trampoline subsidiary named SMARTAC Trampoline Club. As well as national competitions, the gym club has competed in two World Gymnaestradas. The club trains at the University of Cumbria Sports Complex, and contact and other details can be found on their recently revamped website. http://www.smartac.co.uk

Music


Lancaster has produced a number of successful bands and musicians since the 1990s, notably the drummer Keith Baxter
Keith Baxter (drummer)
Keith Baxter was an English rock drummer. He was born in Morecambe, Lancashire, England.-Biography:As a teenager he became a founder member of folk metal pioneers Skyclad, recording five albums with them before leaving in 1995, to move to London and join 3 Colours Red, with whom he recorded two UK...

 of 3 Colours Red
3 Colours Red
3 Colours Red were a rock band from the United Kingdom. They achieved their biggest chart success at the end of the 1990s, along with other Britrock bands such as Ash and Feeder. The band was named by sticking a pin in a London listings magazine, Time Out...

 and the all-girl punk-rock band Angelica
Angelica (band)
Angelica were an all-girl punk rock band from Lancaster, England. Holly Ross , Brigit Colton , Claire Windsor and Rachel Parsons formed the band while still at school in 1994 and performed until 2003...

. Both used the Lancaster Musicians' Co-operative, the main rehearsal and recording studio in the area.

The city has also produced many other musicians, including singer and songwriter John Waite
John Waite
John Charles Waite is an English rock singer and musician. He was lead vocalist for The Babys and Bad English. As a solo artist, he scored several international hits, including 1984's "Missing You", a top ten hit on the US Billboard Hot 100 and the UK Singles Chart, reaching #1 in the...

, who first became known as lead singer of The Babys
The Babys
The Babys were a British rock/pop group best known for their songs "Isn't It Time," and "Every Time I Think of You." Both songs were composed by Jack Conrad and Ray Kennedy, and reached #13 on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 chart in the late 1970s...

 in the 1970s; Paul James, better known as The Rev, former guitarist of English punk band Towers Of London
Towers of London
Towers of London are a Punk Rock n Roll band, fromLondon, England, who formed in 2004. Their music mixes elements of rock and heavy metal music with 1977 style British punk...

 who is now in the band Day 21
Day 21
Day 21 are an English punk rock group, led by Jimmy Pursey.On 21 January 2008, Pursey announced that, due to ongoing confusion to fans, he would no longer be associated with the name Sham 69, and that his new band would perform under the name, Day 21....

 and plays guitar live on tour for The Prodigy
The Prodigy
The Prodigy are an English electronic dance music group formed by Liam Howlett in 1990 in Braintree, Essex. Along with Fatboy Slim, The Chemical Brothers, and other acts, The Prodigy have been credited as pioneers of the big beat genre, which achieved mainstream popularity in the 1990s and 2000s...

, Chris Acland
Chris Acland
Chris Acland was an English musician, best known for being the drummer of the London based shoegazing and britpop musical ensemble, Lush.-Biography:Christopher John Dyke Acland was born in Lancaster Infirmary...

, drummer of the early 1990s shoegaze band Lush
Lush (band)
Lush were an English alternative rock band, formed in 1987 and disbanded in 1998. They were one of the first bands to attract the "shoegazing" label...

; Tom English, drummer of North East indie band Maxïmo Park
Maxïmo Park
Maxïmo Park are a British alternative rock band, formed in 2000. They are signed to Warp Records. The band consists of Paul Smith , Duncan Lloyd , Archis Tiku , Lukas Wooller and Tom English...

 and Steve Kemp
Steve Kemp (musician)
Steven Michael "Steve" Kemp is an English drummer. He is the drummer of indie rock band Hard-Fi. Originally from Lancashire, he went to Carnforth High School, before he moved to London in his late teens to do a musical course. Kemp is a big fan of Liverpool F.C...

, drummer of the indie band Hard-Fi
HARD-Fi
Hard-Fi are an English indie rock band formed in Staines, Surrey in 2003. The band's members are Richard Archer , Ross Phillips , Kai Stephens and Steve Kemp .They achieved chart success with their third single, "Hard to Beat" and then followed by other successful singles such as...

.

Lancaster still continues to produce many bands and musicians, with acts like The Lovely Eggs
The Lovely Eggs
The Lovely Eggs are a two piece, indie rock band from Lancaster, England.They consist of married couple Holly Ross and David Blackwell. Ross was formerly the lead singer and guitarist in the girl band, Angelica...

, 19ninetynine
19ninetynine
19ninetynine are an electronic industrial band from Lancaster, UK and formed in 2008. The band consists of members Chris Wyrd , Andy McBain and Róisín Brennan .-Biography:...

 and The Adventures of Loki
The Adventures of Loki
The Adventures of Loki were a 3 piece punk rock band from Lancaster, United Kingdom.The band was formed from ex-Angelica members; Brigit Colton and Rachel Parsons , who then teamed up with ex-Fifty Heads Wide guitarist and vocalist Steve Wade....

 all receiving considerable national radio play and press coverage in recent years.

Lancaster is also the founding home of the dance-music sound systems The Rhythm Method and The ACME Bass Company. Pioneers in the field of the free party, these two systems, along with others, forged one of the strongest representations of the genre in the North West of England during the 1990s.

Since 2006, Lancaster Library has hosted a regular series of music events under the Get it Loud in Libraries initiative. Musicians such as The Wombats
The Wombats
The Wombats are an indie rock band formed in Liverpool, England. The band comprises native Liverpudlians Matthew Murphy and Dan Haggis , alongside Norwegian-born Tord Øverland-Knudsen...

, The Thrills
The Thrills
The Thrills are an Irish rock band, formed in 2001 in Dublin, Ireland. The band was founded by lead vocalist Conor Deasy and guitarist Daniel Ryan, guitarist and bass player Padraic McMahon, pianist Kevin Horan and drummer Ben Carrigan. Their big break came with their debut album, So Much for the...

, Kate Nash
Kate Nash
Kate Marie Nash is an English singer, songwriter, and musician. She had a UK no. 2 hit "Foundations" in 2007, followed by the platinum selling UK number 1 album Made of Bricks. She was named Best Female Artist at the 2008 BRIT Awards....

, Adele
Adele (singer)
Adele Laurie Blue Adkins , known professionally as Adele, is an English singer-songwriter. She was the first recipient of the Brit Awards Critics' Choice and was named the number-one predicted breakthrough act of 2008 in an annual BBC poll of music critics, Sound of 2008...

 and Bat for Lashes
Bat for Lashes
Natasha Khan , also known by her stage name Bat for Lashes, is an English musician. She sings and plays the piano, bass, guitar, harpsichord and the autoharp....

 have taken part. Get It Loud in Libraries has gained national exposure, featuring on The One Show on BBC1, as well as seeing its gigs reviewed in The Observer Music Monthly, NME
NME
The New Musical Express is a popular music publication in the United Kingdom, published weekly since March 1952. It started as a music newspaper, and gradually moved toward a magazine format during the 1980s, changing from newsprint in 1998. It was the first British paper to include a singles...

 and Art Rocker.

Other notable music venues are The Dukes
Duke's Playhouse
The Dukes in Lancaster, England, formerly known as the Duke's Playhouse, is a professional producing theatre, currently producing six theatre productions a year. It also hosts outside companies and arts festivals. It has two auditoria, the larger seating approximately 313 and a newly refurbished...

, The Grand Theatre, The Gregson Centre
The Gregson Centre
The Gregson Centre in Lancaster, Great Britain is an arts and community centre, music venue and bar which has been awarded the Cask Marque. It is one of the last medium sized music venues in the area, and is run by a charity; the Gregson Community Association Limited. There is a micro-cinema and a...

, The Bobbin and The Yorkshire House which since 2006 has hosted such acts as John Renbourn
John Renbourn
John Renbourn is an English guitarist and songwriter. He is possibly best known for his collaboration with guitarist Bert Jansch as well as his work with the folk group Pentangle, although he maintained a solo career before, during and after that band's existence .While most commonly labelled a...

, Polly Paulusma
Polly Paulusma
Polly Paulusma is an English singer-songwriter. Her first album, Scissors in my Pocket, was largely recorded and produced by herself at her home...

, Marissa Nadler
Marissa Nadler
Marissa Nadler is an American dream-folk singer-songwriter and fine artist based in Boston.-Early life:Marissa Nadler was exposed to art at a young age through her mother Pamela, an abstract painter, and her older brother Stuart, a guitarist and writer...

, Baby Dee
Baby Dee
Baby Dee is an American performance artist, multi-instrumentalist, and singer-songwriter from Cleveland, Ohio.-Early career:In the 1970s, Baby Dee began her musical career as a street performer, but soon decided to take work as an organist at a Catholic church in the Bronx...

, Diane Cluck
Diane Cluck
Diane Cluck is an American singer and songwriter of intuitive folk. Although known as a solo performer, she has often collaborated with others, including a recent association with drummer Anders Griffen on tours in the US and UK....

, Alasdair Roberts and 2008 Mercury Prize
Mercury Prize
The Mercury Prize, formerly called the Mercury Music Prize and currently known as the Barclaycard Mercury Prize for sponsorship reasons, is an annual music prize awarded for the best album from the United Kingdom and Ireland. It was established by the British Phonographic Industry and British...

 nominees Rachel Unthank and the Winterset
Rachel Unthank and the Winterset
The Unthanks are an English folk group from Northumberland, known for their eclectic approach in combining traditional English folk with other musical genres.-Rachel Unthank and the Winterset:...

.

Media


The Bay
The Bay (radio station)
The Bay is a British radio station owned by the CN Group broadcasting from the city of Lancaster to the region of North Lancashire and the South Lakes, in North West England. It derives its name from the sand banks of Morecambe Bay, above which the main 96.9 MHz transmitter is located...

, the largest radio station in North Lancashire and South Cumbria, is based at St. George's Quay in the city and broadcasts on three separate frequencies: 96.9 FM (Lancaster), 102.3 FM (Windermere) and 103.2 FM (Kendal).

The city is also home to one of the most critically acclaimed film distributors in the UK, A1 Pictures Ltd, Which founded the independent film brand Capture.

The city also has one of the best community radio
Community radio in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, Community Radio refers to a system of licensing small, micro-local, non-profit radio stations, which started in 2002. In its early days, the pilot scheme was known as Access Radio.-History:...

 stations in the country, Diversity FM
Diversity FM
Diversity FM is a community radio station based in Lancaster, north Lancashire, which covers the Lancaster and Morecambe district. It broadcasts a mixture of live and pre-recorded shows and music playlisting 24/7 on 103.5FM and via the Internet....

, with a five year licence from 2006. The community led project is based at the local YMCA
YMCA
The Young Men's Christian Association is a worldwide organization of more than 45 million members from 125 national federations affiliated through the World Alliance of YMCAs...

. The station includes a variety of shows including one presented by a 5-year-old and one broadcast in the Polish language
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

.

Commercially available newspapers include The Lancaster Guardian (a popular tabloid, having changed from broadsheet
Broadsheet
Broadsheet is the largest of the various newspaper formats and is characterized by long vertical pages . The term derives from types of popular prints usually just of a single sheet, sold on the streets and containing various types of material, from ballads to political satire. The first broadsheet...

 in May 2011) and The Visitor (a tabloid newspaper mainly targeted at residents of Morecambe). Freely-available newspapers in Lancaster include The Reporter and, previously, The Lancaster & Morecambe Citizen, which ceased production in January 2009.

The city's university, Lancaster University
Lancaster University
Lancaster University, officially The University of Lancaster, is a leading research-intensive British university in Lancaster, Lancashire, England. The university was established by Royal Charter in 1964 and initially based in St Leonard's Gate until moving to a purpose-built 300 acre campus at...

, also has its own student radio station, Bailrigg FM
Bailrigg FM
Bailrigg FM is the radio station for Lancaster University, operating in a music radio format predominantly featuring indie music. During evening and weekend hours programming moves to specialist content where the presenter is free to play whatever they wish...

, broadcasting on a signal of 87.7 FM, and an online student-run television station called LUTube.tv.

Places of interest



  • Lancaster Castle
    Lancaster Castle
    Lancaster Castle is a medieval castle located in Lancaster in the English county of Lancashire. Its early history is unclear, but may have been founded in the 11th century on the site of a Roman fort overlooking a crossing of the River Lune. In 1164, the Honour of Lancaster, including the...

  • Lancaster Priory
    Lancaster Priory
    Lancaster Priory, formerly St Mary's Church, Lancaster, is the parish church of the city of Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It is located near Lancaster Castle and has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. It is an active Anglican church in the deanery of...

  • Lancaster City Museum
  • Lune Millennium Bridge
    Lune Millennium Bridge
    The Lune Millennium Bridge is a cable-stayed footbridge which spans the River Lune in Lancaster, England.It was designed by Whitby Bird and Partners, and built at a cost of £1.8m to commemorate the millennium of 2000. The bridge forms a "Y"-shape in plan to connect one bank both to a viaduct and...

  • Williamson Park
    Williamson Park, Lancaster
    Williamson Park is a park in Lancaster, England. Its focal point is the Ashton Memorial. The park was constructed by millionaire James Williamson, 1st Baron Ashton, and his father, also called James Williamson...

  • Ashton Memorial
    Ashton Memorial
    The Ashton Memorial is a folly in Williamson Park, Lancaster, England built between 1907 and 1909 by millionaire industrialist Baron Ashton in memory of his second wife, Jessy, at a cost of over £80,000 The Ashton Memorial is a folly in Williamson Park, Lancaster, England built between 1907 and...

     and Butterfly House
  • Lancaster Cathedral
    Lancaster Cathedral
    Lancaster Cathedral, also known as The Cathedral Church of St Peter and Saint Peter's Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It towers above its superb location overlooking Lancaster and Lancaster Canal...

  • The Music Room, Sun Street
  • Storey Gallery
  • The Judges Lodgings
  • The Cottage Museum
  • Lancaster University
    Lancaster University
    Lancaster University, officially The University of Lancaster, is a leading research-intensive British university in Lancaster, Lancashire, England. The university was established by Royal Charter in 1964 and initially based in St Leonard's Gate until moving to a purpose-built 300 acre campus at...

    's Ruskin Library
    Ruskin Library
    The Ruskin Library is a library of the University of Lancaster which houses the Whitehouse Collection of material relating to the English poet, author and artist John Ruskin and his circle. This collection was formed by John Howard Whitehouse, Liberal Member of Parliament...




  • Penny's Hospital, 18th century almshouse
    Almshouse
    Almshouses are charitable housing provided to enable people to live in a particular community...

    s on King Street
  • Quayside Maritime Museum
  • Lancaster Royal Grammar School
    Lancaster Royal Grammar School
    Lancaster Royal Grammar School is a voluntary aided, selective grammar school for boys in Lancaster, England. The school has been awarded specialist Technology College and Language College status. Old boys belong to The Old Lancastrians...

  • Lancaster Girls' Grammar School
    Lancaster Girls' Grammar School
    Lancaster Girls' Grammar School is a selective state grammar school for girls on Regent Street in Lancaster, England.-About LGGS:LGGS gained Technology College status in 1995, and Language College status in 2007, and has been consistently ranked among the top twenty performing secondary schools in...

  • Duke's Playhouse
    Duke's Playhouse
    The Dukes in Lancaster, England, formerly known as the Duke's Playhouse, is a professional producing theatre, currently producing six theatre productions a year. It also hosts outside companies and arts festivals. It has two auditoria, the larger seating approximately 313 and a newly refurbished...

  • The Gregson Centre
    The Gregson Centre
    The Gregson Centre in Lancaster, Great Britain is an arts and community centre, music venue and bar which has been awarded the Cask Marque. It is one of the last medium sized music venues in the area, and is run by a charity; the Gregson Community Association Limited. There is a micro-cinema and a...

  • Lancaster Grand Theatre
  • Dalton Square: Queen Victoria's statue and the town hall
  • Lancaster Musicians' Co-operative
  • Lancaster Golf Club
  • Westfield War Memorial Village
    Westfield War Memorial Village
    Westfield War Memorial Village is a residence in the City of Lancaster, England. Initially created for ex-service men, women and families after World War I, it continues to provide accommodation for 189 residents.-History:...


See also
  • Duke of Lancaster
    Duke of Lancaster
    There were several Dukes of Lancaster in the 14th and early 15th Centuries. See also Duchy of Lancaster.There were three creations of the Dukedom of Lancaster....

  • Duchy of Lancaster
    Duchy of Lancaster
    The Duchy of Lancaster is one of the two royal duchies in England, the other being the Duchy of Cornwall. It is held in trust for the Sovereign, and is used to provide income for the use of the British monarch...


Notable Lancastrians

  • Myles Standish
    Myles Standish
    Myles Standish was an English military officer hired by the Pilgrims as military advisor for Plymouth Colony. One of the Mayflower passengers, Standish played a leading role in the administration and defense of Plymouth Colony from its inception...

      (c. 1584 - Oct 3,1656) Soldier-Captain Passenger on The Mayflower, Founding member of the Plymouth Colony (America) Signer of the Mayflower Compact. Died: Duxbury, Massachusetts, USA
  • Andrew Collins
    Andrew Collins
    Andrew Collins may refer to:* Andrew B. Collins , a U.S. research analyst* Andrew Collins , British journalist, scriptwriter, and broadcaster...

  • Henry Cort
    Henry Cort
    Henry Cort was an English ironmaster. During the Industrial Revolution in England, Cort began refining iron from pig iron to wrought iron using innovative production systems. In 1783 he patented the puddling process for refining iron ore...

     (1741?–1800) was an English ironmaster and inventor.
  • Thomas Edmondson
    Thomas Edmondson
    Thomas Edmondson is the inventor of theEdmondson railway ticket....

     – inventor of the Edmondson railway ticket
    Edmondson railway ticket
    The Edmondson railway ticket was a system for validating the payment of railway fares, and accounting for the revenue raised, introduced in the 1840s. It is named after its inventor, Thomas Edmondson, a trained cabinet maker, who became a station master on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway in...

    .
  • Edward Frankland
    Edward Frankland
    Sir Edward Frankland, KCB, FRS was a chemist, one of the foremost of his day. He was an expert in water quality and analysis, and originated the concept of combining power, or valence, in chemistry. He was also one of the originators of organometallic chemistry.-Biography:Edward Frankland was born...

     – chemist. Born near Lancaster, educated at LRGS
    Lancaster Royal Grammar School
    Lancaster Royal Grammar School is a voluntary aided, selective grammar school for boys in Lancaster, England. The school has been awarded specialist Technology College and Language College status. Old boys belong to The Old Lancastrians...

    , specilised in water quality and analysis, and originated the concept of valence.
  • Richard Owen
    Richard Owen
    Sir Richard Owen, FRS KCB was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist.Owen is probably best remembered today for coining the word Dinosauria and for his outspoken opposition to Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection...

     – biologist. Renowned for coining the term "dinosaur
    Dinosaur
    Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade and superorder Dinosauria. They were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous , when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of...

    ". Lived on Brock Street.
  • Sir James Crosby - Chief Executive of HBOS
    HBOS
    HBOS plc is a banking and insurance company in the United Kingdom, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Lloyds Banking Group having been taken over in January 2009...

     until 2006
  • Buck Ruxton
    Buck Ruxton
    Dr Buck Ruxton , also known as Buktyar Rustomji Ratanji Hakim, was a Parsi doctor and murderer, involved in one of the United Kingdom's most publicised murder cases of the 1930s, which gripped the nation at the time...

     - infamous murderer who resided and practised medicine at 2 Dalton Square until trial and subsequent hanging in the 1930s. Pub on Great John Street named after him until renaming 'The Square'
  • James Williamson
    James Williamson, 1st Baron Ashton
    James Williamson, 1st Baron Ashton was a British businessman and Liberal Party politician.Williamson was a successful businessman, whose family business in Lancaster produced oil cloth and linoleum which were exported around the world...

     (1842–1930) businessman and politician noted for textiles and creating Williamson Park and the Ashton memorial. Gained a peerage in 1895 to become 1st Baron Ashton.
  • Professor Paul Wellings - Vice Chancellor of Lancaster University.

Media and sport
  • Joe Abercrombie
    Joe Abercrombie
    Joe Abercrombie is a British fantasy writer and film editor. He is the author of The First Law trilogy.-Early life:Abercrombie was born in Lancaster, England...

     – author.
  • Cherith Baldry
    Cherith Baldry
    Cherith Baldry is a writer of fantasy fiction. She grew up on a farm and worked with house cats. For a while, she took up the job of teaching, but gave up in order to become a full time writer. She currently lives in Reigate, England. Baldry collaborates with Kate Cary, Tui T...

     – author.
  • Keith Baxter
    Keith Baxter (drummer)
    Keith Baxter was an English rock drummer. He was born in Morecambe, Lancashire, England.-Biography:As a teenager he became a founder member of folk metal pioneers Skyclad, recording five albums with them before leaving in 1995, to move to London and join 3 Colours Red, with whom he recorded two UK...

     – drummer of British rock band 3 Colours Red
    3 Colours Red
    3 Colours Red were a rock band from the United Kingdom. They achieved their biggest chart success at the end of the 1990s, along with other Britrock bands such as Ash and Feeder. The band was named by sticking a pin in a London listings magazine, Time Out...

    .
  • James Beattie
    James Beattie (footballer)
    James Scott Beattie is an English footballer who currently plays for Sheffield United as a striker.Born in Lancaster, Lancashire he came through the ranks at Blackburn Rovers eventually signing professionally for them in 1995...

     – footballer
    Football (soccer)
    Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

  • Laurence Binyon
    Laurence Binyon
    Robert Laurence Binyon was an English poet, dramatist and art scholar. His most famous work, For the Fallen, is well known for being used in Remembrance Sunday services....

     – poet
  • Jim Bowen
    Jim Bowen
    Jim Bowen is an English stand-up comedian and TV personality. He is best known as the host of the ITV gameshow Bullseye, which he hosted between 1981 and 1995.-Early life:...

     – former presenter of TV gameshow Bullseye
    Bullseye (UK game show)
    Bullseye was a popular British television programme. It was first made for the ITV network by ATV in 1981 and Central from 1982 until 1995, and hosted by Jim Bowen. The show originally aired on Monday nights from 1981, it was then moved to Sunday nights from 1982 to 1993 where it was watched by...

    . Born in Heswall
    Heswall
    Heswall is a town in Wirral, in the county of Merseyside, England. Administratively, it is a ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral. At the time of the 2001 Census, the total population of the ward was 16,012 , which included the nearby villages of Barnston and Gayton...

    , Cheshire
    Cheshire
    Cheshire is a ceremonial county in North West England. Cheshire's county town is the city of Chester, although its largest town is Warrington. Other major towns include Widnes, Congleton, Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Runcorn, Macclesfield, Winsford, Northwich, and Wilmslow...

     lived in the area for many years.
  • Steve Kemp
    Steve Kemp (musician)
    Steven Michael "Steve" Kemp is an English drummer. He is the drummer of indie rock band Hard-Fi. Originally from Lancashire, he went to Carnforth High School, before he moved to London in his late teens to do a musical course. Kemp is a big fan of Liverpool F.C...

    , drummer of Hard-Fi
    HARD-Fi
    Hard-Fi are an English indie rock band formed in Staines, Surrey in 2003. The band's members are Richard Archer , Ross Phillips , Kai Stephens and Steve Kemp .They achieved chart success with their third single, "Hard to Beat" and then followed by other successful singles such as...

  • John Waite
    John Waite
    John Charles Waite is an English rock singer and musician. He was lead vocalist for The Babys and Bad English. As a solo artist, he scored several international hits, including 1984's "Missing You", a top ten hit on the US Billboard Hot 100 and the UK Singles Chart, reaching #1 in the...

     – musician, now solo but formerly lead singer of the bands Bad English and The Babys.
  • Alan Warriner-Little
    Alan Warriner-Little
    Alan Warriner-Little is an English professional darts player. He currently lives in Crosby, Cumbria and plays with the nickname The Iceman...

     – 2001 World Grand Prix Darts
    2001 World Grand Prix Darts
    -Results:...

     champion, known to darts fans as The Iceman.
  • Andy Wear
    Andy Wear
    Andy Wear is an English actor born in Lancaster, Lancashire, England.Wear appeared as Fire Officer Wayne in Coronation Street live and was seen discovering Rita in the Kabin during the week of the tram disaster....

     – actor, star of ITV
    ITV
    ITV is the major commercial public service TV network in the United Kingdom. Launched in 1955 under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to the BBC, it is also the oldest commercial network in the UK...

    's The Royal
    The Royal
    The Royal is a British medical drama series produced by ITV. The show comprises one hour episodes which were normally first aired on ITV in the Sunday early evening slot....

    .
  • Keith Wilkinson
    Keith Wilkinson (reporter)
    Keith Wilkinson is a British television reporter and news correspondent.Born in Lancashire, England, he began his career in newspaper journalism as a trainee reporter at The Westmorland Gazette in Kendal, Cumbria, in 1974...

     – ITV1
    ITV1
    ITV1 is a generic brand that is used by twelve franchises of the British ITV Network in the English regions, Wales, southern Scotland , the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey. The ITV1 brand was introduced by Carlton and Granada in 2001, alongside the regional identities of their...

     Central Tonight
    Central Tonight
    Central Tonight is a regional television news and current affairs programme, produced by ITV Central, serving the English Midlands.-History:...

    news reporter.
  • Jon Richardson
    Jon Richardson (entertainer)
    Jon Joel Richardson is a British comedian.Jon co-hosted a Sunday morning radio show on BBC 6 Music with fellow comedian and friend Russell Howard, and continued to present the show himself after Howard left, until 7 March 2010...

     – comedian.
  • John McGuinness
    John McGuinness (motorcycle racer)
    John McGuinness is an English professional motorcycle racer. McGuinness races for the HM Plant Honda team in road races like the Isle of Man TT and the North West 200, and on the short tracks in the British Superstock 1000 series.-2006:TT 2006 proved to be the best ever for McGuinness...

     - Motorcycle Racer and Isle of Man TT legend
  • The Heartbreaks
    The Heartbreaks
    The Heartbreaks are a British Indie rock band formed in Morecambe, Lancashire in 2009. The band consists of Matthew Whitehouse , Joseph Kondras , Ryan Wallace and Chris 'Deaks' Deakin .A recent description of the band's sound said: "Bolt-from-the-blue mélanges of Motown's pop purity, coy vocals...

     - popular indie pop band with members from Lancaster and nearby Morecambe.

Twinned cities


Lancaster's current twinned cities:
  • Aalborg
    Aalborg
    -Transport:On the north side of the Limfjord is Nørresundby, which is connected to Aalborg by a road bridge Limfjordsbroen, an iron railway bridge Jernbanebroen over Limfjorden, as well as a motorway tunnel running under the Limfjord Limfjordstunnelen....

    , Denmark
    Denmark
    Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

  • Almere
    Almere
    Almere is a planned city and municipality in the province of Flevoland, the Netherlands, bordering Lelystad and Zeewolde. The municipality of Almere comprises the districts Almere Stad, Almere Haven, Almere Buiten, Almere Hout, Almere Poort and Almere Pampus .Almere is the youngest city in the...

    , Netherlands
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

  • Lublin
    Lublin
    Lublin is the ninth largest city in Poland. It is the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 350,392 . Lublin is also the largest Polish city east of the Vistula river...

    , Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

  • Perpignan
    Perpignan
    -Sport:Perpignan is a rugby stronghold: their rugby union side, USA Perpignan, is a regular competitor in the Heineken Cup and seven times champion of the Top 14 , while their rugby league side plays in the engage Super League under the name Catalans Dragons.-Culture:Since 2004, every year in the...

    , France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

  • Rendsburg
    Rendsburg
    Rendsburg is a town on the River Eider and the Kiel Canal in the northeastern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the capital of the Kreis of Rendsburg-Eckernförde. As of 2006, it had a population of 28,476.-History:...

    , Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

  • Växjö
    Växjö
    Växjö is a city and the seat of Växjö Municipality, Kronoberg County, Sweden with 64 200 inhabitants in 2010. It is the administrative, cultural and industrial centre of Kronoberg County. Furthermore it is the episcopal see of the Diocese of Växjö. It has a population of about 64 200, out of a...

    , Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

  • Viana do Castelo, Portugal
    Portugal
    Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...


See also

  • St John the Evangelist's Church, Lancaster
    St John the Evangelist's Church, Lancaster
    St John the Evangelist's Church, Lancaster, is a redundant Anglican church in North Road, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building, and is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust....

  • St Thomas' Church, Lancaster
    St Thomas' Church, Lancaster
    St Thomas' Church, Lancaster is in Marton Street, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of Lancaster, the archdeaconry of Lancaster and the diocese of Blackburn...

  • Christ Church, Lancaster
    Christ Church, Lancaster
    Christ Church, Lancaster, is in Wyresdale Road, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It is an active Anglican parish church in the deanery of Lancaster and Morecambe, the archdeaconry of Lancaster, and the diocese of Blackburn...


External links