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Internal rotary inspection system
) is an ultrasonic method for the nondestructive testing
Nondestructive testing or Non-destructive testing is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage....
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases , slurries, powders, masses of small solids...
and tubes. The IRIS probe is inserted into a tube that is flooded with water, and the probe is pulled out slowly as the data is displayed and recorded. The ultrasonic beam allows detection of metal loss from the inside and outside of the tube wall.
Principle of operation
The IRIS probe consists of a rotating mirror that directs the ultrasonic beam into the tube wall. The mirror is driven by a small turbine that is rotated by the pressure of water being pumped in. As the probe is pulled the spinning motion of the mirror results in a helical
A helix is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space. It has the property that the tangent line at any point makes a constant angle with a fixed line called the axis. Examples of helixes are coil springs and the handrails of spiral staircases. A "filled-in" helix – for...
One of the key settings in the procedure is to ensure that the ultrasonic pulse initiates in the very focus point at the center of the tube or pipe. An off-center pulse will show a distorted image of the tube due to the difference in the sound path for either side of the tube wall. For that reason there are centering devices that help the operator to keep the turbine centered at all times.
The transducer utilized for the inspection has to be fast (frequency) enough to bounce back at both inner wall and outer wall. For the very smallest and thinnest tubes it is usually used a 25Mhz piezoelectric transducer.
- Field-proven and commonly used in boilers, heat exchangers, and fin-fan tubes.
- Often used as a back-up to electromagnetic examination of tubes, to verify calibration and accuracy. Especially useful as a follow-up to remote field testing
Remote field testing is an electromagnetic method of nondestructive testing whose main application is finding defects in steel pipes and tubes. RFT may also referred to as RFEC or RFET...
due to the full sensitivity near tube support structures provided by IRIS.
- The IRIS probe must be moved very slowly (approximately 1 inch per second, or 2.5 cm/s), but it produces very accurate results (wall thickness measurements typically accurate to within 0.005 inch, or 0.13 mm).
- Before the examination, tubes must be cleaned on the inside to bare metal.
- A supply of clean water is needed, typically at a pressure of 60 psi, or 0.4 MPa. Dirt or debris in the water may cause the turbine to jam.
- Works for tube diameters of ½ inch (13 mm) and up. Special centralizing devices are needed for larger diameters.
- Works in metal or plastic tubes
- Typical smallest detectable defect: through-hole of diameter 1/16-inch (1.6 mm).
- Operates in temperatures above freezing.
- Can pass bends, but will not detect defects in bends.
- Not sensitive to cracks aligned with tube radius.
- IRIS testing world wide. PDF