Glasgow

Glasgow

Overview


Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 and third most populous in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. The city is situated on the River Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

 in the country's west central lowlands
Scottish Lowlands
The Scottish Lowlands is a name given to the Southern half of Scotland.The area is called a' Ghalldachd in Scottish Gaelic, and the Lawlands ....

. A person from Glasgow is known as a Glaswegian.

Glasgow grew from the medieval Bishopric of Glasgow
Archbishop of Glasgow
The Bishop of Glasgow, from 1492 Archbishop of Glasgow, was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Glasgow and then, as Archbishop of Glasgow, the Archdiocese of Glasgow...

 and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

 in the 15th century, which subsequently became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By 1750, Scots were among the most literate citizens of Europe, with an estimated 75% level of literacy...

 in the 18th century.
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Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 and third most populous in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. The city is situated on the River Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

 in the country's west central lowlands
Scottish Lowlands
The Scottish Lowlands is a name given to the Southern half of Scotland.The area is called a' Ghalldachd in Scottish Gaelic, and the Lawlands ....

. A person from Glasgow is known as a Glaswegian.

Glasgow grew from the medieval Bishopric of Glasgow
Archbishop of Glasgow
The Bishop of Glasgow, from 1492 Archbishop of Glasgow, was the ecclesiastical head of the Diocese of Glasgow and then, as Archbishop of Glasgow, the Archdiocese of Glasgow...

 and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

 in the 15th century, which subsequently became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By 1750, Scots were among the most literate citizens of Europe, with an estimated 75% level of literacy...

 in the 18th century. From the 18th century the city also grew as one of Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with British North America
British America
For American people of British descent, see British American.British America is the anachronistic term used to refer to the territories under the control of the Crown or Parliament in present day North America , Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana...

 and the British West Indies
British West Indies
The British West Indies was a term used to describe the islands in and around the Caribbean that were part of the British Empire The term was sometimes used to include British Honduras and British Guiana, even though these territories are not geographically part of the Caribbean...

. With the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

, the city and surrounding region shifted to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of Heavy Engineering, most notably in the Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both...

 and Marine engineering
Naval architecture
Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction, maintenance and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a...

 industry, which produced many innovative and famous vessels. Glasgow was known as the "Second City of the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

"
for much of the Victorian era
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 and Edwardian period. Today it is one of Europe's top ten financial centres and is home to many of Scotland's leading businesses. Glasgow is also ranked as the 57th most liveable city in the world.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew to a population of over one million, and was the fourth-largest city in Europe, after London, Paris and Berlin. In the 1960s, comprehensive urban renewal
Urban renewal
Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of...

 projects resulting in large-scale relocation of people to new town
New town
A new town is a specific type of a planned community, or planned city, that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in a more ad hoc fashion. Land use conflicts are uncommon in new...

s and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes, have reduced the current population of the City of Glasgow council area to 592,000, with 1,199,629 people living in the Greater Glasgow
Greater Glasgow
Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area...

 urban area. The entire region surrounding the conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

 covers approximately 2.3 million people, 41% of Scotland's population.

Early origins and development



The present site of Glasgow has been used since prehistoric times for settlement due to it being the furthest downstream fording
Ford (crossing)
A ford is a shallow place with good footing where a river or stream may be crossed by wading or in a vehicle. A ford is mostly a natural phenomenon, in contrast to a low water crossing, which is an artificial bridge that allows crossing a river or stream when water is low.The names of many towns...

 point of the River Clyde, at the point of its confluence with the Molendinar Burn
Molendinar Burn
The Molendinar Burn is a stream in Glasgow, Scotland. It was the site of the settlement that grew to become the kernel of Glasgow, and where St Mungo founded his church in the 6th century. It was later used to power the growing town's mills....

. The origins of Glasgow as an established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as Scotland's second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland
David I of Scotland
David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians and later King of the Scots...

 and John, Bishop of Glasgow.

There had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo
Saint Mungo
Saint Mungo is the commonly used name for Saint Kentigern . He was the late 6th century apostle of the Brythonic Kingdom of Strathclyde in modern Scotland, and patron saint and founder of the city of Glasgow.-Name:In Wales and England, this saint is known by his birth and baptismal name Kentigern...

 in the 6th century. The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland was a Sovereign state in North-West Europe that existed from 843 until 1707. It occupied the northern third of the island of Great Britain and shared a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England...

, bringing wealth and status to the town. Between 1175 and 1178 this position was strengthened even further when Bishop Jocelin obtained for the episcopal settlement the status of Burgh
Burgh
A burgh was an autonomous corporate entity in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town. This type of administrative division existed from the 12th century, when King David I created the first royal burghs. Burgh status was broadly analogous to borough status, found in the rest of the United...

 from King William I of Scotland
William I of Scotland
William the Lion , sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough", reigned as King of the Scots from 1165 to 1214...

, allowing the settlement to expand with the benefits of trading monopolies and other legal guarantees. Sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives to this day as the Glasgow Fair
Glasgow Fair
The Glasgow Fair is a holiday during the last fortnight in July in the city of Glasgow Scotland. 'The Fair' is the oldest of a number of similar holidays, dating from the 12th century...

.

Glasgow grew over the following centuries, the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross
Glasgow Cross
Glasgow Cross is a major junction in the city centre of Glasgow, which has, at its centre, five streets running from it: the High Street, Gallowgate, London Road, the Saltmarket and the Trongate ....

. The founding of the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

 in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric
Diocese
A diocese is the district or see under the supervision of a bishop. It is divided into parishes.An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese. An archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or had importance due to size or historical significance...

 to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow
Archdiocese of Glasgow
The Archdiocese of Glasgow was one of the thirteen dioceses of the Scottish church. It was the second largest diocese in the Kingdom of Scotland, including Clydesdale, Teviotdale, parts of Tweeddale, Liddesdale, Annandale, Nithsdale, Cunninghame, Kyle, and Strathgryfe, as well as Lennox Carrick...

 in 1492 served to increase the town's religious and educational status. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal burgh
Royal burgh
A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh which had been founded by, or subsequently granted, a royal charter. Although abolished in 1975, the term is still used in many of the former burghs....

 in 1611.

Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe , born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, and pamphleteer, who gained fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularise the form in Britain and along with others such as Richardson,...

 visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain
A tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain
A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain is an account of his travels by English author Daniel Defoe, first published in three volumes between 1724 and 1727....

, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, and best built city in Britain, London excepted." At that time, the city's population numbered approximately 12,000, and was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to the city's economy and urban fabric, brought about by the influences of the Scottish Enlightenment
Scottish Enlightenment
The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By 1750, Scots were among the most literate citizens of Europe, with an estimated 75% level of literacy...

 and Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

.

Trading port


After the Acts of Union
Acts of Union 1707
The Acts of Union were two Parliamentary Acts - the Union with Scotland Act passed in 1706 by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland - which put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706,...

 in 1707, Scotland gained trading access to the vast markets of the new British Empire and Glasgow became prominent in international commerce as a hub of trade to the Americas, especially in the movement of tobacco, cotton and sugar into the deep water port that had been created by the city's Tobacco Lords
Tobacco Lords
The Tobacco Lords were Glasgow merchants who, in the 18th Century made enormous fortunes by trading in tobacco from Great Britain's American Colonies....

at Port Glasgow
Port Glasgow
Port Glasgow is the second largest town in the Inverclyde council area of Scotland. The population according to the 1991 census for Port Glasgow was 19426 persons and in the 2001 census was 16617 persons...

 on the Firth of Clyde
Firth of Clyde
The Firth of Clyde forms a large area of coastal water, sheltered from the Atlantic Ocean by the Kintyre peninsula which encloses the outer firth in Argyll and Ayrshire, Scotland. The Kilbrannan Sound is a large arm of the Firth of Clyde, separating the Kintyre Peninsula from the Isle of Arran.At...

, due to the shallowness of the river within the city itself at that time. By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgow's River Clyde, with over 47000000 lb (21,318,841.4 kg) of tobacco being imported at its peak.

Industrialisation



In its subsequent industrial era, Glasgow produced textiles, chemicals, engineered goods and steel, which were exported. The opening of the Monkland Canal
Monkland Canal
The Monkland Canal was a 12.25-mile canal which connected the coal mining areas of Monklands to Glasgow in Scotland. It was opened in 1794, and included a steam-powered inclined plane at Blackhill. It was abandoned for navigation in 1942, but its culverted remains still supply water to the Forth...

 and basin linking to the Forth and Clyde Canal
Forth and Clyde Canal
The Forth and Clyde Canal crosses Scotland, providing a route for sea-going vessels between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde at the narrowest part of the Scottish Lowlands. The canal is 35 miles long and its eastern end is connected to the River Forth by a short stretch of the River...

 at Port Dundas
Port Dundas
Port Dundas is an area of Glasgow, Scotland, located to the north of the city centre. It lies to the north of Cowcaddens, and to the west of Sighthill, with Hamiltonhill and Possilpark to the north-west.-History:...

 in 1795, facilitated access to the iron-ore and coal mines in Lanarkshire
Lanarkshire
Lanarkshire or the County of Lanark ) is a Lieutenancy area, registration county and former local government county in the central Lowlands of Scotland...

. After extensive River engineering
River engineering
River engineering is the process of planned human intervention in the course, characteristics or flow of a river with the intention of producing some defined benefit. People have intervened in the natural course and behaviour of rivers since before recorded history - to manage the water resources,...

 projects to dredge and deepen the River Clyde as far as Glasgow, shipbuilding became a major industry on the upper stretches of the river, pioneered by industrialists such as Robert Napier
Robert Napier (engineer)
Robert Napier was a Scottish engineer, and is often called "The Father of Clyde Shipbuilding."-Early life:Robert Napier was born in Dumbarton at the height of the Industrial Revolution, to James and Jean Napier...

, John Elder
John Elder (shipbuilder)
John Elder , was a Scottish marine engineer and shipbuilder. He was born at Glasgow on 8 March 1824. His family was connected with Kinross, where, for several generations, his forefathers had followed the occupation of wrights, for which they seemed to have a special aptitude. His father, David...

, George Thomson
George Thomson (shipbuilder)
George Thomson was a Scottish marine engineer and shipbuilder, born at Partick, Glasgow.He served his apprenticeship with a Mr Graham in Partick before entering the works of Mr Robert Napier, where he quickly gained the best knowledge in marine engineering available.He then went into business with...

, Sir William Pearce
Sir William Pearce, 1st Baronet
Sir William Pearce, 1st Baronet was a British shipbuilder, under whose management the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company in Govan on the River Clyde became the leading shipbuilding company in the world...

 and Sir Alfred Yarrow
Alfred Yarrow
Sir Alfred Fernandez Yarrow, 1st Baronet, of Homestead was a British shipbuilder who started a shipbuilding dynasty, Yarrow Shipbuilders.-Life and career:...

. The River Clyde also became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as John Atkinson Grimshaw
John Atkinson Grimshaw
John Atkinson Grimshaw was a Victorian-era artist, a "remarkable and imaginative painter" known for his city night-scenes and landscapes....

, James Kay
James Kay (artist)
James Kay was a Scottish artist notable for his paintings of the landscapes and shipping around the River Clyde. Born on the Isle of Arran, Kay spent much of his working life with a studio in Glasgow and living at Portincaple on Loch Long in Argyll and Bute...

 and L. S. Lowry
L. S. Lowry
Laurence Stephen Lowry was an English artist born in Barrett Street, Stretford, Lancashire. Many of his drawings and paintings depict nearby Salford and surrounding areas, including Pendlebury, where he lived and worked for over 40 years at 117 Station Road , opposite St...

, willing to depict the new industrial era and the modern world.

Glasgow's population had surpassed that of Edinburgh by 1821. The development of civic institutions included the City of Glasgow Police
City of Glasgow Police
The City of Glasgow Police was the police of the City of Glasgow, Scotland. In the 17th century, Scottish cities used to hire watchmen to guard the streets at night, augmenting a force of unpaid citizen constables. On June 30, 1800, the authorities of Glasgow, successfully petitioned the British...

 in 1800, one of the first municipal police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

 forces in the world. Despite the crisis caused by the City of Glasgow Bank
City of Glasgow Bank
The City of Glasgow Bank is now largely known for its spectacular collapse in October 1878, ruining all but 254 of its 1,200 shareholders, whose liability was not limited. It was the last case of a British Bank run until that of Northern Rock in 2007.-General:...

's collapse in 1878, growth continued and by the end of the 19th century it was one of the cities known as the "Second City of the Empire" and was producing more than half Britain's tonnage of shipping and a quarter of all locomotives in the world. Vast numbers of Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic is a term used to describe people who are both Roman Catholic and Irish .Note: the term is not used to describe a variant of Catholicism. More particularly, it is not a separate creed or sect in the sense that "Anglo-Catholic", "Old Catholic", "Eastern Orthodox Catholic" might be...

 immigrants poured into the city at this time, especially from County Donegal
County Donegal
County Donegal is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is also located in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county...

 in Ulster
Ulster
Ulster is one of the four provinces of Ireland, located in the north of the island. In ancient Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a "king of over-kings" . Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into a number of counties for administrative and judicial...

. Significant Irish Catholic immigration into the city, again especially from County Donegal, would continue for most of the 20th-century.

During this period, the construction of many of the city's greatest architectural masterpieces and most ambitious civil engineering projects, such as the Loch Katrine aqueduct
Milngavie water treatment works
Milngavie water treatment works is the primary source of the water for the city of Glasgow in western Scotland. Part of the Victorian Loch Katrine water project, construction was started in 1855 and the works was opened by Queen Victoria in 1859, replacing the previous water supply sourced from...

, Subway
Glasgow Subway
The Glasgow Subway is an underground metro line in Glasgow, Scotland. Opened on 14 December 1896, it is the third-oldest underground metro system in the world after the London Underground and the Budapest Metro. Formerly a cable railway, the Subway was later electrified, but its twin circular lines...

, Tramway system
Glasgow Corporation Tramways
Glasgow Corporation Tramways were formerly one of the largest urban tramway systems in Europe. Over 1000 municipally-owned trams served the city of Glasgow, Scotland with over 100 route miles by 1922...

, City Chambers
Glasgow City Chambers
The City Chambers in Glasgow, Scotland has functioned as the headquarters of Glasgow City Council since 1996, and of preceding forms of civic government in the city since 1889, located on the eastern side of the city's George Square...

, Mitchell Library
Mitchell Library
The Mitchell Library is a large public library and centre of the public library system of Glasgow, Scotland.-History:The library was established with a bequest from Stephen Mitchell, a wealthy tobacco manufacturer, whose company, Stephen Mitchell & Son, would become one of the constituent members...

 and Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow, Scotland. The building houses one of Europe's great civic art collections...

 were being funded by its wealth. The city also held a series of International Exhibitions at Kelvingrove Park
Kelvingrove Park
Kelvingrove Park is a public park located on the River Kelvin in the West End of the city of Glasgow, Scotland, containing the world-famous Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum.-History:...

, in 1888
International Exhibition of Science, Art and Industry
The International Exhibition of Science, Art and Industry was the first of 4 international exhibitions held in Glasgow, Scotland during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It took place at Kelvingrove Park between May and November 1888...

, 1901
Glasgow International Exhibition (1901)
The Glasgow International Exhibition was the second of 4 international exhibitions held in Glasgow, Scotland during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.-Summary:...

 and 1911
Scottish Exhibition of National History, Art and Industry
The Scottish Exhibition of National History, Art and Industry was the third of 4 international exhibitions held in Glasgow, Scotland during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.-Summary:...

, with the Empire Exhibition
Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938
Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938 was an international exposition held at Bellahouston Park in Glasgow, from May to December 1938....

 subsequently held in 1938.
The 20th century witnessed both decline and renewal in the city. After World War I, the city suffered from the impact of the Post–World War I recession and from the later Great Depression
Great Depression in the United Kingdom
The Great Depression in the United Kingdom, also known as the Great Slump, was a period of national economic downturn in the 1930s, which had its origins in the global Great Depression...

, this also led to a rise of radical socialism and the "Red Clydeside
Red Clydeside
Red Clydeside is a term used to describe the era of political radicalism that characterised the city of Glasgow in Scotland, and urban areas around the city on the banks of the River Clyde such as Clydebank, Greenock and Paisley...

" movement. The city had recovered by the outbreak of World War II and grew through the post-war boom that lasted through the 1950s. By the 1960s, a lack of investment and innovation led to growing overseas competition in countries like Japan and Germany which weakened the once pre-eminent position of many of the city's industries.

As a result of this, Glasgow entered a lengthy period of relative economic decline and rapid de-industrialisation, leading to high unemployment, urban decay, population decline, welfare dependency and poor health for the city's inhabitants. There were active attempts at regeneration of the city, when the Glasgow Corporation published its controversial Bruce Report
Bruce Report
The Bruce Report is the name commonly given to two urban redevelopment reports of the Glasgow Corporation ....

, which set out a comprehensive series of initiatives aimed at turning round the decline of the city. There are also accusations that the Scottish Office
Scottish Office
The Scottish Office was a department of the United Kingdom Government from 1885 until 1999, exercising a wide range of government functions in relation to Scotland under the control of the Secretary of State for Scotland...

 had deliberately attempted to undermine Glasgow's economic and political influence in post-war Scotland by diverting inward investment in new industries to other regions during the Silicon Glen
Silicon Glen
Silicon Glen is a nickname for the high tech sector of Scotland. It is applied to the Central Belt triangle between Dundee, Inverclyde and Edinburgh, which includes Fife, Glasgow and Stirling; although electronics facilities outside this area may also be included in the term. The term has been in...

 boom and creating the new towns of Cumbernauld, Glenrothes, Irvine, Livingston and East Kilbride, dispersed across the Scottish Lowlands
Scottish Lowlands
The Scottish Lowlands is a name given to the Southern half of Scotland.The area is called a' Ghalldachd in Scottish Gaelic, and the Lawlands ....

, in order to halve the city's population base.

By the late 1980s, there had been a significant resurgence in Glasgow's economic fortunes. The "Glasgow's miles better
Glasgow's miles better
Glasgow's Miles Better was a campaign to promote the city of Glasgow as a tourist destination and as a location for industry. It was developed by Scottish advertising agency, Struthers Advertising, and featured the phrase "Glasgow's Miles Better" wrapped around the cartoon figure of Mr. Happy...

" campaign, launched in 1983, and opening of the Burrell Collection
Burrell Collection
The Burrell Collection is an art collection in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is situated in Pollok Country Park on the south side of the city.-History:...

 in 1983 and Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre , located on the north bank of the River Clyde, in Glasgow, is Scotland's largest exhibition centre....

 in 1985 facilitated Glasgow's new role as a European centre for business services and finance and promoted an increase in tourism and inward investment. The latter continues to be bolstered by the legacy of the city's Glasgow Garden Festival
Glasgow Garden Festival
The Glasgow Garden Festival was the third of the United Kingdom's five National Garden Festivals, and the only one to take place in Scotland.It was held in Glasgow between 26 April and 26 September 1988...

 in 1988, its status as European City of Culture in 1990, and concerted attempts to diversify the city's economy. This economic revival has persisted and the ongoing regeneration
Urban renewal
Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of...

 of inner-city areas, including the large-scale Clyde Waterfront Regeneration
Clyde Waterfront Regeneration
Clyde Waterfront is a 20km stretch of the River Clyde, Scotland, running east-west from Glasgow Green in the heart of Glasgow, to Dumbarton on the Firth of Clyde. With over 200 projects on both sides of the Clyde, this is one of Britain's largest urban renewal projects...

, has led to more affluent people moving back to live in the centre of Glasgow, fuelling allegations of gentrification
Gentrification
Gentrification and urban gentrification refer to the changes that result when wealthier people acquire or rent property in low income and working class communities. Urban gentrification is associated with movement. Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size...

.

The city now resides in the Mercer
Mercer (consulting firm)
Mercer is a human resource and related financial services consulting firm, headquartered in New York City. The firm operates internationally in more than 40 countries, with more than 19,000 employees, and is the world's largest human resource consulting firm....

 index of top 50 safest cities in the world and is considered by Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book and digital media publisher in the world. The company is owned by BBC Worldwide, which bought a 75% share from the founders Maureen and Tony Wheeler in 2007 and the final 25% in February 2011...

 to be one of the world's top 10 tourist cities. Despite Glasgow's economic renaissance, the East End of the city remains the focus of severe social deprivation. A Glasgow Economic Audit report published in 2007 stated that the gap between prosperous and deprived areas of the city is widening. In 2006, 47% of Glasgow's population lived in the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland, while the Centre for Social Justice
Centre for Social Justice
The Centre for Social Justice is an independent, not-for-profit thinktank set up by the Rt. Hon Iain Duncan Smith MP, to advance the education of the public in the subject of social justice and to promote the role of the voluntary sector...

 reported 29.4% of the city's working-age residents to be "economically inactive". Although marginally behind the UK average, Glasgow still has a higher employment rate than Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester.

Toponymy


It is common to derive the name Glasgow from the older Cumbric
Cumbric language
Cumbric was a variety of the Celtic British language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North", or what is now northern England and southern Lowland Scotland, the area anciently known as Cumbria. It was closely related to Old Welsh and the other Brythonic languages...

 glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green hollow. The settlement probably had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures; the modern name appears for the first time in the Gaelic period (1116), as Glasgu. It is also recorded that the King of Strathclyde
Kingdom of Strathclyde
Strathclyde , originally Brythonic Ystrad Clud, was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the celtic people called the Britons in the Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England. The kingdom developed during the post-Roman period...

, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern (also known as Saint Mungo
Saint Mungo
Saint Mungo is the commonly used name for Saint Kentigern . He was the late 6th century apostle of the Brythonic Kingdom of Strathclyde in modern Scotland, and patron saint and founder of the city of Glasgow.-Name:In Wales and England, this saint is known by his birth and baptismal name Kentigern...

), and procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn
Molendinar Burn
The Molendinar Burn is a stream in Glasgow, Scotland. It was the site of the settlement that grew to become the kernel of Glasgow, and where St Mungo founded his church in the 6th century. It was later used to power the growing town's mills....

, and making many converts. A large community developed around him and became known as Glasgu (often glossed as "the dear Green" or "dear green place").

Heraldry



The coat of arms
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon or on a surcoat or tabard used to cover and protect armour and to identify the wearer. Thus the term is often stated as "coat-armour", because it was anciently displayed on the front of a coat of cloth...

 of the City of Glasgow was granted to the royal burgh
Royal burgh
A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh which had been founded by, or subsequently granted, a royal charter. Although abolished in 1975, the term is still used in many of the former burghs....

 by the Lord Lyon
Lord Lyon King of Arms
The Lord Lyon King of Arms, the head of Lyon Court, is the most junior of the Great Officers of State in Scotland and is the Scottish official with responsibility for regulating heraldry in that country, issuing new grants of arms, and serving as the judge of the Court of the Lord Lyon, the oldest...

 on 25 October 1866. It incorporates a number of symbols and emblems associated with the life of Glasgow's patron saint, Mungo, which had been used on official seals prior to that date. The emblems represent miracles supposed to have been performed by Mungo and are listed in the traditional rhyme:
Here's the bird that never flew
Here's the tree that never grew
Here's the bell that never rang
Here's the fish that never swam


St Mungo is also said to have preached a sermon containing the words Lord, Let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the word and the praising of thy name. This was abbreviated to "Let Glasgow Flourish" and adopted as the city's motto. The motto was more recently commemorated in a song called "Mother Glasgow", which was written by Dundonian singer/songwriter Michael Marra
Michael Marra
Michael Marra is a Scottish musician from Dundee.Jenny Marra, the Labour MSP, is his niece.-History:Michael Marra was brought up in the Lochee district of Dundee. His first public performance was at an NCR Christmas party in the 1950s...

, but popularised by Hue and Cry
Hue and Cry
Hue and Cry is a pop duo formed in 1983 in Coatbridge, Scotland by the brothers Pat Kane and Greg Kane . They had a number of modest hits in the UK Singles Chart in the late 1980s, and early 1990s, and have released sixteen albums from 1987 to date.-Career:Their first single "Here Comes...

.

In 1450, John Stewart, the first Lord Provost
Lord Provost
A Lord Provost is the figurative and ceremonial head of one of the principal cities of Scotland. Four cities, Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow, have the right to appoint a Lord Provost instead of a provost...

 of Glasgow, left an endowment so that a "St Mungo's Bell" could be made and tolled throughout the city so that the citizens would pray for his soul. A new bell was purchased by the magistrates in 1641 and that bell is still on display in the People's Palace
People's Palace
The People's Palace and Winter Gardens in Glasgow, Scotland is a museum and glasshouse situated in Glasgow Green, and was opened on 22 January, 1898 by the Earl of Rosebery....

 Museum, near Glasgow Green
Glasgow Green
Glasgow Green is a park situated in the east end of Glasgow on the north bank of the River Clyde. It is the oldest park in the city dating back to the 15th century.In 1450, King James II granted the land to Bishop William Turnbull and the people of Glasgow...

.

The supporters are two salmon bearing rings, and the crest is a half length figure of Saint Mungo. He wears a bishop's mitre and liturgical vestments and has his hand raised in "the act of benediction
Benediction
A benediction is a short invocation for divine help, blessing and guidance, usually at the end of worship service.-Judaism:...

". The original 1866 grant placed the crest atop a helm, but this was removed in subsequent grants. The current version (1996) has a gold mural crown
Mural crown
-Usage in ancient times:In Hellenistic culture, a mural crown identified the goddess Tyche, the embodiment of the fortune of a city, familiar to Romans as Fortuna...

 between the shield and the crest. This form of coronet, resembling an embattled city wall, was allowed to the four area councils with city status.

The arms were re-matriculated by the City of Glasgow District Council on 6 February 1975, and by the present area council on 25 March 1996. The only change made on each occasion was in the type of coronet over the arms.

Government




Although the Glasgow Corporation
Municipal corporation
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which...

 had been a pioneer in the municipal socialist
Municipal socialism
Municipal socialism refers to various historical movements to use local government to further socialist aims. The term has been used to describe public ownership of streetcar lines, waterworks, and other local utilities, as was favored by "Progressives" in the United States in the late 1890s/early...

 movement from the late 19th century, since the Representation of the People Act 1918
Representation of the People Act 1918
The Representation of the People Act 1918 was an Act of Parliament passed to reform the electoral system in the United Kingdom. It is sometimes known as the Fourth Reform Act...

, Glasgow increasingly supported Left-wing
Left-wing politics
In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

 ideas and politics at a national level. The city council
Politics of Glasgow
Politics in Glasgow, Scotland, is evident in the deliberations and decisions of the city council of Glasgow , in elections to the council, and in elections to the Scottish Parliament and the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom .In the European Parliament, the city area is...

 has been controlled by the Labour Party
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

 for 30 years, since the decline of the Progressives
Progressives (Scotland)
The Progressive Party was the name of a defunct municipal political organisation that operated in several Scottish cities and towns in the 20th century but based around tacit anti-Labour co-operation between the Unionist Party, Scottish Liberals and Independents.National political parties were...

. The left-wing support emanates from the city's legacy as an industrial powerhouse, and the relative poverty of many Glaswegian constituencies
United Kingdom constituencies
In the United Kingdom , each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly.Within the United Kingdom there are now five bodies with members elected by constituencies:...

 and wards
Wards of the United Kingdom
A ward in the United Kingdom is an electoral district at sub-national level represented by one or more councillors. It is the primary unit of British administrative and electoral geography .-England:...

. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917...

 and German Revolution of 1918–1919, the city's frequent strikes and Militant
Militant
The word militant, which is both an adjective and a noun, usually is used to mean vigorously active, combative and aggressive, especially in support of a cause, as in 'militant reformers'. It comes from the 15th century Latin "militare" meaning "to serve as a soldier"...

 organisations caused serious alarm at Westminster, with one uprising in January 1919 prompting the Prime Minister, David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor OM, PC was a British Liberal politician and statesman...

 to deploy 10,000 troops and tanks onto the city's streets. A huge demonstration in the city's George Square
George Square
George Square is the principal civic square in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is named after King George III.-Historical development:George Square was laid out in 1781, part of the innovative Georgian central grid plan that initially spanned from Stockwell Street east to Buchanan Street—which...

 on 31 January ended in violence after the Riot Act
Riot Act
The Riot Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that authorised local authorities to declare any group of twelve or more people to be unlawfully assembled, and thus have to disperse or face punitive action...

 was read.

Since 2007 when local government elections in Scotland began to use the Single Transferable Vote
Single transferable vote
The single transferable vote is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through preferential voting. Under STV, an elector's vote is initially allocated to his or her most preferred candidate, and then, after candidates have been either elected or eliminated, any surplus or...

 rather than First Past the Post system, the dominance of the Labour party within the city has declined (though it remains one of only two local authorities - along with North Lanarkshire, where Labour maintain an outright majority over the other parties)

Industrial action
Industrial action
Industrial action or job action refers collectively to any measure taken by trade unions or other organised labour meant to reduce productivity in a workplace. Quite often it is used and interpreted as a euphemism for strike, but the scope is much wider...

 at the shipyards gave rise to the "Red Clydeside
Red Clydeside
Red Clydeside is a term used to describe the era of political radicalism that characterised the city of Glasgow in Scotland, and urban areas around the city on the banks of the River Clyde such as Clydebank, Greenock and Paisley...

" epithet. During the 1930s, Glasgow was the main base of the Independent Labour Party
Independent Labour Party
The Independent Labour Party was a socialist political party in Britain established in 1893. The ILP was affiliated to the Labour Party from 1906 to 1932, when it voted to leave...

. Towards the end of the 20th century it became a centre of the struggle against the poll tax
Community Charge
The Community Charge, popularly known as the "poll tax", was a system of taxation introduced in replacement of the rates to part fund local government in Scotland from 1989, and England and Wales from 1990. It provided for a single flat-rate per-capita tax on every adult, at a rate set by the...

, and then the main base of the Scottish Socialist Party
Scottish Socialist Party
The Scottish Socialist Party is a left-wing Scottish political party. Positioning itself significantly to the left of Scotland's centre-left parties, the SSP campaigns on a socialist economic platform and for Scottish independence....

, a left unity party in Scotland. The city has not had a Conservative
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom that adheres to the philosophies of conservatism and British unionism. It is the largest political party in the UK, and is currently the largest single party in the House...

 MP since the 1982 Hillhead by-election
Glasgow Hillhead by-election, 1982
A Glasgow Hillhead by-election was held on 25 March 1982. The by-election was caused by the death of the Conservative Party Member of Parliament for Glasgow Hillhead Tam Galbraith on 2 January 1982....

, when the SDP took the seat, in Glasgow's wealthiest area. The Conservative party were wiped out across all of Scotland in 1997, returning 0 MPs. Since then with the emergence of the SNP as the party of Government in the Scottish parliament they have routinely finished 4th in every Glasgow seat at every election, and currently have only 1 of the 79 councillors on Glasgow City Council.

Scottish Parliament region



The Glasgow electoral region of the Scottish Parliament
Glasgow (Scottish Parliament electoral region)
Glasgow is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament , which were created in 1999. Nine of the parliament's 73 first past the post constituencies are sub-divisions of the region and it elects seven of the 56 additional-member Members of the Scottish Parliament...

 covers the Glasgow City council area, the Rutherglen
Rutherglen
Rutherglen is a town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. In 1975, it lost its own local council and administratively became a component of the City of Glasgow. In 1996 Rutherglen was reallocated to the South Lanarkshire council area.-History:...

 area of the South Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland, covering the southern part of the former county of Lanarkshire. It borders the south-east of the city of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgow's suburbs, commuter towns and smaller villages....

 and a small eastern portion of Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire is one of 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Located in the west central Lowlands, it is one of three council areas contained within the boundaries of the historic county of Renfrewshire, the others being Inverclyde to the west and East Renfrewshire to the east...

. It elects ten of the parliament's 73 first past the post constituency members and seven of the 56 additional members
Mixed member proportional representation
Mixed-member proportional representation, also termed mixed-member proportional voting and commonly abbreviated to MMP, is a voting system originally used to elect representatives to the German Bundestag, and nowadays adopted by numerous legislatures around the world...

. Both kinds of member are known as Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs)
Member of the Scottish Parliament
Member of the Scottish Parliament is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament.-Methods of Election:MSPs are elected in one of two ways:...

. The system of election is designed to produce a form of proportional representation
Proportional representation
Proportional representation is a concept in voting systems used to elect an assembly or council. PR means that the number of seats won by a party or group of candidates is proportionate to the number of votes received. For example, under a PR voting system if 30% of voters support a particular...

.

The first past the post seats were created in 1999 with the names and boundaries of then existing Westminster
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, is the meeting place of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom—the House of Lords and the House of Commons...

 (House of Commons) constituencies. In 2005, the number of Westminster Members of Parliament (MPs)
Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

 representing Scotland was cut to 59, with new constituencies being formed, while the existing number of MSPs
Member of the Scottish Parliament
Member of the Scottish Parliament is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament.-Methods of Election:MSPs are elected in one of two ways:...

 was retained at Holyrood.

The ten Scottish Parliament constituencies in the Glasgow electoral region are:-
  • Glasgow Anniesland
    Glasgow Anniesland (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Anniesland is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election...

  • Glasgow Baillieston
    Glasgow Baillieston (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Baillieston was a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elected one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election...

  • Glasgow Cathcart
    Glasgow Cathcart (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Cathcart is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election...

  • Glasgow Govan
    Glasgow Govan (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Govan was a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elected one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election....

  • Glasgow Kelvin
    Glasgow Kelvin (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Kelvin is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election...

  • Glasgow Maryhill
    Glasgow Maryhill (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Maryhill is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election...

  • Glasgow Pollok
    Glasgow Pollok (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Pollok is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament. It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election...

  • Glasgow Rutherglen
    Glasgow Rutherglen (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Rutherglen was a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elected one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election....

  • Glasgow Shettleston
    Glasgow Shettleston (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Shettleston is a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election...

  • Glasgow Springburn
    Glasgow Springburn (Scottish Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Springburn was a constituency of the Scottish Parliament . It elected one Member of the Scottish Parliament by the plurality method of election....


United Kingdom Parliament constituencies


Following reform of constituencies of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories, located in London...

 (Westminster
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, is the meeting place of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom—the House of Lords and the House of Commons...

) in 2005, which reduced the number of Scottish Members of Parliament (MPs), the current Westminster constituencies representing Glasgow are:-
  • Glasgow Central
    Glasgow Central (UK Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow Central is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom . In its current form, the constituency was first used in the general election of 2005, but there was also a Glasgow Central constituency from 1885 to 1997.- Boundaries :The Redistribution of Seats Act...

  • Glasgow East
    Glasgow East (UK Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow East is a constituency of the British House of Commons, located in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It elects one Member of Parliament at least once every five years using the First-past-the-post system of voting....

  • Glasgow North
    Glasgow North (UK Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow North is a burgh constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom . It elects one Member of Parliament by the first-past-the-post voting system....

  • Glasgow North East
    Glasgow North East (UK Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow North East is a burgh constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom . It was first contested at the 2005 general election...

  • Glasgow North West
    Glasgow North West (UK Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow North West is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom . It was first used in the 2005 general election.-Boundaries:...

  • Glasgow South
    Glasgow South (UK Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow South is a burgh constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom . It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election....

  • Glasgow South West
    Glasgow South West (UK Parliament constituency)
    Glasgow South West is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom . It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election....


Geography



Glasgow is located on the banks of the River Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

, in West Central
Strathclyde
right|thumb|the former Strathclyde regionStrathclyde was one of nine former local government regions of Scotland created by the Local Government Act 1973 and abolished in 1996 by the Local Government etc Act 1994...

 Scotland. Its second most important river is the Kelvin
River Kelvin
The Kelvin rises on watershed of Scotland on the moor south east of the village of Banton, east of Kilsyth - . At almost 22 miles long, it initially flows south to Dullatur Bog where it falls into a man made trench and takes a ninety degree turn flowing west along the northern boundary of the bog...

 whose name was used for creating the title of Baron Kelvin
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin OM, GCVO, PC, PRS, PRSE, was a mathematical physicist and engineer. At the University of Glasgow he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and did much to unify the emerging...

 and thereby ended up as the scientific unit of temperature
Kelvin
The kelvin is a unit of measurement for temperature. It is one of the seven base units in the International System of Units and is assigned the unit symbol K. The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all...

.
On older maps Glasgow will be found within the area of the pre-1975 county of Lanarkshire
Lanarkshire
Lanarkshire or the County of Lanark ) is a Lieutenancy area, registration county and former local government county in the central Lowlands of Scotland...

, from 1975 to 1996 it will appear within Strathclyde Region; current maps will generally show Glasgow as one of 32 Council Areas
Subdivisions of Scotland
For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas" which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as "councils"...

 in Scotland.

Location



Climate


In spite of its northerly latitude, close to the same line as Moscow, Glasgow's climate is classified as Oceanic
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfb).
Data is available online for 3 official weather stations in the Glasgow area; Paisley, Abbotsinch and Bishopton. All are located to the West of the city centre.
Owing to its westerly position and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, Glasgow is one of Scotland's milder areas. Temperatures are usually higher than most places of equal latitude away from the UK, due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...

.
The downside of this is Glasgow does not get distinct seasons like many other Western European cities.

Winters are cold and overcast, with a January mean of 4 °C (39.2 °F), though lows sometimes fall below freezing. In the last two years Glasgow has experienced very cold, snowy and harsh winters with temperature sometimes falling to around -12 C in the Glasgow area. Snow occurs sometimes.

The spring months (March to May) are generally mild and often quite pleasant. Sometimes April can have above average sunshine. Many of Glasgow's trees and plants begin to flower at this time of the year and parks and gardens are filled with spring colours.

During the summer months (June to August) the weather can vary considerably from day to day and it is often relatively cool and wet or quite warm with the odd sunny day. Long dry spells of warm weather can be scarce. Also it can be overcast and humid often without rain. Generally the weather pattern can be quite unsettled and erratic during these months, with only occasional heatwaves.

The warmest month is usually July, with average highs near 19 °C (66.2 °F).

Autumns are generally cool to mild with increasing precipitation. During early autumn there can be some settled periods of weather and can feel pleasant with mild temperatures and some sunny days.

Temperature extremes have ranged from -19.9 C, at Abbotsinch, and -14.8 C at Paisley. The coldest temperature to have occurred in recent years was -12.5 C at Bishopton during December 2010.

Demography


The population of the City of Glasgow area peaked in the 1950s at 1,089,000 people. During this period, Glasgow was one of the most densely populated cities in the world. After the 1960s, clearings of poverty-stricken inner city areas like the Gorbals
Gorbals
The Gorbals is an area on the south bank of the River Clyde in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. By the late 19th century, it had become over-populated and adversely affected by local industrialisation. Many people lived here because their jobs provided this home and they could not afford their own...

 and relocation to "new towns" such as East Kilbride
East Kilbride
East Kilbride is a large suburban town in the South Lanarkshire council area, in the West Central Lowlands of Scotland. Designated as Scotland's first new town in 1947, it forms part of the Greater Glasgow conurbation...

 and Cumbernauld
Cumbernauld
Cumbernauld is a Scottish new town in North Lanarkshire. It was created in 1956 as a population overspill for Glasgow City. It is the eighth most populous settlement in Scotland and the largest in North Lanarkshire...

 led to population decline. In addition, the boundaries of the city were changed twice during the late 20th century, making direct comparisons difficult. The city continues to expand beyond the official city council boundaries into surrounding suburban areas, encompassing around 400 square miles (1,036 km²) of all adjoining suburbs, if commuter town
Commuter town
A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commutes out to earn their livelihood. Many commuter towns act as suburbs of a nearby metropolis that workers travel to daily, and many suburbs are commuter towns...

s and villages are included.

There are two distinct definitions for the population of Glasgow: the Glasgow City Council Area (which lost the districts of Rutherglen
Rutherglen
Rutherglen is a town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. In 1975, it lost its own local council and administratively became a component of the City of Glasgow. In 1996 Rutherglen was reallocated to the South Lanarkshire council area.-History:...

 and Cambuslang
Cambuslang
Cambuslang is a suburban town on the south-eastern outskirts of Glasgow, Scotland. It is within the local authority area of South Lanarkshire. Historically, it was a large rural Parish incorporating nearby hamlets of Newton, Flemington, and Halfway. It is known as "the largest village in...

 to South Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland, covering the southern part of the former county of Lanarkshire. It borders the south-east of the city of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgow's suburbs, commuter towns and smaller villages....

 in 1996) and the Greater Glasgow Urban Area (which includes the conurbation around the city).

Since the 1840s to present day, large numbers of Irish immigrants
Irish-Scots
Irish-Scots are people who live in Scotland who are of immediate or traceably distinct Irish ancestry. Although migration between Ireland and Scotland has an established history owing to their close proximity, Irish migration to Scotland increased exponentially in the nineteenth century, and was...

 have settled and contributed to the city. At one point only New York City had a bigger Irish expatriate population than Glasgow. Huge numbers of Scottish Highlanders
Gàidhealtachd
The Gàidhealtachd , sometimes known as A' Ghàidhealtachd , usually refers to the Scottish highlands and islands, and especially the Scottish Gaelic culture of the area. The corresponding Irish word Gaeltacht however refers strictly to an Irish speaking area...

 also migrated to the city as a result of the Highland Clearances
Highland Clearances
The Highland Clearances were forced displacements of the population of the Scottish Highlands during the 18th and 19th centuries. They led to mass emigration to the sea coast, the Scottish Lowlands, and the North American colonies...

. The Irish and the Scottish Highlanders contributed to the explosive growth of Catholicism in the city. In particular, huge numbers of the Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic is a term used to describe people who are both Roman Catholic and Irish .Note: the term is not used to describe a variant of Catholicism. More particularly, it is not a separate creed or sect in the sense that "Anglo-Catholic", "Old Catholic", "Eastern Orthodox Catholic" might be...

 immigrants were from County Donegal
County Donegal
County Donegal is a county in Ireland. It is part of the Border Region and is also located in the province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal. Donegal County Council is the local authority for the county...

, part of the Province of Ulster
Ulster
Ulster is one of the four provinces of Ireland, located in the north of the island. In ancient Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a "king of over-kings" . Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into a number of counties for administrative and judicial...

 in the north of Ireland.

In the early 20th century, many Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

n refugees began to settle in Glasgow and at its height in the 1950s there were around 10,000 in the Glasgow area. Many Italian Scots also settled in Glasgow, originating from provinces like Frosinone
Frosinone
Frosinone is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, the administrative seat of the Province of Frosinone. It is located about 75 km south-east of Rome close to the Rome-Naples Autostrada A1...

 between Rome and Naples and Lucca
Lucca
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plainnear the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Lucca...

 in north-west Tuscany at this time, many originally working as "Hokey Pokey
Hokey pokey (ice cream)
Hokey pokey is a flavour of ice cream in Australia and New Zealand, consisting of plain vanilla ice cream with small, solid lumps of sponge toffee - known as "hokey pokey" in New Zealand...

" men. In the 1960s and 1970s, many Asian-Scots
Asian-Scots
Asian-Scots or Scottish Asians is a term used for people of South Asian ancestry who were born in Scotland, or for South Asian immigrants....

 also settled in Glasgow, mainly in the Pollokshields
Pollokshields
Pollokshields is a district in the Southside of Glasgow, Scotland. It is a conservation area which was developed in Victorian times according to a plan promoted by the original landowners, the Stirling-Maxwells of Pollok, whose association with the area goes as far back as...

 area. These number 30,000 Pakistanis, 15,000 Indians and 3,000 Bangladeshis as well as Chinese
Cantonese people
The Cantonese people are Han people whose ancestral homes are in Guangdong, China. The term "Cantonese people" would then be synonymous with the Bun Dei sub-ethnic group, and is sometimes known as Gwong Fu Jan for this narrower definition...

 immigrants, many of whom settled in the Garnethill
Garnethill
Garnethill is a predominantly residential area of the city of Glasgow, Scotland.-Geography:Located in the city centre, the area borders Cowcaddens to its north, Sauchiehall Street to its south, Cambridge Street to its east and the M8 motorway to its west....

 area of the city. Since 2000, the UK government has pursued a policy of dispersal of asylum seekers
Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
Immigration to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland since 1922 has been substantial, in particular from Ireland and the former colonies and other territories of the British Empire - such as India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Kenya and Hong Kong - under...

 to ease pressure on social housing in the London area.
Location Population Area Density
Glasgow City Council 592,820 67.76 sq mi (175.5 km²) 8541.8 /sqmi
Greater Glasgow Urban Area 1,750,270 142.27 sq mi (368.5 km²) 8212.9 /sqmi
Source: Scotland's Census Results Online


Since the 2001 census
United Kingdom Census 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK Census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194....

 the population decline has stabilised. The 2009 population of the city council area was 588,430 and the population of both the City of Glasgow Council area and Greater Glasgow are forecast to grow in the near future. Around 2,300,000 people live in the Glasgow travel-to-work area. This area is defined as having 10% and over of residents travelling into Glasgow to work, and has no fixed boundaries.

Compared to Inner London
Inner London
Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the interior part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. The area was first officially defined in 1965 and for purposes such as statistics, the definition has changed over time. The terms Inner London and Central...

, which has 23441 /sqmi., Scotland's largest city has less than half the current population density of the English capital—8603 /sqmi In 1931 the population density was 16166 /sqmi, highlighting the subsequent "clearances" to the suburbs and new towns that were built to empty one of Europe's most densely populated cities.

Glasgow has the lowest life expectancy
Life expectancy
Life expectancy is the expected number of years of life remaining at a given age. It is denoted by ex, which means the average number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x, according to a particular mortality experience...

 of any UK city at 72.9 years. Much was made of this during the 2008 Glasgow East by-election
Glasgow East by-election, 2008
The 2008 Glasgow East by-election was a by-election for the UK Parliamentary constituency of Glasgow East which was held on 24 July 2008. The election was triggered when, on 30 June 2008, the sitting MP David Marshall stood down due to ill health....

. In 2008, a World Health Organization
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...

 report about health inequalities, revealing that male life expectancy varied from 54 in Calton
Calton, Glasgow
Calton is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. The name Calton is derived from the Gaelic "coillduin", which means "wood on the hill". It is situated north of the River Clyde, and just to the east of the city centre...

 to 82 in nearby Lenzie
Lenzie
Lenzie is a small town by the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in the East Dunbartonshire council area of Scotland. It is about six miles north-east of Glasgow city centre and one mile south of Kirkintilloch. It has a population of about 10,000.-Name:...

, East Dunbartonshire
East Dunbartonshire
This article is about the East Dunbartonshire council area of Scotland. See also East Dunbartonshire .East Dunbartonshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders onto the north-west of the City of Glasgow. It contains many of the suburbs of Glasgow as well as containing many of...

.

Districts and suburbs



City centre


The city centre
Glasgow city centre
Glasgow city centre is the central business district of Glasgow, Scotland. Is bounded by the High Street to the east, the River Clyde to the south and the M8 motorway to the west and north which was built through the Townhead, Charing Cross, Cowcaddens and Anderston areas in the 1960s...

 is bounded by the High Street to the east, the River Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

 to the south and the M8 motorway to the west and north which was built through the Townhead
Townhead
-Location:Townhead has no fixed boundaries. In ancient times it was the undeveloped area north of the cathedral and town. If we use this description then it is bordered to the west by the area of Cowcaddens, to the north by Sighthill and the east by Royston and south by Merchant City...

, Charing Cross
Charing Cross, Glasgow
Charing Cross is a major road junction in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde on Sauchiehall Street, at a major interchange of the M8 motorway. Formerly the gateway from the shopping area of Sauchiehall Street to the more prosperous Woodlands area, its...

, Cowcaddens
Cowcaddens
Cowcaddens is an area of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is virtually in the city centre and is bordered by the areas of Garnethill to the south and Townhead to the east....

 and Anderston
Anderston
Anderston is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is on the north bank of the River Clyde and extends to the western edge of the city centre...

 areas in the 1960s.

Retail and theatre district



The city centre is based on a grid system
Grid plan
The grid plan, grid street plan or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid...

 of streets on the north bank of the River Clyde. The heart of the city is George Square
George Square
George Square is the principal civic square in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is named after King George III.-Historical development:George Square was laid out in 1781, part of the innovative Georgian central grid plan that initially spanned from Stockwell Street east to Buchanan Street—which...

, site of many of Glasgow's public statues and the elaborate Victorian Glasgow City Chambers
Glasgow City Chambers
The City Chambers in Glasgow, Scotland has functioned as the headquarters of Glasgow City Council since 1996, and of preceding forms of civic government in the city since 1889, located on the eastern side of the city's George Square...

, headquarters of Glasgow City Council
Politics of Glasgow
Politics in Glasgow, Scotland, is evident in the deliberations and decisions of the city council of Glasgow , in elections to the council, and in elections to the Scottish Parliament and the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom .In the European Parliament, the city area is...

. To the south and west are the shopping precincts of Argyle Street
Argyle Street, Glasgow
Argyle Street is a major thoroughfare in the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.With Buchanan Street and Sauchiehall Street, Argyle Street forms the main shopping artery in the city centre...

, Sauchiehall Street
Sauchiehall Street
Sauchiehall Street is one of the main shopping/business streets in the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland. Along with Buchanan Street and Argyle Street, it forms the main shopping area of Glasgow, containing the majority of Glasgow's high street and chain stores.Although commonly associated with the...

 and Buchanan Street
Buchanan Street
Buchanan Street is one of the main shopping thoroughfares in Glasgow, the largest city in Scotland. It forms the central stretch of Glasgow's famous shopping district with a generally more upmarket range of shops than the neighbouring streets: Argyle Street, and Sauchiehall Street.-History:...

, the latter featuring more upmarket retailers and winner of the Academy of Urbanism "Great Street Award" 2008. The main shopping centres are Buchanan Galleries
Buchanan Galleries
Buchanan Galleries is a shopping centre located in the central area of Glasgow, the largest city in Scotland. Construction began in 1996 and the building opened to the public on 31 March 1999. Costing £250 million, it is one of the largest city centre shopping developments in the United Kingdom,...

 and the St. Enoch Centre, with the up-market Princes Square
Princes Square
Princes Square is a shopping centre on Buchanan Street in central Glasgow, Scotland. It was developed in 1986 to a design by Edinburgh architects, the Hugh Martin Partnership. The new five-storey, retail centre occupies a pre-existing cobbled square dating from 1841, which was reconfigured by...

 and the Italian Centre specialising in designer labels. The London-based department store Selfridges
Selfridges
Selfridges, AKA Selfridges & Co, is a chain of high end department stores in the United Kingdom. It was founded by Harry Gordon Selfridge. The flagship store in London's Oxford Street is the second largest shop in the UK and was opened on 15 March 1909.More recently, three other stores have been...

 purchased a site in the city some years ago as part of its plans to expand stores, plans which have now been shelved according to the company. Glasgow's retail portfolio forms the UK's second largest and most economically important retail sector after Central London.

The city centre is home to most of Glasgow's main cultural venues: The Theatre Royal
Theatre Royal, Glasgow
The Theatre Royal is the oldest theatre in Glasgow, located at 282 Hope Street in Cowcaddens. The theatre originally opened in 1867, changing its name to the Theatre Royal in 1869, and is the longest running theatre in Scotland...

 (home of Scottish Opera
Scottish Opera
Scottish Opera is the national opera company of Scotland, and one of the five national performing arts companies funded by the Scottish Government...

 and formerly Scottish Ballet
Scottish Ballet
Scottish Ballet is the national ballet company of Scotland and one of the four leading ballet companies of the United Kingdom, alongside the Royal Ballet, English National Ballet and Birmingham Royal Ballet...

 (which now resides in the Tramway theatre
Tramway (arts centre)
Tramway is a contemporary visual and performing arts venue located in the Scottish city of Glasgow. Based in a former tram depot in the Pollokshields area of the South Side, it consists of two performance spaces and two galleries, as well as The Hidden Garden and offering facilities for community...

)), The Pavilion Theatre
Pavilion Theatre (Glasgow)
-History:One of Glasgow's oldest theatres, the Pavilion Theatre of Varieties opened on 29 February 1904 as a Music hall. The building has remained relatively unchanged in layout, although the sound and lighting systems have been updated over the years...

, The King's Theatre
King's Theatre, Glasgow
The King's Theatre is located in Glasgow, Scotland. It was built for Howard & Wyndham Ltd under its chairman Baillie Michael Simons as a sister theatre of their Theatre Royal in the city and was designed by Frank Matcham, opening in 1904. The theatre is primarily a receiving house for touring...

, Glasgow Royal Concert Hall
Glasgow Royal Concert Hall
Glasgow Royal Concert Hall is an arts venue, in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is operated by Glasgow Life, an agency of Glasgow City Council, which also runs Glasgow’s City Halls and Old Fruitmarket venue...

, Glasgow Film Theatre
Glasgow Film Theatre
The Glasgow Film Theatre or GFT is an independent cinema in Rose Street, , Glasgow. GFT is a registered charity...

, Tron Theatre
Tron Theatre
The Tron Theatre is located at the corner of Trongate and Chisholm Street, in the Merchant City area of Glasgow, Scotland.From its early years as a theatre club, the Tron has grown into a thriving multi-faceted venue...

, Gallery of Modern Art (GoMA), Mitchell Library and Theatre
Mitchell Library
The Mitchell Library is a large public library and centre of the public library system of Glasgow, Scotland.-History:The library was established with a bequest from Stephen Mitchell, a wealthy tobacco manufacturer, whose company, Stephen Mitchell & Son, would become one of the constituent members...

, the Centre for Contemporary Arts
CCA Glasgow
The Centre for Contemporary Arts is an art gallery, performance space, cafe, and cinema on Sauchiehall Street, in Glasgow, Scotland. CCA also houses a number of cultural tenants, and has a flat for visiting artists....

, McLellan Galleries
McLellan Galleries
The McLellan Galleries are an exhibition space in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. Built in 1856, the Galleries are named after their founder, Archibald McLellan , a coach builder, councillor and patron of the arts...

 and The Lighthouse Museum of Architecture
The Lighthouse (Glasgow)
The Lighthouse in Glasgow, is Scotland's Centre for Architecture, Design and the City. It was opened as part of Glasgow's status as UK City of Architecture and Design in 1999....

. The world's tallest cinema
Cineworld (Glasgow)
Cineworld Glasgow Renfrew Street is a cinema on Renfrew Street, Glasgow, located in the north east of the city centre, it is adjacent to the Buchanan Bus Station and the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, as well as being close to Sauchiehall Street and Buchanan Galleries...

, the eighteen-screen Cineworld
Cineworld
Cineworld Group plc is a cinema chain operating in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and Jersey. The chain consists of 78 cinemas; 76 of which are located in the UK and one each in Ireland and Jersey. It is the second-largest cinema operator in the UK with 801 screens, and the owner of...

 is situated on Renfrew Street. The city centre is also home to four of Glasgow's higher education institutions: The University of Strathclyde
University of Strathclyde
The University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, Scotland, is Glasgow's second university by age, founded in 1796, and receiving its Royal Charter in 1964 as the UK's first technological university...

, The Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, Glasgow School of Art
Glasgow School of Art
Glasgow School of Art is one of only two independent art schools in Scotland, situated in the Garnethill area of Glasgow.-History:It was founded in 1845 as the Glasgow Government School of Design. In 1853, it changed its name to The Glasgow School of Art. Initially it was located at 12 Ingram...

 and Glasgow Caledonian University
Glasgow Caledonian University
Glasgow Caledonian University is a public university in Glasgow, Scotland.The university was constituted by an Act of Parliament on 1 April 1993 as a result of a merger between Glasgow Polytechnic and The Queen's College, Glasgow....

.

Merchant City



To the east is the commercial and residential district of Merchant City
Merchant City
The Merchant City is a district in the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.- History :The medieval Glasgow Cross was located on the road between High Street and Saltgait. Its modern replacement was built to the south-east of the original location to aid traffic. The town's tron was placed on the...

. The Merchant City was formerly the residential district of the wealthy city merchants in the 18th and early 19th centuries, particularly the Tobacco Lords
Tobacco Lords
The Tobacco Lords were Glasgow merchants who, in the 18th Century made enormous fortunes by trading in tobacco from Great Britain's American Colonies....

 from whom many of the streets take their name. As the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

 and the wealth it brought to the city resulted in the expansion of Glasgow's central area westward, the original medieval centre was left behind. Glasgow Cross, situated at the junction of High Street
High Street (Glasgow)
High Street in Glasgow, Scotland is the city's oldest and one of its most historically significant streets.Originally the city's main street in medieval times, it formed a direct north-south artery between the Cathedral of St...

, Gallowgate, Trongate
Trongate
Trongate is one of the oldest streets in the city of Glasgow, Scotland.Located in the area of the Merchant City commonly known as "Old Glasgow", it is the main route into the central area from the East End...

 and Saltmarket was the original centre of the city, symbolised by its Mercat cross
Mercat cross
A mercat cross is a market cross found in Scottish cities and towns where trade and commerce was a part of economic life. It was originally a place where merchants would gather, and later became the focal point of many town events such as executions, announcements and proclamations...

. Glasgow Cross encompasses the Tolbooth
Merchant City
The Merchant City is a district in the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.- History :The medieval Glasgow Cross was located on the road between High Street and Saltgait. Its modern replacement was built to the south-east of the original location to aid traffic. The town's tron was placed on the...

 Clock Tower; all that remains of the original City Chambers, which was destroyed by fire in 1926. Moving northward up High Street towards Rottenrow
Rottenrow
Rottenrow is a famous street in the city of Glasgow in Scotland. It is located at Townhead, in the northern periphery of the city centre.Rottenrow dates back to the city's medieval beginnings, and once connected the historic High Street to the northern reaches of what is now the Cowcaddens area. ...

 and Townhead
Townhead
-Location:Townhead has no fixed boundaries. In ancient times it was the undeveloped area north of the cathedral and town. If we use this description then it is bordered to the west by the area of Cowcaddens, to the north by Sighthill and the east by Royston and south by Merchant City...

 lies the 15th century Glasgow Cathedral
Glasgow Cathedral
The church commonly known as Glasgow Cathedral is the Church of Scotland High Kirk of Glasgow otherwise known as St. Mungo's Cathedral.The other cathedrals in Glasgow are:* The Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew...

 and the Provand's Lordship
Provand's Lordship
The Provand's Lordship located in Glasgow, Scotland, today stands as a medieval-period historic house museum located at the top of Castle Street in the shadow of the Glasgow Cathedral and Glasgow Royal Infirmary....

. Due to growing industrial pollution levels in the mid-to-late 19th century, the area fell out of favour with residents.

From the late 1980s onwards, the Merchant City has been rejuvenated with luxury city centre apartments and warehouse conversions. This regeneration has supported an increasing number of cafés and restaurants. The area is also home to a number of high end boutique style shops and some of Glasgow's most upmarket stores.


The Merchant City is the centre of Glasgow's growing "cultural quarter", based on King Street, the Saltmarket and Trongate
Trongate
Trongate is one of the oldest streets in the city of Glasgow, Scotland.Located in the area of the Merchant City commonly known as "Old Glasgow", it is the main route into the central area from the East End...

, and at the heart of the annual Merchant City Festival
Merchant City Festival
The Merchant City Festival is a major cultural festival taking place in Glasgow's Merchant City area.Attracting more than 55,000 people, the four-day Festival presents the cream of Scotland’s theatre, music, visual arts, comedy, dance, film, fashion and food scene.The Festival presents opera...

. The area has supported a huge growth in art galleries, the origins of which can be found in the late 80s when it attracted artist-led organisations that could afford the cheap rents required to operate in vacant manufacturing or retail spaces. The artistic and cultural potential of the Merchant City as a "cultural quarter" was harnessed by independent arts organisations and Glasgow City Council, and the recent development of Trongate 103, which houses galleries, workshops, artist studios and production spaces, is considered a major outcome of the continued partnership between both. The area also contains a number of theatres and concert venues, including the Tron Theatre
Tron Theatre
The Tron Theatre is located at the corner of Trongate and Chisholm Street, in the Merchant City area of Glasgow, Scotland.From its early years as a theatre club, the Tron has grown into a thriving multi-faceted venue...

, the Old Fruitmarket, the Trades Hall, St. Andrews in the Square, Merchant Square, and the City Halls
Glasgow City Hall
Glasgow's City Halls and Old Fruitmarket is a concert hall and former market located on Candleriggs, in the Merchant City, Glasgow, Scotland.-History:...

.

Financial district



Also see Glasgow's International Financial Services District
International Financial Services District
The International Financial Services District is a ten year project within the city of Glasgow in Scotland to create a highly attractive inward investment location for leading international financial services companies and a re-location option for existing Glasgow-based companies, seeking to...



To the western edge of the city centre, occupying the areas of Blythswood Hill
Blythswood Hill
Blythswood Hill is an area of Glasgow, Scotland.It lies to the immediate west of the city centre and as the name suggests rises to a plateau before dipping again towards the west end area of Woodlands....

 and Anderston
Anderston
Anderston is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is on the north bank of the River Clyde and extends to the western edge of the city centre...

, lies Glasgow's financial district, known officially as the International Financial Services District
International Financial Services District
The International Financial Services District is a ten year project within the city of Glasgow in Scotland to create a highly attractive inward investment location for leading international financial services companies and a re-location option for existing Glasgow-based companies, seeking to...

 (IFSD), although often irreverently nicknamed by the contemporary press as the "square kilometre" or "Wall Street on Clyde". Since the late 1980s the construction of many modern office blocks and high rise developments have paved the way for the IFSD to become one of the UKs largest financial quarters. With a reputation as an established financial services centre, coupled with comprehensive support services, Glasgow continues to attract and grow new business. Of the 10 largest general insurance companies in the UK, 8 have a base or head office in Glasgow — including Direct Line
Direct Line
Direct Line is part of the RBS Insurance division of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group that specialises in selling insurance and other financial services over the phone and internet....

, Esure
Esure
Esure is an internet and telephone based insurance company based in Reigate, Surrey, England. It also has offices in Manchester and Glasgow...

, AXA
AXA
AXA S.A. is a French global insurance group headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. AXA is a conglomerate of independently run businesses, operated according to the laws and regulations of many different countries. The AXA group of companies engage in life, health and other forms of...

 and Norwich Union
Norwich Union
Norwich Union was the name given to insurance company Aviva's British arm before June 2009. It was originally established in 1797. It is the biggest life insurance provider in the United Kingdom, and has a strong position in motor insurance...

. Key banking sector companies have also relocated some of their services to commercial property in Glasgow — Resolution
Resolution plc
Resolution plc was a UK insurance company headquartered in the City of London. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index but was acquired by the Pearl Group in May 2008.-Early history:...

, JPMorgan Chase, Abbey
Abbey (bank)
Abbey National plc was a UK-based bank and former building society, which latterly traded under the Abbey brand name. It became a wholly owned subsidiary of Grupo Santander of Spain in 2004, and was rebranded as Santander in January 2010, forming Santander UK along with the savings business of the...

, HBOS
HBOS
HBOS plc is a banking and insurance company in the United Kingdom, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Lloyds Banking Group having been taken over in January 2009...

, Barclays Wealth, Tesco Personal Finance
Tesco Personal Finance
Tesco Bank is the trading name of Tesco Personal Finance plc, a telephone and internet based commercial bank in the United Kingdom owned by Tesco, the UK's largest supermarket. Until 2008 it was a 50:50 joint venture between Tesco and the Royal Bank of Scotland, one of the UK's largest banks and...

, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley is a global financial services firm headquartered in New York City serving a diversified group of corporations, governments, financial institutions, and individuals. Morgan Stanley also operates in 36 countries around the world, with over 600 offices and a workforce of over 60,000....

, Lloyds TSB
Lloyds TSB
Lloyds TSB Bank Plc is a retail bank in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1995 by the merger of Lloyds Bank, established in Birmingham, England in 1765 and traditionally considered one of the Big Four clearing banks, with the TSB Group which traces its origins to 1810...

, Clydesdale Bank
Clydesdale Bank
Clydesdale Bank is a commercial bank in Scotland, a subsidiary of the National Australia Bank Group. In Scotland, Clydesdale Bank is the third largest clearing bank, although it also retains a branch network in London and the north of England...

, BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas S.A. is a global banking group, headquartered in Paris, with its second global headquarters in London. In October 2010 BNP Paribas was ranked by Bloomberg and Forbes as the largest bank and largest company in the world by assets with over $3.1 trillion. It was formed through the merger...

, HSBC
HSBC
HSBC Holdings plc is a global banking and financial services company headquartered in Canary Wharf, London, United Kingdom. it is the world's second-largest banking and financial services group and second-largest public company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine...

 and the Royal Bank of Scotland
Royal Bank of Scotland
The Royal Bank of Scotland Group is a British banking and insurance holding company in which the UK Government holds an 84% stake. This stake is held and managed through UK Financial Investments Limited, whose voting rights are limited to 75% in order for the bank to retain its listing on the...

. The Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces....

 have several departments and Clydeport
Peel Group
The Peel Group is a diversified real estate, transport and infrastructure investment company in the United Kingdom. It has assets owned and under management approaching £6 billion...

, the Glasgow Stock Exchange
Glasgow Stock Exchange
The Glasgow Stock Exchange is a prominent building and financial institution in the centre of the city of Glasgow, Scotland.The exchange was founded in 1844. In 1973, it merged with the London Stock Exchange, becoming the hub of its Scottish operations....

, Student Loans Company, Scottish Executive Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department
Scottish Executive Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department
The Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department was a former Scottish Executive department responsible for economic and industrial development, further and higher education, skills, lifelong learning, energy, transport and digital connectivity until 2007.Philip Rycroft was appointed...

, BT Group
BT Group
BT Group plc is a global telecommunications services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is one of the largest telecommunications services companies in the world and has operations in more than 170 countries. Through its BT Global Services division it is a major supplier of...

, Scottish Friendly
Scottish Friendly
Scottish Friendly Assurance is a financial services group based in Glasgow, Scotland. The group provides investors with a wide range of tax-free investment and life insurance products and whole-of- market open architecture ‘wrap’ investments.- History :...

. Scottish Qualifications Authority
Scottish Qualifications Authority
The Scottish Qualifications Authority is a non-departmental public body responsible for accreditation and awarding. It is partly funded by the Education and Lifelong Learning Directorate of the Scottish Government, employing 750 staff, based in Glasgow and Dalkeith...

 and Scottish Enterprise
Scottish Enterprise
Scottish Enterprise is a sponsored non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government which encourages economic development, enterprise, innovation and investment in business...

 also have their headquarters based in the district. Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc , commonly known as Shell, is a global oil and gas company headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands and with its registered office in London, United Kingdom. It is the fifth-largest company in the world according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine and one of the six...

 also have one of their six world-wide Shared Business Centres located in the IFSD.

West End



Glasgow's West End refers to the bohemian
Bohemianism
Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people, with few permanent ties, involving musical, artistic or literary pursuits...

 district of cafés, tea rooms, bars, boutiques, upmarket hotels, clubs and restaurants in the hinterland of Kelvingrove Park
Kelvingrove Park
Kelvingrove Park is a public park located on the River Kelvin in the West End of the city of Glasgow, Scotland, containing the world-famous Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum.-History:...

, the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

, Glasgow Botanic Gardens
Glasgow Botanic Gardens
Glasgow Botanic Gardens is an Arboretum and public park located in the West End of Glasgow, Scotland. It features several glasshouses, the most notable of which is the Kibble Palace. The gardens were created in 1817, and run by the Royal Botanic Institution of Glasgow , and were intended to supply...

 and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre , located on the north bank of the River Clyde, in Glasgow, is Scotland's largest exhibition centre....

, especially on the area's main thoroughfare, Byres Road
Byres Road
Byres Road is a street located in Hillhead, Glasgow and is the central artery of the city's West End.- Location and history :Byres Rd is a mixed commercial, shopping and upmarket residential area consisting largely of traditional sandstone tenements with retail premises on the ground floor and...

, and on Ashton Lane
Ashton Lane
Ashton Lane is a cobbled backstreet in the West End of Glasgow. It is connected to Byres Road by a short linking lane beside Hillhead subway station and is noted for its bars, restaurants and a licenced cinema....

. The area is popular with tourists, and contains many hotels, including the prestigious One Devonshire Gardens
One Devonshire Gardens
One Devonshire Gardens , is a luxury hotel located in the West End of Glasgow, Scotland. It is well-known for its celebrity guests, including George Clooney, Kylie Minogue, Britney Spears, Justin Timberlake, Robbie Williams, Gwyneth Paltrow, Whitney Houston, Lionel Richie and Jon Bon Jovi...

, which has accommodated a number of celebrity guests on visits to the city.

The West End includes residential areas of Hillhead
Hillhead
Hillhead is a district of Glasgow, Scotland. Situated north of Kelvingrove Park and to the south of the River Kelvin, Hillhead is at the heart of Glasgow's fashionable West End, with Byres Road forming the western border of the area, the other boundaries being Dumbarton Road to the south and the...

, Dowanhill
Dowanhill
Dowanhill is a district of Glasgow, Scotland, occupying the area west of Hillhead, south of Kelvinside and east of Hyndland.A residential district the area generally contains a mixture of terraced townhouses with private communal gardens, detached villas with private grounds and a number of...

, Kelvingrove
Kelvingrove
Kelvingrove can refer to:* Glasgow Kelvingrove * Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow* Kelvingrove Hotel, Glasgow* Kelvingrove Park, GlasgowOr perhaps you were thinking of Kelvin Grove?...

, Kelvinside
Kelvinside
Kelvinside is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde and is bounded by Dowanhill, Hyndland and Broomhill to the South with Kelvindale and the River Kelvin to the North...

, Hyndland
Hyndland
Hyndland is a residential area in the West End of the city of Glasgow, Scotland.Bordering the Broomhill, Maryhill, Dowanhill, Kelvinside and Partickhill areas, it is a middle-class area populated mainly by professionals and young bourgeois bohemians including a number of noted authors, poets,...

, and, to an increasing extent, Partick
Partick
Partick is an area of Glasgow on the north bank of the River Clyde, just across from Govan. To the west lies Whiteinch. Partick was a Police burgh from 1852 until 1912 when it was incorporated into the city.-History:...

 (although Partick is not traditionally considered to be part of the "West End"). The name is also increasingly being used to refer to any area to the west of Charing Cross
Charing Cross, Glasgow
Charing Cross is a major road junction in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde on Sauchiehall Street, at a major interchange of the M8 motorway. Formerly the gateway from the shopping area of Sauchiehall Street to the more prosperous Woodlands area, its...

. This includes areas such as Scotstoun
Scotstoun
Scotstoun is a historic district of Glasgow, Scotland, west of Glasgow City Centre. It is bounded by Yoker and Knightswood to the west, Victoria Park, Broomhill and Whiteinch to the east, Jordanhill to the north and the River Clyde to the south...

, Jordanhill
Jordanhill
Jordanhill is an affluent area of the West End of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. The area consists largely of terraced housing dating from the early to mid 20th century, with some detached and semi-detached homes and some modern apartments....

, Kelvindale
Kelvindale
Kelvindale is a district in the west of the city of Glasgow, Scotland.-Construction:Construction started in the late 1920s with work being undertaken by the City Corporation. This was followed up in the early 1930s by the Glasgow-based housebuilding company Mactaggart and Mickel...

 and Anniesland
Anniesland
Anniesland is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde, and centres around the junction of the Great Western Road and Crow Road; also known as Anniesland Cross....

.

The West End is bisected by the River Kelvin
River Kelvin
The Kelvin rises on watershed of Scotland on the moor south east of the village of Banton, east of Kilsyth - . At almost 22 miles long, it initially flows south to Dullatur Bog where it falls into a man made trench and takes a ninety degree turn flowing west along the northern boundary of the bog...

 which flows from the Campsie Fells
Campsie Fells
The Campsie Fells are a range of hills in central Scotland, stretching east to west, from Denny Muir to Dumgoyne, in Stirlingshire. . The highest point in the range is Earl's Seat which is 578 m high...

 in the North and confluences with the River Clyde at Yorkhill Quay.

The spire of Sir George Gilbert Scott
George Gilbert Scott
Sir George Gilbert Scott was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches, cathedrals and workhouses...

's Glasgow University
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

 main building (the second largest Gothic Revival building in Britain) is a major local landmark, and can be seen from miles around, sitting atop Gilmorehill. The university itself is the fourth oldest in the English-speaking world. Much of the city's student population is based in the West End, adding to its cultural vibrancy.

The area is also home to the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow, Scotland. The building houses one of Europe's great civic art collections...

, Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery
Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery
The University of Glasgow's Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery is the oldest public museum in Scotland. It is located in various buildings on the main campus of the University in the west end of Glasgow.-History:...

, Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena
Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena
The Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena is located within the Kelvin Hall in Glasgow, Scotland. It has hosted many athletics competitions including the 1990 European Athletics Indoor Championships and the Aviva International Match since 1988.- History :...

, Henry Wood Hall (home of the Royal Scottish National Orchestra
Royal Scottish National Orchestra
The Royal Scottish National Orchestra is Scotland's national symphony orchestra. Based in Glasgow, the 89-member professional orchestra also regularly performs in Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee, and abroad. Formed in 1891 as the Scottish Orchestra, the company has performed full-time since 1950,...

) and the Museum of Transport
Glasgow Museum of Transport
The Glasgow Museum of Transport in Glasgow, Scotland was established in 1964 and initially located at a former tram depot in Pollokshields. From 1987 the museum was relocated to the city's Kelvin Hall...

, which is currently closed pending its move to a new location rebuilt on a former dockland site at Glasgow Harbour
Glasgow Harbour
Glasgow Harbour is an urban regeneration scheme at Partick in the city of Glasgow, Scotland.After many years of dereliction caused by the decline of shipbuilding and the migration of Glasgow's docks to the Firth of Clyde, since the mid 1980s, the banks of the River Clyde at Glasgow have become a...

 to a design by Zaha Hadid
Zaha Hadid
Zaha Hadid, CBE is an Iraqi-British architect.-Life and career:Hadid was born in 1950 in Baghdad, Iraq. She received a degree in mathematics from the American University of Beirut before moving to study at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London.After graduating she worked...

. The West End Festival
West End Festival
The West End Festival is an annual festival in the West End of Glasgow, Scotland.-History:The West End Festival in Glasgow was started in 1996 by Michael Dale as a small local festival centred on Byres Road....

, one of Glasgow's largest festivals, is held annually in June.

Glasgow is the home of the SECC
Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre , located on the north bank of the River Clyde, in Glasgow, is Scotland's largest exhibition centre....

, the United Kingdom's largest exhibition and conference centre. A major expansion of the SECC facilities at the former Queen's Dock by Foster and Partners
Foster and Partners
Foster + Partners is an architectural firm based in London. The practice is led by its founder and Chairman, Norman Foster, and has constructed many high-profile glass-and-steel buildings....

 is currently planned, including a 12,000 seat arena, and a 5 star hotel and entertainments complex.

East End


The East End extends from Glasgow Cross in the city Centre to the boundary with North
North Lanarkshire
North Lanarkshire is one of 32 council areas in Scotland. It borders onto the northeast of the City of Glasgow and contains much of Glasgow's suburbs and commuter towns and villages. It also borders Stirling, Falkirk, East Dunbartonshire, West Lothian and South Lanarkshire...

 and South Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland, covering the southern part of the former county of Lanarkshire. It borders the south-east of the city of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgow's suburbs, commuter towns and smaller villages....

. It is home to the famous Glasgow Barrowland Market
Glasgow Barrowland market
The Barras is a major street and indoor weekend market in the East End of Glasgow, Scotland. The term "barra" is Glaswegian dialect for "barrow", relating to the market's early years, where traders sold their wares from handcarts...

, popularly known as "The Barras", Barrowland Ballroom
Barrowland Ballroom
The Barrowlands is a major dance hall and concert venue in Glasgow, Scotland.-History of Barrowland Ballroom:The original building opened in 1934 in a mercantile area east of Glasgow's city centre...

, Glasgow Green, and Celtic Park
Celtic Park
Celtic Park is a football stadium in the Parkhead area of Glasgow, which is the home ground of Celtic FC. Celtic Park, an all-seater stadium with a capacity of 60,832, is the largest football stadium in Scotland and the sixth-largest stadium in the United Kingdom, after Murrayfield, Old Trafford,...

, home of Celtic FC
Celtic F.C.
Celtic Football Club is a Scottish football club based in the Parkhead area of Glasgow, which currently plays in the Scottish Premier League. The club was established in 1887, and played its first game in 1888. Celtic have won the Scottish League Championship on 42 occasions, most recently in the...

. Many of the original sandstone tenements remain in this district. The East End was once a major industrial centre, home to Sir William Arrol & Co.
Sir William Arrol & Co.
Sir William Arrol & Co. was a leading Scottish civil engineering business founded by William Arrol and based in Glasgow. It built some of the most famous bridges in the United Kingdom including the Forth Bridge and Tower Bridge in London.-Early history:...

, James Templeton & Co
James Templeton & Co
The Glasgow based textile company James Templeton & Co was one of the leading carpet manufacturers in Britain during the 19th and 20th centuries. The firm was established in Bridgeton in 1839 by James Templeton 1802-1883. At its peak, its Bridgeton factory employed 3000 people before closing in 1979...

 and William Beardmore and Company
William Beardmore and Company
William Beardmore and Company was a Scottish engineering and shipbuilding conglomerate based in Glasgow and the surrounding Clydeside area. It was active between about 1890 and 1930 and at its peak employed about 40,000 people...

. A notable local employer continues to be the Wellpark Brewery
Wellpark Brewery
Wellpark Brewery is a brewery situated in Duke Street in the East End of Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 1740 on the bank of the Molendinar Burn by Hugh and Robert Tennent...

, home of Tennent's Lager.

The Glasgow Necropolis
Glasgow Necropolis
The Glasgow Necropolis is a Victorian cemetery in Glasgow, Scotland. It is on a low but very prominent hill to the east of Glasgow Cathedral . Fifty thousand individuals have been buried here. Typically for the period only a small percentage are named on monuments and not every grave has a stone...

 Cemetery was created on a hill above the Cathedral
Glasgow Cathedral
The church commonly known as Glasgow Cathedral is the Church of Scotland High Kirk of Glasgow otherwise known as St. Mungo's Cathedral.The other cathedrals in Glasgow are:* The Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew...

 of Saint Mungo
Saint Mungo
Saint Mungo is the commonly used name for Saint Kentigern . He was the late 6th century apostle of the Brythonic Kingdom of Strathclyde in modern Scotland, and patron saint and founder of the city of Glasgow.-Name:In Wales and England, this saint is known by his birth and baptismal name Kentigern...

 in 1831. Routes curve through the landscape uphill to the 62 metres (203 ft) high statue of John Knox
John Knox
John Knox was a Scottish clergyman and a leader of the Protestant Reformation who brought reformation to the church in Scotland. He was educated at the University of St Andrews or possibly the University of Glasgow and was ordained to the Catholic priesthood in 1536...

 at the summit. There are two late 18th century tenements in Gallowgate. Dating from 1771 and 1780, both have been well restored. The construction of Charlotte Street was financed by David Dale
David Dale
David Dale was a Scottish merchant and businessman, known for establishing the influential weaving community of New Lanark, in South Lanarkshire, Scotland and is credited along with his son in law Robert Owen of being a founder of utopian socialism and a founding father of socialism-Early...

, whose former pretensions can be gauged by the one remaining house, now run by the National Trust for Scotland
National Trust for Scotland
The National Trust for Scotland for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, commonly known as the National Trust for Scotland describes itself as the conservation charity that protects and promotes Scotland's natural and cultural heritage for present and future generations to...

. Further along Charlotte Street there stands a modern Gillespie, Kidd & Coia
Gillespie, Kidd & Coia
Gillespie, Kidd & Coia were a Scottish architectural firm famous for their application of modernism in churches and universities, as well as at St Peter's Seminary in Cardross. Though founded in 1927, it is for their work in the post-war period that they are best known...

 building of some note. Once a school, it has been converted into offices. Surrounding these buildings are a series of innovative housing developments conceived as "Homes for the Future", part of a project during the city's year as UK City of Architecture and Design in 1999.

East of Glasgow Cross is the Saint Andrew's Church
St Andrew's in the Square
St Andrew's in the Square is an 18th Century category-A-listed former church in Glasgow, Scotland, considered one of the finest classical churches in Britain, and now Glasgow's Centre for Scottish Culture, promoting Scottish music, song and dance...

, the oldest post-Reformation church in Scotland, built in 1739–1757 and displaying a Presbyterian grandeur befitting the church of the city's wealthy tobacco merchants
Tobacco Lords
The Tobacco Lords were Glasgow merchants who, in the 18th Century made enormous fortunes by trading in tobacco from Great Britain's American Colonies....

. Also close by is the more modest Episcopalian
Scottish Episcopal Church
The Scottish Episcopal Church is a Christian church in Scotland, consisting of seven dioceses. Since the 17th century, it has had an identity distinct from the presbyterian Church of Scotland....

 St. Andrew's-by-the-Green
St. Andrew's-by-the-Green
St. Andrew's-by-the-Green is an 18th Century category-A-listed former church in Glasgow, Scotland, and the first Episcopal church built in the city...

, the oldest Episcopal church in Scotland. The Episcopalian St Andrew's was also known as the "Whistlin' Kirk" due to it being the first church after the reformation to own an organ.

Overlooking Glasgow Green is the façade of Templeton On The Green
Templeton On The Green
Templeton On The Green, also known as Templeton Business Centre, is a distinctive building near the People's Palace, in Glasgow, Scotland.The building was designed and built as a carpet factory for James Templeton and Son....

, featuring vibrant polychromatic
Polychrome
Polychrome is one of the terms used to describe the use of multiple colors in one entity. It has also been defined as "The practice of decorating architectural elements, sculpture, etc., in a variety of colors." Polychromatic light is composed of a number of different wavelengths...

 brickwork intended to evoke the Doge's Palace in Venice.

The extensive Tollcross Park
Tollcross, Glasgow
Tollcross is an area north of the River Clyde in Glasgow and has a popular park which is famed for its international rose trials. It lies approximately a mile east of the neighbouring suburb of Parkhead, and just north of Braidfauld and south of Shettleston....

 was originally developed from the estate of James Dunlop, the owner of a local steelworks. His large baronial mansion was built in 1848 by David Bryce
David Bryce
David Bryce FRSE FRIBA RSA was a Scottish architect. Born in Edinburgh, he was educated at the Royal High School and joined the office of architect William Burn in 1825, aged 22. By 1841, Bryce had risen to be Burn's partner...

, which later housed the city's Children's Museum until the 1980s. Today, the mansion is a sheltered housing complex.

The new Scottish National Indoor Sports Arena
National Indoor Sports Arena and Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome
The National Indoor Sports Arena and Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome is an indoor arena and velodrome currently under construction in Parkhead, Glasgow, Scotland. Built for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, these venues will host the Badminton and Track cycling events...

, a modern replacement for the Kelvin Hall
Kelvin Hall
The Kelvin Hall in Glasgow, Scotland, is a mixed-use arts and sports venue that opened as an exhibition centre in 1927. It has been a music hall, indoor arena and barrage balloon factory, and is currently home to the Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena and from 1987 to 2010, Glasgow's Museum of...

, is planned for Dalmarnock
Dalmarnock
Dalmarnock is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde. It is bounded by the Clyde to the south and east, Parkhead to the north, and Bridgeton at Dunn Street to the north west...

. The area will also be the site of the Athletes' Village for the 2014 Commonwealth Games
2014 Commonwealth Games
The 20th Commonwealth Games in 2014 will be held in Glasgow, the largest city in Scotland. The winning city was announced by the Commonwealth Games Federation on 9 November 2007 in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The Games will run over 11 days of competition from 24 July to 3 August 2014...

, located adjacent to the new indoor sports arena.

To the north of the East End lie the two massive gasometer
Gasometer
A gas holder is a large container where natural gas or town gas is stored near atmospheric pressure at ambient temperatures. The volume of the container follows the quantity of stored gas, with pressure coming from the weight of a movable cap...

s of Provan Gas Works
Provan Gas Works
Provan Gas Works is an industrial gas holding plant in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. The plant is in the Provanmill area of the city, and was built by Glasgow Corporation between 1900 and 1904...

, which stand overlooking Alexandra Park
Alexandra Park, Glasgow
Alexandra Park is a public park in the East End of Glasgow, Scotland. It is located in Dennistoun, three miles east of the city centre. To the north is the M8 motorway. Named after Princess Alexandra of Denmark, it opened in 1870...

 and a major interchange between the M8 and M80
M80 motorway
The M80 is a motorway in central Scotland, running through Glasgow, North Lanarkshire, Falkirk and Stirling and links the M8, the M73 and M9 motorways. Following completion in 2011, this road is long. From 1992 - 2011, the road was in two sections; the southern section, Glasgow to Stepps and the...

 motorways. Often used for displaying large city advertising slogans, the towers have become an unofficial portal into the city for road users arriving from the north and east.

The East End Healthy Living Centre (EEHLC) was established in mid-2005 at Crownpoint Road with Lottery Funding and City grants to serve community needs in the area. The centre provides service such as sports facilities, health advice, stress management, leisure and vocational classes.

South Side


Glasgow's South Side sprawls out south of the Clyde, covering areas including the Gorbals
Gorbals
The Gorbals is an area on the south bank of the River Clyde in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. By the late 19th century, it had become over-populated and adversely affected by local industrialisation. Many people lived here because their jobs provided this home and they could not afford their own...

, Toryglen
Toryglen
Toryglen is a small district in southern Glasgow, Scotland. It is approximately 2 miles south of the city centre to the west of Rutherglen. It is bounded to the west by Mount Florida, the north by Oatlands and the south by King's Park....

, Govan
Govan
Govan is a district and former burgh now part of southwest City of Glasgow, Scotland. It is situated west of Glasgow city centre, on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite the mouth of the River Kelvin and the district of Partick....

, Ibrox, Shawlands
Shawlands
Shawlands is a district of Glasgow, Scotland located less than 2 miles south of the River Clyde. The area has an approximate population of 8000 people, with over 82% dwelling in flats, 74% owner occupied and 79% living alone or with one other person...

, Simshill
Simshill
Simshill is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde.Former residents include Alex Ferguson and Carol Smillie. It is next to the beautiful Linn ParkSimshill is in the local council ward area of Linn....

, Strathbungo
Strathbungo
Strathbungo grew up as a small village built along the Pollokshaws Road, one of the main arteries leading southwards from the centre of Glasgow, adjoined by the Camphill Estate, now part of Queens Park...

, Cardonald
Cardonald
Cardonald is an outlying suburb of the Scottish city of Glasgow. Formerly a village in its own right, it lies to the southwest of the city and is bounded to the south by the White Cart Water...

, Mount Florida
Mount Florida
Mount Florida is an area in the southeastern corner of the Scottish city of Glasgow.- Details :The origins of the name are uncertain. It has been stated that it derives from Mount Florida House, owned by a family from Florida, USA...

, Pollokshaws
Pollokshaws
Pollokshaws is a district on the southside of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. The housing stock mostly consists of some sandstone tenement housing, tower blocks and modern brick tenement-style buildings...

, Nitshill
Nitshill
Nitshill is a district on the south side of Glasgow. It is north of South Nitshill, south of Crookston, and southwest of Silverburn and Pollok. Nitshill was originally a coal mining village...

, Pollokshields
Pollokshields
Pollokshields is a district in the Southside of Glasgow, Scotland. It is a conservation area which was developed in Victorian times according to a plan promoted by the original landowners, the Stirling-Maxwells of Pollok, whose association with the area goes as far back as...

, Battlefield
Battlefield, Glasgow
Battlefield is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde. The area takes its name from the Battle of Langside of 1568 in which Mary, Queen of Scots' army was defeated by James VI...

, Langside
Langside
Langside is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde, and lies east of Shawlands, south of Queens Park, west of Cathcart and north of Newlands. The district is residential and primarily middle-class, and has become an increasingly fashionable address in...

, Govanhill
Govanhill
Govanhill is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde between the Gorbals, Mount Florida and Queen's Park...

, Crosshill
Crosshill
Crosshill is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde. In earlier maps the area is called Corsehill, which means Gorse hill, so the name is probably a corruption of this earlier name, and does not refer to a cross...

, Cessnock
Cessnock, Glasgow
Cessnock is an area of Glasgow, Scotland located south of the River Clyde. Cessnock's main street is Paisley Road West, this road leads down to Paisley.-Transport:...

, Mosspark
Mosspark
Mosspark is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde, in the south-west of the city.-History:Mosspark and the lands of East and Mid-Henderston were incorporated into Glasgow in 1909...

, Kinning Park
Kinning Park
Kinning Park is a southern suburb of Glasgow, Scotland. In 1897 it had a population of 14326.-Political history:Originally a separate police burgh founded in 1871, it became part of Glasgow in 1905. It was the smallest such burgh in Scotland at just...

, Mansewood
Mansewood
Mansewood is a residential district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde and is surrounded by the districts of Pollokshaws, Hillpark, Thornliebank, and Giffnock.- Geography :...

, Arden
Arden, Glasgow
Arden is the location of a medium-sized housing estate on the very edge of Glasgow, southwest of the city centre.-History:The S.S.H.A built the estate between 1953 and 1957, to rehouse families from the old overcrowded inner city tenements. Historically, Arden was a farm and formed part of Sir...

, Darnley
Darnley
Darnley is an area in south-west Glasgow, Scotland located on the A727 just west of Arden. During the second half of the 20th Century Darnley has experienced total transformation from being a modest semi-rural community to becoming a significant part of Glasgow's response to a post-war housing...

, Newlands
Newlands, Glasgow
Newlands is an upmarket district in the Southside of the Scottish city of Glasgow.The area is mainly residential in character. House prices in the area are consistently above the national average, with the average house price for 2006 being around £185 000....

, Deaconsbank
Deaconsbank
Deaconsbank is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde. The main feature of the area is an estate of around 639 Private houses built in the late 1970s by Barratt homes...

, Pollok
Pollok
Pollok is a large district on the south-western side of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It was built to house families from the overcrowded inner city...

, Croftfoot
Croftfoot
Croftfoot is a residential district on the southeastern side of the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is named after an old steading which was situated at the eastern end of the present day Croftfoot Road, where the Castlemilk Burn now enters a culvert downstream from the site of Castlemilk House.In...

, Castlemilk
Castlemilk
Castlemilk is a district of Glasgow, Scotland. It lies to the south of the city adjacent to Rutherglen, Croftfoot, Simshill and the separate village of Carmunnock...

, King's Park
King's Park, Glasgow
King's Park is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde .-Geography:King's Park is a residential area, with a mixture of semi-detached houses, flats and luxury detached houses...

, Cathcart
Cathcart
Cathcart is an area of Glasgow between Mount Florida, King's Park, Muirend and Newlands. The White Cart Water flows through Cathcart, downstream from Linn Park....

, Muirend
Muirend
Muirend is an area on the Southside of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. Although most of the district falls within the city proper, part of Muirend lies outwith the city boundary in the adjoining council area of East Renfrewshire...

 and Barrhead
Barrhead
Barrhead is a town in East Renfrewshire, Scotland, southwest of Glasgow on the edge of the Gleniffer Braes. As of the 2001 census its population was 19,813....

, Busby
Busby, East Renfrewshire
Busby is a village in East Renfrewshire, Scotland. Busby's close proximity to Glasgow effectively makes it a suburb of the city, though remains administratively separate. It lies on the White Cart Water south of Glasgow City Centre.-History:...

, Clarkston
Clarkston, East Renfrewshire
Clarkston is a small town in East Renfrewshire, Scotland. Although it is administratively outside nearby Glasgow, Clarkston is geographically an outer suburb of the city and part of the Greater Glasgow conurbation....

, Giffnock
Giffnock
Giffnock is a wealthy, dormitory suburb of Glasgow in the East Renfrewshire Council area, within the historic county of Renfrewshire in the west central Lowlands of Scotland...

, Thornliebank
Thornliebank
Thornliebank is a small suburban village in East Renfrewshire, Scotland, south of Glasgow. It is served by Thornliebank railway station and lies to the east of the M77 motorway.-History:...

, Netherlee
Netherlee
-Education:There is one non-denominational primary school in the area, Netherlee Primary School. It was opened in 1933 to serve the growing population and was extensively modernised and expanded in the 1990s. It currently has 25 classes and a roll of around 730. It is one of the highest ranked...

, and Newton Mearns
Newton Mearns
Newton Mearns is a suburban town in East Renfrewshire, Scotland. It lies southwest of Glasgow City Centre on the main road to Ayrshire, above sea level. It has a population of approximately 22,637.The town is part of the Greater Glasgow conurbation...

 in the East Renfrewshire council area, as well as Cambuslang
Cambuslang
Cambuslang is a suburban town on the south-eastern outskirts of Glasgow, Scotland. It is within the local authority area of South Lanarkshire. Historically, it was a large rural Parish incorporating nearby hamlets of Newton, Flemington, and Halfway. It is known as "the largest village in...

, East Kilbride
East Kilbride
East Kilbride is a large suburban town in the South Lanarkshire council area, in the West Central Lowlands of Scotland. Designated as Scotland's first new town in 1947, it forms part of the Greater Glasgow conurbation...

, and Rutherglen
Rutherglen
Rutherglen is a town in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. In 1975, it lost its own local council and administratively became a component of the City of Glasgow. In 1996 Rutherglen was reallocated to the South Lanarkshire council area.-History:...

 in the South Lanarkshire council area.

Although predominantly residential, the area does have several notable public buildings including, Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, watercolourist and artist. He was a designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and also the main representative of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom. He had a considerable influence on European design...

's Scotland Street School Museum
Scotland Street School Museum
Scotland Street School Museum is a museum of school education in Glasgow, Scotland, in the district of Tradeston. It is located in a former school built by Charles Rennie Mackintosh between 1903 and 1906. The building is one of Glasgow's foremost architectural attractions...

 and House for an Art Lover
House for an Art Lover
The House for an Art Lover is based on a design produced in 1901 by Charles Rennie Mackintosh with his wife, Margaret MacDonald. The building is situated in Bellahouston Park in Glasgow, Scotland. Construction began in 1989 and the house was finally opened to the public in 1996...

; the world famous Burrell Collection
Burrell Collection
The Burrell Collection is an art collection in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is situated in Pollok Country Park on the south side of the city.-History:...

 in Pollok Country Park
Pollok Country Park
Pollok Country Park is a large country park located in Pollok, south Glasgow. Prior to the building of the M77 motorway it was the largest urban green space in Europe. In 2007 it was named the best park in Britain...

; Alexander 'Greek' Thomson's Holmwood House
Holmwood House
Holmwood House is the finest and most elaborate residential villa designed byScottish architect Alexander "Greek" Thomson.It is also rare in retaining much of its original interior decor, and being open to the public....

 villa; the National Football Stadium Hampden Park
Hampden Park
Hampden Park is a football stadium in the Mount Florida area of Glasgow, Scotland. The 52,063 capacity venue serves as the national stadium of football in Scotland...

 in Mount Florida
Mount Florida
Mount Florida is an area in the southeastern corner of the Scottish city of Glasgow.- Details :The origins of the name are uncertain. It has been stated that it derives from Mount Florida House, owned by a family from Florida, USA...

, (home of Queens Park FC
Queen's Park F.C.
Queen's Park Football Club are an association football club based in Glasgow, Scotland. The club are currently the only amateur club in the Scottish League; their amateur status is reflected by their motto, Ludere Causa Ludendi – to play for the sake of playing.Queen's Park are the oldest...

) and Ibrox Stadium
Ibrox Stadium
Ibrox Stadium is a football stadium located on the south side of the River Clyde, on Edmiston Drive in the Ibrox district of Glasgow. It is the home ground of Scottish Premier League club Rangers and has an all-seated capacity of 51,082...

, (home of Rangers FC
Rangers F.C.
Rangers Football Club are an association football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, who play in the Scottish Premier League. The club are nicknamed the Gers, Teddy Bears and the Light Blues, and the fans are known to each other as bluenoses...

).

The former docklands site at Pacific Quay
Pacific Quay
Pacific Quay is an area south of the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. It is located at the former Plantation Quay and Princes' Dock Basin. The Princes' Dock Basin was the largest on the River Clyde when it was opened in 1900. It ceased to be used in the 1970s as the volume of Shipping using the...

 on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite the SECC, is the site of the Glasgow Science Centre
Glasgow Science Centre
Glasgow Science Centre is a visitor attraction located on the south bank of the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. It is a purpose-built science centre composed of three principal buildings which are the Science Mall, an IMAX cinema and the Glasgow Tower...

 and the new headquarters for BBC Scotland
BBC Scotland
BBC Scotland is a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly-funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It is, in effect, the national broadcaster for Scotland, having a considerable amount of autonomy from the BBC's London headquarters, and is run by the BBC Trust, who...

 and STV Group plc (owner of STV) which have relocated there to a new purpose built digital media campus.


In addition, several new bridges spanning the River Clyde have been built or are currently planned, including the Clyde Arc
Clyde Arc
The Clyde Arc , is a road bridge spanning the River Clyde in Glasgow, in west central Scotland, connecting Finnieston, near the Clyde Auditorium and SECC with Pacific Quay and Glasgow Science Centre in Govan. A prominent feature of the bridge is its innovative curved design and the way that it...

 known by locals as the Squinty Bridge at Pacific Quay
Pacific Quay
Pacific Quay is an area south of the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. It is located at the former Plantation Quay and Princes' Dock Basin. The Princes' Dock Basin was the largest on the River Clyde when it was opened in 1900. It ceased to be used in the 1970s as the volume of Shipping using the...

 and others at Tradeston
Tradeston
Tradeston is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow adjacent to the city centre on the south bank of the River Clyde.-Geography:Tradeston is bounded by the River Clyde to the north, the Glasgow to Paisley railway line on the east and south and the Kingston Bridge and M8 motorway to the west...

 and Springfield Quay.

The South Side also includes many great parks, including Linn Park
Linn Park, Glasgow, Scotland
Linn Park is a large park surrounded by the suburbs of Cathcart, Simshill and Netherlee on the southern fringes of Glasgow, Scotland, where the city borders East Renfrewshire. It is Glasgow’s second largest park, after Pollok Country Park...

, Queen's Park
Queen's Park, Glasgow
Situated on the south side of the city of Glasgow, in Scotland, Queen's Park lies approximately two miles from the city centre, and can refer both to the park itself, the adjacent residential district, or the football team Queen's Park F.C.The park was developed in the late 19th century in...

, Bellahouston Park
Bellahouston Park
Bellahouston Park is a public park in the South Side of Glasgow, Scotland, between the areas of Mosspark, Craigton, Ibrox, and Dumbreck, covering an area of . It is based around Ibrox hill in the centre, with commanding views over most of the city, exceptions being views to the east that are...

 and Rouken Glen Park
Rouken Glen
Rouken Glen is a park in Giffnock, East Renfrewshire, to the south-west of Glasgow, Scotland.- History :The lands of Rouken Glen Park originally belonged to the Scottish Crown, and then to the Earl of Eglinton, presented to Hugh Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Eglinton on the marriage of his son in the...

, and several golf clubs, including the championship course at Haggs Castle
Haggs Castle
Haggs Castle is a fine example of a large 16th century tower house, located in the neighbourhood of Pollokshields, in Glasgow, Scotland. The richly decorated building was restored in the 19th century, and today is once more occupied as a residence.-History:...

. The South Side is also home to Pollok Country Park
Pollok Country Park
Pollok Country Park is a large country park located in Pollok, south Glasgow. Prior to the building of the M77 motorway it was the largest urban green space in Europe. In 2007 it was named the best park in Britain...

, which was awarded the accolade of Europe's Best Park 2008. Pollok Park is Glasgow’s largest park and the only country park within the city boundaries. It is also home to Poloc Cricket Club. The name was taken from one of the early spellings of the area, to differentiate it from Pollok Juniors Football Club.

Govan
Govan
Govan is a district and former burgh now part of southwest City of Glasgow, Scotland. It is situated west of Glasgow city centre, on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite the mouth of the River Kelvin and the district of Partick....

 is a district and former burgh in the south-western part of the city. It is situated on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite Partick
Partick
Partick is an area of Glasgow on the north bank of the River Clyde, just across from Govan. To the west lies Whiteinch. Partick was a Police burgh from 1852 until 1912 when it was incorporated into the city.-History:...

. It was an administratively independent Police Burgh from 1864 until it was incorporated into the expanding city of Glasgow in 1912. Govan has a legacy as an engineering and shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both...

 centre of international repute and is home to one of two BAE Systems Surface Ships shipyards on the River Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

 and the precision engineering
Precision engineering
Precision engineering is a subdiscipline of electrical engineering, electronics engineering, mechanical engineering, and optical engineering concerned with designing machines, fixtures, and other structures that have exceptionally low tolerances, are repeatable, and are stable over time...

 firm, Thales Optronics
Thales Optronics
Thales Optronics is a major unit of Thales Group and has three main subsidiaries, Thales Optronics Ltd. , Thales Optronique SA and Thales Optronics B.V....

. It is also home to the Southern General Hospital
Southern General Hospital
The Southern General Hospital is a large teaching hospital with an acute operational bed complement of approximately 900 beds. The Hospital is located in Linthouse in the south west of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom and provides a comprehensive range of acute and related clinical...

, one of the largest teaching hospital
Teaching hospital
A teaching hospital is a hospital that provides clinical education and training to future and current doctors, nurses, and other health professionals, in addition to delivering medical care to patients...

s in the country, and the maintenance depot for the Glasgow Subway
Glasgow Subway
The Glasgow Subway is an underground metro line in Glasgow, Scotland. Opened on 14 December 1896, it is the third-oldest underground metro system in the world after the London Underground and the Budapest Metro. Formerly a cable railway, the Subway was later electrified, but its twin circular lines...

 system.

North Glasgow



North Glasgow extends out from the north of the city centre towards the affluent suburbs of Bearsden
Bearsden
Bearsden ) is a town in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It lies on the northwestern fringe of Greater Glasgow, approximately from the City Centre, and is effectively a suburb, with housing development coinciding with the introduction of a railway line in 1863, and from where the town gets its name...

, Milngavie
Milngavie
Milngavie , is a town in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It is on the Allander Water, at the northwestern edge of Greater Glasgow, and about from Glasgow city centre. It neighbours Bearsden....

 and Bishopbriggs
Bishopbriggs
Bishopbriggs is a town in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. The area was once part of the historic parish of Cadder - originally lands granted by King William the Lion to the Bishop of Glasgow, Jocelin, in 1180. It was later part of the county of Lanarkshire and subsequently an independent burgh from...

 in East Dunbartonshire
East Dunbartonshire
This article is about the East Dunbartonshire council area of Scotland. See also East Dunbartonshire .East Dunbartonshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders onto the north-west of the City of Glasgow. It contains many of the suburbs of Glasgow as well as containing many of...

 and Clydebank
Clydebank
Clydebank is a town in West Dunbartonshire, in the Central Lowlands of Scotland. Situated on the north bank of the River Clyde, Clydebank borders Dumbarton, the town with which it was combined to form West Dunbartonshire, as well as the town of Milngavie in East Dunbartonshire, and the Yoker and...

 in West Dunbartonshire
West Dunbartonshire
West Dunbartonshire is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland. Bordering onto the west of the City of Glasgow, containing many of Glasgow's commuter towns and villages as well as the city's suburbs, West Dunbartonshire also borders onto Argyll and Bute, Stirling, East...

. The area also contains some of the city's poorest residential areas. Possilpark
Possilpark
Possilpark is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow, situated north of the River Clyde. Following the closure of the Saracen Foundry in 1967, this section of Glasgow has become one of the poorest in the United Kingdom, with an above average crime rate....

 is one such area, where levels of unemployment and drug abuse continue to be above the national average. Much of the housing in areas such as Possilpark
Possilpark
Possilpark is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow, situated north of the River Clyde. Following the closure of the Saracen Foundry in 1967, this section of Glasgow has become one of the poorest in the United Kingdom, with an above average crime rate....

 and Hamiltonhill
Hamiltonhill
Hamiltonhill is a working class district situated between Possilpark and Port Dundas in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde, next to the Forth and Clyde Canal....

 had fallen into a state of disrepair in recent years. This has led to large scale redevelopment of much of the poorer housing stock in north Glasgow, and the wider regeneration of many areas, such as Ruchill
Ruchill
Ruchill is a district in the city of Glasgow. It lies within the Canal Ward of North Glasgow in the area between the Maryhill and Possilpark areas of the city. It has traditionally been characterised by a high degree of deprivation and social problems...

, which have been transformed; many run-down tenements have now been refurbished or replaced by modern housing estate
Housing estate
A housing estate is a group of buildings built together as a single development. The exact form may vary from country to country. Accordingly, a housing estate is usually built by a single contractor, with only a few styles of house or building design, so they tend to be uniform in appearance...

s. Much of the housing stock in north Glasgow is rented social housing
Council house
A council house, otherwise known as a local authority house, is a form of public or social housing. The term is used primarily in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Council houses were built and operated by local councils to supply uncrowded, well-built homes on secure tenancies at...

, with a high proportion of high-rise tower blocks, managed by the Glasgow Housing Association
Glasgow Housing Association
Glasgow Housing Association is one of the largest social landlords in the UK, with more than 50,000 tenants and 26,500 factored homeowners across Glasgow....

.

Maryhill
Maryhill
Maryhill is an area of the City of Glasgow in Scotland. Maryhill is a former burgh. The population of Maryhill is about 52,000. Maryhill stretches over along Maryhill Road...

 consists of well maintained traditional sandstone tenements. Although historically a working class area, its borders with the upmarket West End of the city mean that it is relatively wealthy compared to the rest of the north of the city, containing affluent areas such as Maryhill Park
Maryhill Park
Maryhill Park is an area of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is within the Maryhill district, within the North West of the city. Unlike much of the rest of Maryhill, the population is predominantly middle-class and the property type in the area consists mainly of Victorian semi-detached town...

 and North Kelvinside
North Kelvinside
North Kelvinside is a middle-class residential district of the Scottish city of Glasgow....

. Maryhill is also home to Firhill Stadium
Firhill Stadium
Firhill Stadium or Firhill Arena is a football, rugby union and rugby league stadium located in the Maryhill area of Glasgow, Scotland. As of 2010 it is the home ground of football club Partick Thistle F.C...

, home of Partick Thistle F.C.
Partick Thistle F.C.
Partick Thistle Football Club are a professional association football club from Glasgow. Despite their name, the club are based in the Maryhill area of the city, and have not played in Partick since 1908...

 since 1909, and the professional Rugby Union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 team, Glasgow Warriors
Glasgow Warriors
The Glasgow Warriors, formerly Glasgow Rugby, are one of two professional rugby union teams in Scotland, Edinburgh being the other. They play in the RaboDirect Pro12 and their home ground is Firhill Stadium, also the home of Partick Thistle Football Club.-History:Glasgow Rugby were created to...

. The junior
Scottish Junior Football Association
The Scottish Junior Football Association is an affiliated national association of the Scottish Football Association and is the governing body for the Junior grade of football in Scotland. The term "Junior" refers to the level of football played...

 team, Maryhill F.C.
Maryhill F.C.
Maryhill Football Club are a football team based in the Maryhill area of Glasgow, Scotland. Members of the Scottish Junior Football Association, they currently play in the West Region, Central Division Two....

 are also located in this part of north Glasgow.

The Forth and Clyde Canal
Forth and Clyde Canal
The Forth and Clyde Canal crosses Scotland, providing a route for sea-going vessels between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde at the narrowest part of the Scottish Lowlands. The canal is 35 miles long and its eastern end is connected to the River Forth by a short stretch of the River...

 passes through this part of the city, and at one stage formed a vital part of the local economy. It was for many years polluted and largely unused after the decline of heavy industry, but recent efforts to regenerate and re-open the canal to navigation have seen it rejuvenated.

Sighthill
Sighthill, Glasgow
Sighthill is a Housing estate in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde.Sighthill is part of the wider Springburn district in the North of the city...

 is home to Scotland’s largest asylum seeker community.

A huge part of the economic life of Glasgow was once located in Springburn
Springburn
Springburn is an inner city district in the north of the Scottish city of Glasgow, home to various working and middle-class households.Springburn developed from a small rural hamlet at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Its industrial expansion began with the establishment of a chemical...

, where the Saracen Foundry
Saracen Foundry
The Saracen Foundry was the better known name for the Possilpark, Glasgow based foundry company W MacFarlane & Co. Ltd, founded and owned by Walter MacFarlane. Macfarlane's was the most important manufacturer of ornamental ironwork in Scotland....

, engineering works of firms like Charles Tennant
Charles Tennant
Charles Tennant was a Scottish chemist and industrialist. He discovered bleaching powder and founded an industrial dynasty.- Biography:...

 and locomotive workshops employed many Glaswegians. Indeed, Glasgow dominated this type of manufacturing, with 25% of all the world’s locomotives being built in the area at one stage. It was home to the headquarters of the North British Locomotive Company
North British Locomotive Company
The North British Locomotive Company was created in 1903 through the merger of three Glasgow locomotive manufacturing companies; Sharp Stewart and Company , Neilson, Reid and Company and Dübs and Company , creating the largest locomotive manufacturing company in Europe.Its main factories were...

. Today part of the St. Rollox railway works
St. Rollox railway works
St. Rollox Locomotive Works and St Rollox Carriage and Wagon Works were built in 1856 in Springburn, an area in the north-east of Glasgow, for the Caledonian Railway, moving away from their works at Greenock...

 continues in use as a railway maintenance facility, all that is left of the industry in Springburn.

Culture



The city has many amenities for a wide range of cultural activities, from curling
Curling
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones across a sheet of ice towards a target area. It is related to bowls, boule and shuffleboard. Two teams, each of four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones, also called "rocks", across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a...

 to opera and ballet and from football to art appreciation; it also has a large selection of museums that include those devoted to transport, religion, and modern art
Modern art
Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of...

. Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in 1990 when Glasgow was designated European City of Culture.

The city's principal library, the Mitchell Library
Mitchell Library
The Mitchell Library is a large public library and centre of the public library system of Glasgow, Scotland.-History:The library was established with a bequest from Stephen Mitchell, a wealthy tobacco manufacturer, whose company, Stephen Mitchell & Son, would become one of the constituent members...

, has grown into one of the largest public reference libraries
Library
In a traditional sense, a library is a large collection of books, and can refer to the place in which the collection is housed. Today, the term can refer to any collection, including digital sources, resources, and services...

 in Europe, currently housing some 1.3 million books, an extensive collection of newspapers and thousands of photographs and map
Map
A map is a visual representation of an area—a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes....

s.

Most of Scotland's national arts organisations are based in Glasgow, including Scottish Opera
Scottish Opera
Scottish Opera is the national opera company of Scotland, and one of the five national performing arts companies funded by the Scottish Government...

, Scottish Ballet
Scottish Ballet
Scottish Ballet is the national ballet company of Scotland and one of the four leading ballet companies of the United Kingdom, alongside the Royal Ballet, English National Ballet and Birmingham Royal Ballet...

, The National Theatre of Scotland
National Theatre of Scotland
The National Theatre of Scotland is a theatre company established in February 2006. The company performs in a wide range of venues including theatres, halls and found spaces across Scotland....

, Royal Scottish National Orchestra
Royal Scottish National Orchestra
The Royal Scottish National Orchestra is Scotland's national symphony orchestra. Based in Glasgow, the 89-member professional orchestra also regularly performs in Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee, and abroad. Formed in 1891 as the Scottish Orchestra, the company has performed full-time since 1950,...

, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra
BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra
The BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra is a broadcasting symphony orchestra based in Glasgow, Scotland. One of five full-time orchestras maintained by the British Broadcasting Corporation , it is the oldest full-time professional orchestra in Scotland...

 and Scottish Youth Theatre
Scottish Youth Theatre
Scottish Youth Theatre is Scotland's national youth theatre company for ages 3–25. It is core funded by the Scottish Arts Council.Scottish Youth Theatre has headquarters in Glasgow but work throughout Scotland...

.

Glasgow has its own "Poet Laureate
Poet Laureate
A poet laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and is often expected to compose poems for state occasions and other government events...

", a post created in 1999 for Edwin Morgan and as of 2007 occupied by Liz Lochhead
Liz Lochhead
Liz Lochhead is a Scottish poet and dramatist, originally from Newarthill in North Lanarkshire.-Background:After attending Glasgow School of Art, Lochhead lectured in fine art for eight years before becoming a professional writer....

.

Recreation



Glasgow is home to a variety of theatres including The King's Theatre
King's Theatre, Glasgow
The King's Theatre is located in Glasgow, Scotland. It was built for Howard & Wyndham Ltd under its chairman Baillie Michael Simons as a sister theatre of their Theatre Royal in the city and was designed by Frank Matcham, opening in 1904. The theatre is primarily a receiving house for touring...

, Theatre Royal
Theatre Royal, Glasgow
The Theatre Royal is the oldest theatre in Glasgow, located at 282 Hope Street in Cowcaddens. The theatre originally opened in 1867, changing its name to the Theatre Royal in 1869, and is the longest running theatre in Scotland...

 and the Citizens Theatre and is home to many municipal museums and art galleries, the most famous being the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow, Scotland. The building houses one of Europe's great civic art collections...

, the Gallery of Modern Art (GoMA) and the Burrell Collection
Burrell Collection
The Burrell Collection is an art collection in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is situated in Pollok Country Park on the south side of the city.-History:...

. Most of the museums in Glasgow are publicly owned and free to enter.

The city has hosted many exhibitions over the years, including being the UK City of Architecture 1999, European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

 1990, National City of Sport 1995–1999 and European Capital of Sport 2003.

In addition, unlike the older and larger Edinburgh Festival
Edinburgh Festival
The Edinburgh Festival is a collective term for many arts and cultural festivals that take place in Edinburgh, Scotland each summer, mostly in August...

 (where all Edinburgh's main festivals occur in the last three weeks of August), Glasgow's festivals fill the calendar. Festivals include the Glasgow International Comedy Festival
Glasgow International Comedy Festival
Glasgow International Comedy Festival is a comedy festival in Glasgow, Scotland.The comedy festival started in 2002 and is held annually in March....

, Glasgow International Jazz Festival
Glasgow International Jazz Festival
Glasgow International Jazz Festival is a jazz festival in Glasgow, Scotland.-Main Festival:One of the biggest jazz festivals in Europe, the Glasgow International Jazz Festival is held annually in June in the Merchant City area of Glasgow...

, Celtic Connections
Celtic Connections
The Celtic Connections festival started in 1994 in Glasgow, Scotland, and has since been held every January. Featuring over 300 concerts, ceilidhs, talks, free events, late night sessions and workshops, the festival focuses on the roots of traditional Scottish music and also features international...

, Glasgow Fair
Glasgow Fair
The Glasgow Fair is a holiday during the last fortnight in July in the city of Glasgow Scotland. 'The Fair' is the oldest of a number of similar holidays, dating from the 12th century...

, Glasgow Film Festival
Glasgow Film Festival
Glasgow Film Festival is an annual film festival based in Glasgow, Scotland, started in 2005.-2010:2010's festival took place between 18-28th February. The opening gala featured Jean-Pierre Jeunet's latest film, Micmacs with the director there to present the film. Other guests included Peter...

, West End Festival
West End Festival
The West End Festival is an annual festival in the West End of Glasgow, Scotland.-History:The West End Festival in Glasgow was started in 1996 by Michael Dale as a small local festival centred on Byres Road....

, Merchant City Festival
Merchant City Festival
The Merchant City Festival is a major cultural festival taking place in Glasgow's Merchant City area.Attracting more than 55,000 people, the four-day Festival presents the cream of Scotland’s theatre, music, visual arts, comedy, dance, film, fashion and food scene.The Festival presents opera...

, Glasgay
Glasgay! Festival
Glasgay! Festival is a gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender arts festival in Glasgow,Scotland.As part of the diversity of Glasgow's cultural scene, Glasgow hosts an annual Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Arts Festival in November, organised by GALA Scotland Ltd.-History:First held in 1993,...

, and the World Pipe Band Championships
World Pipe Band Championships
The World Pipe Band Championships is a pipe band competition currently held in Glasgow, Scotland every August. The event has been operating regularly since 1930, when the Scottish Pipe Band Association was formed...

.

Music scene




Glasgow has many live music venues, pubs, clubs. Some of the city's more well-known venues include the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall
Glasgow Royal Concert Hall
Glasgow Royal Concert Hall is an arts venue, in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is operated by Glasgow Life, an agency of Glasgow City Council, which also runs Glasgow’s City Halls and Old Fruitmarket venue...

, the SECC
Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre , located on the north bank of the River Clyde, in Glasgow, is Scotland's largest exhibition centre....

, King Tut's Wah Wah Hut
King Tut's Wah Wah Hut
King Tut's Wah Wah Hut, also known as King Tut's, is a live music venue and bar in on St. Vincent Street, Glasgow, Scotland. It is owned and managed by Glasgow-based gig promoters DF Concerts...

 (where Oasis
Oasis (band)
Oasis were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1991. Originally known as The Rain, the group was formed by Liam Gallagher , Paul "Bonehead" Arthurs , Paul "Guigsy" McGuigan and Tony McCarroll , who were soon joined by Liam's older brother Noel Gallagher...

 were spotted and signed by Glaswegian record mogul Alan McGee
Alan McGee
Alan McGee has been a record label owner, musician, manager, and music blogger for The Guardian.McGee is best-known for co-forming and running the independent Creation Records label from 1983–1999, and then Poptones from 1999-2007...

), the Queen Margaret Union
Queen Margaret Union
The Queen Margaret Union is one of two students' unions at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. Founded in 1890, it caters for the social and cultural needs of its members by providing a range of services including, entertainments, catering, shop facilities, bars and games.-History:The Queen...

 (who have Kurt Cobain
Kurt Cobain
Kurt Donald Cobain was an American singer-songwriter, musician and artist, best known as the lead singer and guitarist of the grunge band Nirvana...

's footprint locked in a safe), the Barrowland
Barrowland Ballroom
The Barrowlands is a major dance hall and concert venue in Glasgow, Scotland.-History of Barrowland Ballroom:The original building opened in 1934 in a mercantile area east of Glasgow's city centre...

, a ballroom converted into a live music venue as well as The Garage (nightclub) which is the largest nightclub in Scotland. More recent mid-sized venues include ABC and the O2 Academy, which play host to a similar range of acts. There are also a large number of smaller venues and bars which host many local and touring musicians, including Stereo, 13th Note and Nice N Sleazy. Most recent recipient of the SLTN Music Pub of the Year award was Bar Bloc, awarded in November 2011. In 2010, Glasgow was named the UK's fourth "most musical" city by PRS for Music.

In recent years, the success of bands such as Belle & Sebastian
Belle & Sebastian
Belle and Sebastian are an indie pop band formed in Glasgow in January 1996. Belle and Sebastian are often compared with influential indie bands such as The Smiths, as well as classic acts such as Love, Bob Dylan and Nick Drake. The name Belle & Sebastian comes from Belle et Sébastien, a 1965...

, Camera Obscura
Camera Obscura (band)
Camera Obscura are an indie pop band from Glasgow, Scotland. The band formed in 1996 and have released four albums to date.-History:Camera Obscura were formed in 1996 by Tracyanne Campbell, John Henderson, and Gavin Dunbar. Several other members performed with the band before David Skirving joined...

, Biffy Clyro
Biffy Clyro
Biffy Clyro are a Scottish rock band from Kilmarnock, comprising Simon Neil , James Johnston and Ben Johnston...

, Franz Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinand (band)
Franz Ferdinand are a Scottish post-punk revival band formed in Glasgow in 2002. The band is composed of Alex Kapranos , Bob Hardy , Nick McCarthy , and Paul Thomson .The band first experienced chart success when their second single, "Take Me Out", reached #3 in...

, Mogwai
Mogwai
The word mogwai is the transliteration of the Cantonese word 魔怪 meaning "monster", "evil spirit", "devil" or "demon".-Mogwai/Mogui in Chinese culture:...

, Snow Patrol
Snow Patrol
Snow Patrol are an alternative rock band from Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland. Formed at the University of Dundee in 1994 as an indie rock band, the band is now based in Glasgow...

, Travis
Travis (band)
Travis are a post-Britpop band from Glasgow, Scotland, comprising Fran Healy , Dougie Payne , Andy Dunlop and Neil Primrose...

 and Primal Scream
Primal Scream
Primal Scream are a Scottish alternative rock band originally formed in 1982 in Glasgow by Bobby Gillespie and Jim Beattie and now based in London. The current lineup consists of Gillespie, Andrew Innes , Martin Duffy , and Darrin Mooney...

 has significantly boosted the profile of the Glasgow music scene, prompting Time Magazine to liken Glasgow to Detroit during its 1960s Motown heyday. More recent successes include The Fratellis
The Fratellis
The Fratellis were an indie rock band from Glasgow, Scotland. The band consisted of lead vocalist and guitarist Jon Fratelli , bass guitarist Barry Fratelli , and drummer and backing vocalist Mince Fratelli .The band released 2 albums during their career, Costello Music in 2006 and Here We Stand in...

 and Glasvegas
Glasvegas
Glasvegas are a Scottish indie rock band from Glasgow. The band consists of James Allan , Rab Allan , Paul Donoghue and Jonna Löfgren . The band received critical acclaim for their debut album Glasvegas which was released in September 2008, reaching No...

. The city of Glasgow was appointed a UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 City of Music on 20 August 2008 as part of the Creative Cities Network
Creative Cities Network
Not to be confused with:*Creative Cities, an international European project designed and managed by the British Council.*Creative city, an urban planning concept.*Creative City, an urban development project in Fujairah, United Arab Emirates....

.

Glasgow's contemporary dance music scene has been spearheaded by Slam
Slam (band)
Slam are a producer/DJ duo from Glasgow, consisting of Stuart MacMillan and Orde Meikle . They are co-founders of Soma Quality Recordings. Their music style consists of house and techno.-History:...

, and their record label Soma Quality Recordings
Soma Quality Recordings
Soma Quality Recordings is a Scottish techno and house label co-founded in 1991 by the electronic music duo Slam...

, with their Pressure club nights at The Arches
The Arches (Glasgow)
The Arches is a bar, arts venue, theatre, live music venue and nightclub in Glasgow, Scotland, which first opened in 1991. It is a not-for-profit organisation...

 attracting DJs and clubbers from around the world.

The MOBO Awards
MOBO Awards
The Music of Black Origin Awards, established in 1995 by Kanya King MBE and Andy Ruffell, are held annually in the United Kingdom to recognise artists of any ethnicity or nationality performing black music....

 were held at the SECC
Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre , located on the north bank of the River Clyde, in Glasgow, is Scotland's largest exhibition centre....

 on 30 September 2009, making Glasgow the first out-of-London city to host the event since its launch in 1995.

Media



Glasgow is home to the Scottish national media. It is home to BBC Scotland
BBC Scotland
BBC Scotland is a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly-funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It is, in effect, the national broadcaster for Scotland, having a considerable amount of autonomy from the BBC's London headquarters, and is run by the BBC Trust, who...

 and STV.

The Scottish press publishes various newspapers in the city such as the Evening Times
Evening Times
The Evening Times is an evening tabloid newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow, Scotland.-History:The paper, an evening sister paper of The Herald, was established in 1876. The paper's slogan is "Nobody Knows Glasgow Better"....

, The Herald
The Herald (Glasgow)
The Herald is a broadsheet newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow, and available throughout Scotland. As of August 2011 it had an audited circulation of 47,226, giving it a lead over Scotland's other 'quality' national daily, The Scotsman, published in Edinburgh.The 1889 to 1906 editions...

, The Sunday Herald
Sunday Herald
The Sunday Herald is a Scottish Sunday newspaper launched on 7 February 1999. The ABC audited circulation in April 2011 showed sales of 31,123.From the start it has combined a centre-left stance with support for Scottish devolution...

, the Sunday Mail
Sunday Mail (Scotland)
The Sunday Mail is a Scottish tabloid newspaper published every Sunday. It is the sister paper of the Daily Record and is owned by Trinity Mirror and as such has a left-wing outlook which in turn tends to guide Scottish political debate in that direction.The Sunday Mail is read by over one million...

and the Daily Record
Daily Record (Scotland)
The Daily Record is a Scottish tabloid newspaper based in Glasgow. It had been the best-selling daily paper in Scotland for many years with a paid circulation in August 2011 of 307,794 . It is now outsold by its arch-rival the Scottish Sun which in September 2010 had a circulation of 339,586 in...

. Scottish editions of Trinity Mirror
Trinity Mirror
Trinity Mirror plc is a large British newspaper and magazine publisher. It is Britain's biggest newspaper group, publishing 240 regional papers as well as the national Daily Mirror, Sunday Mirror and People, and the Scottish Sunday Mail and Daily Record. Its headquarters are at Canary Wharf in...

 and News International
News International
News International Ltd is the United Kingdom newspaper publishing division of News Corporation. Until June 2002, it was called News International plc....

 titles are printed in the city. STV Group plc is a Glasgow-based media conglomerate with interests in television, and publishing advertising. STV Group owns and operates both Scottish ITV franchises (Central Scotland and Grampian), both branded STV.

Various radio stations are also located in Glasgow. Bauer Radio owns the principal commercial radio stations in Glasgow; Clyde 1
102.5 Clyde 1
102.5 Clyde 1 is a Scottish local radio station that serves Glasgow and West Central Scotland on FM, DAB and online. The station is owned & operated by Bauer Radio and forms part of Bauer's Place Network of stations.- History :...

 and Clyde 2, which can reach over 2.3 million listeners. In 2004, STV Group plc (then known as SMG plc) sold its 27.8% stake in Scottish Radio Holdings
Scottish Radio Holdings
Scottish Radio Holdings was a Scottish media company which owned 22 radio stations, and around 30 local newspapers in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.-History:...

 to the broadcasting group EMAP
EMAP
Emap Limited is a British media company, specialising in the production of business-to-business magazines, and the organisation of business events and conferences...

 for £90.5 million. Other stations broadcasting from Glasgow include 105.2 Smooth Radio
105.2 Smooth Radio
105.2 Smooth Radio is a Scottish Independent Local Radio station broadcasting to Glasgow and the surrounding area, owned & operated by GMG Radio and broadcasting from studios at Baillieston in the East End of Glasgow. The station replaced Saga 105.2 FM at 6am on Monday 26 March 2007 and competes...

, Real Radio
Real Radio
Real Radio is a network of adult contemporary independent local radio stations in England, Scotland and Wales and is operated by . Each station broadcasts local breakfast through to drive time shows and network programming in the evening and through the night...

 and 96.3 Rock Radio
96.3 Rock Radio
96.3 Real Radio XS is a Scottish local radio station owned and operated by GMG Radio. It is based at Ballieston to the east of Glasgow and broadcasts to Renfrewshire, West Central Scotland and Central Scotland....

, which are all owned by GMG Radio
GMG Radio
GMG Radio is the radio division of the Guardian Media Group. The group is based in Laser House, Salford Quays in Greater Manchester. The advertising division is in Old Trafford, Manchester. John Myers was the Chief Executive Officer, his deputy replaced him in April 2009...

. Central Scotland radio station Galaxy Scotland
Galaxy Scotland
105-106 Capital is a regional radio station broadcasting to Scotland's Central Belt, an area surrounding the two cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, and the kingdom of Fife...

 also broadcast from studios in Glasgow. The city has a strong community radio
Community radio
Community radio is a type of radio service, that offers a third model of radio broadcasting beyond commercial broadcasting and public broadcasting. Community stations can serve geographic communities and communities of interest...

 sector, including Celtic Music Radio
Celtic Music Radio
Celtic Music Radio is a Community Radio station, broadcasting on 1530 kHz AM to the Glasgow and Central Scotland area. It can also be accessed via a...

, Subcity Radio, Radio Magnetic, Sunny Govan Radio, AWAZ FM and Insight Radio.

Religion



Glasgow is a city of significant religious diversity. The Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland
The Church of Scotland, known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is a Presbyterian church, decisively shaped by the Scottish Reformation....

 and the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholicism in Scotland
Roman Catholicism in Scotland , overseen by the Scottish Bishops' Conference, is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, the Christian Church in full communion with the Pope, currently Pope Benedict XVI. After being firmly established in Scotland for a millennium, Catholicism was outlawed following...

 are the two largest Christian denominations in the city. There are 147 congregations in the Church of Scotland's Presbytery of Glasgow
Presbytery of Glasgow (Church of Scotland)
The Presbytery of Glasgow one of the 46 Presbyteries of the Church of Scotland. It dates back to the earliest periods of Presbyterian church government in the Church of Scotland in the late 16th century...

 http://www.presbyteryofglasgow.org.uk/ (of which 104 are within the city boundaries, the other 43 being in adjacent areas such as Giffnock
Giffnock
Giffnock is a wealthy, dormitory suburb of Glasgow in the East Renfrewshire Council area, within the historic county of Renfrewshire in the west central Lowlands of Scotland...

). The city has four Christian cathedral
Cathedral
A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

s: Glasgow Cathedral
Glasgow Cathedral
The church commonly known as Glasgow Cathedral is the Church of Scotland High Kirk of Glasgow otherwise known as St. Mungo's Cathedral.The other cathedrals in Glasgow are:* The Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew...

, of the Church of Scotland; St Andrew's Cathedral, of the Catholic Church; St Mary's Cathedral
St. Mary's Cathedral, Glasgow
The Cathedral Church of St Mary the Virgin is a cathedral of the Scottish Episcopal Church. It is located on the Great Western Road, in the west end of Glasgow, Scotland. The current building was opened on 9 November 1871 as St Mary's Episcopal Church and was completed in 1893 when the spire was...

, of the Scottish Episcopal Church
Scottish Episcopal Church
The Scottish Episcopal Church is a Christian church in Scotland, consisting of seven dioceses. Since the 17th century, it has had an identity distinct from the presbyterian Church of Scotland....

, and St Luke's Cathedral
St Luke's Orthodox Cathedral, Glasgow
St. Luke's Greek Orthodox Cathedral is a cathedral of the Greek Orthodox Church located in the Dowanhill district of Glasgow, Scotland.-Belhaven U.P. Church:...

, of the Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church
The Greek Orthodox Church is the body of several churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity sharing a common cultural tradition whose liturgy is also traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the New Testament...

.

Biblical unitarians
Biblical Unitarianism
Today, biblical Unitarianism identifies the Christian belief that the Bible teaches God is a singular person—the Father—and that Jesus his son is a distinct being...

 are represented by three Christadelphian ecclesias, referred to geographically, as "South", "Central" and "Kelvin".

Glasgow Central Mosque
Glasgow Central Mosque
Glasgow Central Mosque is located on the south bank of the River Clyde in the Gorbals district of central Glasgow.-The Mosque:The Mosque was built in 1983 and was formally opened in 1984 by H E. Abdullah Omar Nasseef, the Secretary General of the Muslim World League...

 in the Gorbals district is the largest mosque in Scotland and, along with twelve other mosques in the city, caters for the city's Muslim population, estimated to number 33,000. Glasgow also has a Hindu Mandir, and a planning permission for a new Sikh Temple was submitted in June 2007. This new temple will complement the existing four Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

 temples (Gurdwaras) in Glasgow with two in the West End (Central Gurdwara Singh Sabha in Finnieston
Finnieston
Finnieston is an area of Glasgow, Scotland, situated on the North bank of the River Clyde and between the city's West End and the city centre. It is home to the SECC, where many musical concerts and important conferences are held...

 and Guru Nanak Sikh Temple in Kelvinbridge
Kelvinbridge
Kelvinbridge is the common name of the Great Western Bridge, a cast iron road and pedestrian bridge built in the 19th century to carry the Great Western Road at a high level across the River Kelvin. West End of the city of Glasgow, Scotland...

) and two in the Southside area of Pollokshields
Pollokshields
Pollokshields is a district in the Southside of Glasgow, Scotland. It is a conservation area which was developed in Victorian times according to a plan promoted by the original landowners, the Stirling-Maxwells of Pollok, whose association with the area goes as far back as...

 (Guru Granth Sahib Gurdwara and Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Gurdwara). There are more than 2,000 Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s in Glasgow, constituting more than one-third of all Sikhs in Scotland.

Glasgow has seven synagogues with the seventh largest Jewish population in the United Kingdom after London, Manchester, Leeds
Leeds
Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. In 2001 Leeds' main urban subdivision had a population of 443,247, while the entire city has a population of 798,800 , making it the 30th-most populous city in the European Union.Leeds is the cultural, financial and commercial...

, Gateshead
Gateshead
Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England and is the main settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. Historically a part of County Durham, it lies on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne and together they form the urban core of Tyneside...

, Brighton
Brighton
Brighton is the major part of the city of Brighton and Hove in East Sussex, England on the south coast of Great Britain...

 and Bournemouth
Bournemouth
Bournemouth is a large coastal resort town in the ceremonial county of Dorset, England. According to the 2001 Census the town has a population of 163,444, making it the largest settlement in Dorset. It is also the largest settlement between Southampton and Plymouth...

, but once had a Jewish population second only to London, estimated at 20,000 in the Gorbals alone.

In 1993, the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art
St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art
The St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art is a museum of religion in Glasgow, Scotland. It is quoted as being the only public museum in the world devoted solely to this subject, though another notable museum of this kind is the State Historical Museum of Religion in St.Petersburg...

 opened in Glasgow. It is believed to be the only public museum to examine all the world's major religious faiths.

Dialect



Glaswegian, otherwise known as the Glasgow patter
Glasgow patter
Glaswegian or The Glasgow Patter is a dialect spoken in and around Glasgow, Scotland. In addition to local West Mid Scots, the dialect has Highland English and Hiberno-English influences, owing to the speech of Highlanders and Irish people, who migrated in large numbers to the Glasgow area in the...

, is a local variety of Scots
Scots language
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster . It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language variety spoken in most of the western Highlands and in the Hebrides.Since there are no universally accepted...

.

Glaswegian is a dialect, more than an alternative pronunciation; words also change their meaning as all over in Scotland, e.g. "away" can mean "leaving" as in A'm away, an instruction to stop being a nuisance as in away wi ye, or "drunk" or "demented" as in he's away wi it. Ginger is a term for any carbonated soft drink (A bottle o ginger, ə ˈboʔl ə ˈdʒɪndʒər). Then there are words whose meaning has no obvious relationship to that in standard English: coupon means "face", via "to punch a ticket coupon". A headbutt
Headbutt
A headbutt is a strike with the head, typically involving the use of robust parts of the cranium as areas of impact. Effective headbutting revolves around striking a sensitive area with a less sensitive area, such as striking the nose of an opponent with the forehead...

 is known in many parts of the British Isles as a "Glasgow kiss", although this term is rarely used by Glaswegians, who say "Malkie", e.g., "ah'll Malkie ye" or "stick the heid/nut on ye".

A speaker of Glaswegian might refer to those originating from the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
The Highlands is an historic region of Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to as the "Scottish Highlands". It was culturally distinguishable from the Lowlands from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands...

 and the Western Isles as teuchter
Teuchter
Teuchter is a Lowland Scots word originally used to describe a Scottish Highlander, , although in modern parlance it is used by urban Scots to describe any rural dweller. Like most such cultural epithets, it can be seen as offensive, but is often seen as amusing by the speaker...

s
, while they would reciprocate by referring to Glaswegians as keelies and those from the East of Scotland refer to Glaswegians as Weegies (or Weedgies).

The long-running TV drama Taggart
Taggart
Taggart is a Scottish detective television programme, created by Glenn Chandler, who has written many of the episodes, and made by STV Productions for the ITV network...

and the comedies Empty, Chewin' the Fat
Chewin' the Fat
Chewin' the Fat is a Scottish comedy sketch show, starring Ford Kiernan, Greg Hemphill and Karen Dunbar. Comedians Paul Riley and Mark Cox also appeared regularly on the show.Chewin' the Fat first started as a radio series on BBC Radio Scotland...

, Rab C. Nesbitt
Rab C. Nesbitt
Rab C. Nesbitt is a Scottish sitcom which began in 1988. Produced by BBC Scotland, it stars Gregor Fisher as an alcoholic Glaswegian who believed unemployment was the life for him...

, Still Game
Still Game
Still Game is a Scottish sitcom, produced by The Comedy Unit with the BBC. It was created by Ford Kiernan and Greg Hemphill, who play the lead characters - two Glaswegian pensioners, named Jack Jarvis and Victor McDade respectively....

and Dear Green Place
Dear Green Place
Dear Green Place is a Scottish comedy programme set in a park in central Glasgow. It first aired on 19 October 2007 on BBC One Scotland. The second series has just finished airing on the same channel....

depict the Glaswegian patois
Patois
Patois is any language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics. It can refer to pidgins, creoles, dialects, and other forms of native or local speech, but not commonly to jargon or slang, which are vocabulary-based forms of cant...

, while Craig Ferguson
Craig Ferguson
Craig Ferguson is a Scottish American television host, stand-up comedian, writer, actor, director, author, and producer. He is the host of The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson, an Emmy Award-nominated, Peabody Award-winning late-night talk show that airs on CBS...

 and Billy Connolly
Billy Connolly
William "Billy" Connolly, Jr., CBE is a Scottish comedian, musician, presenter and actor. He is sometimes known, especially in his native Scotland, by the nickname The Big Yin...

 have made Glaswegian humour known to the rest of the world.

Architecture


Very little of medieval Glasgow remains; the two main landmarks from this period being the 15th century Provand's Lordship
Provand's Lordship
The Provand's Lordship located in Glasgow, Scotland, today stands as a medieval-period historic house museum located at the top of Castle Street in the shadow of the Glasgow Cathedral and Glasgow Royal Infirmary....

 and 13th century St. Mungo's Cathedral. The vast majority of the city as seen today dates from the 19th century. As a result, Glasgow has an impressive heritage of Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

: the Glasgow City Chambers
Glasgow City Chambers
The City Chambers in Glasgow, Scotland has functioned as the headquarters of Glasgow City Council since 1996, and of preceding forms of civic government in the city since 1889, located on the eastern side of the city's George Square...

; the main building of the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott
George Gilbert Scott
Sir George Gilbert Scott was an English architect of the Victorian Age, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches, cathedrals and workhouses...

; and the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow, Scotland. The building houses one of Europe's great civic art collections...

, designed by Sir John W. Simpson
John William Simpson (architect)
Sir John William Simpson KBE, FRIBA was an English architect and was President of the Royal Institute of British Architects from 1919 to 1921.- Background and early life :...

 are notable examples.

The city is notable for architecture designed by the Glasgow School
Glasgow School
The Glasgow School was a circle of influential modern artists and designers who began to coalesce in Glasgow, Scotland in the 1870s, and flourished from the 1890s to sometime around 1910. Representative groups were: The Four , the Glasgow Girls and the Glasgow Boys...

, the most notable exponent of that style being Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh was a Scottish architect, designer, watercolourist and artist. He was a designer in the Arts and Crafts movement and also the main representative of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom. He had a considerable influence on European design...

. Mackintosh was an architect and designer in the Arts and Crafts Movement
Arts and Crafts movement
Arts and Crafts was an international design philosophy that originated in England and flourished between 1860 and 1910 , continuing its influence until the 1930s...

 and the main exponent of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

 in the United Kingdom, designing numerous noted Glasgow buildings such as the Glasgow School of Art
Glasgow School of Art
Glasgow School of Art is one of only two independent art schools in Scotland, situated in the Garnethill area of Glasgow.-History:It was founded in 1845 as the Glasgow Government School of Design. In 1853, it changed its name to The Glasgow School of Art. Initially it was located at 12 Ingram...

, Willow Tearooms
Willow Tearooms
The Willow Tearooms are tearooms at 217 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow, Scotland, designed by internationally renowned architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh, which opened for business in October 1903...

 and the Scotland Street School Museum
Scotland Street School Museum
Scotland Street School Museum is a museum of school education in Glasgow, Scotland, in the district of Tradeston. It is located in a former school built by Charles Rennie Mackintosh between 1903 and 1906. The building is one of Glasgow's foremost architectural attractions...

. A hidden gem of Glasgow, also designed by Mackintosh, is the Queen's Cross Church, the only church by the renowned artist to be built.

Another architect who had an enduring impact on the city's appearance was Alexander Thomson
Alexander Thomson
Alexander "Greek" Thomson was an eminent Scottish architect and architectural theorist who was a pioneer in sustainable building. Although his work was published in the architectural press of his day, it was little appreciated outwith Glasgow during his lifetime...

, with notable examples including the Holmwood House
Holmwood House
Holmwood House is the finest and most elaborate residential villa designed byScottish architect Alexander "Greek" Thomson.It is also rare in retaining much of its original interior decor, and being open to the public....

 villa.

The buildings reflect the wealth and self confidence of the residents of the "Second City of the Empire". Glasgow generated immense wealth from trade and the industries that developed from the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

. The shipyard
Shipyard
Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial...

s, marine engineering
Naval architecture
Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction, maintenance and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a...

, steel making, and heavy industry
Heavy industry
Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning as compared to light industry. It can mean production of products which are either heavy in weight or in the processes leading to their production. In general, it is a popular term used within the name of many Japanese and Korean firms, meaning...

 all contributed to the growth of the city.

Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built with red or blond sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

, but during the industrial era those colours disappeared under a pervasive black layer of soot and pollutants from the furnace
Furnace
A furnace is a device used for heating. The name derives from Latin fornax, oven.In American English and Canadian English, the term furnace on its own is generally used to describe household heating systems based on a central furnace , and sometimes as a synonym for kiln, a device used in the...

s, until the Clean Air Act
Clean Air Act
A Clean Air Act is one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of airborne contaminants, smog and air pollution in general. The use by governments to enforce clean air standards has contributed to an improvement in human health and longer life spans...

 was introduced in 1956. In recent years many of these buildings have been cleaned and restored to their original appearance.

Modern buildings in Glasgow include the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall
Glasgow Royal Concert Hall
Glasgow Royal Concert Hall is an arts venue, in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is operated by Glasgow Life, an agency of Glasgow City Council, which also runs Glasgow’s City Halls and Old Fruitmarket venue...

, and along the banks of the Clyde are the Glasgow Science Centre
Glasgow Science Centre
Glasgow Science Centre is a visitor attraction located on the south bank of the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. It is a purpose-built science centre composed of three principal buildings which are the Science Mall, an IMAX cinema and the Glasgow Tower...

 and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre , located on the north bank of the River Clyde, in Glasgow, is Scotland's largest exhibition centre....

, whose Clyde Auditorium
Clyde Auditorium
The Clyde Auditorium, familiarly known as "The Armadillo", is an iconic concert venue in Glasgow, Scotland. The building sits on the site of the now infilled Queen's Dock on the River Clyde, adjacent to the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre....

 was designed by Sir Norman Foster, and is affectionately known as the "Armadillo
Armadillo
Armadillos are New World placental mammals, known for having a leathery armor shell. Dasypodidae is the only surviving family in the order Cingulata, part of the superorder Xenarthra along with the anteaters and sloths. The word armadillo is Spanish for "little armored one"...

". In 2006 Zaha Hadid
Zaha Hadid
Zaha Hadid, CBE is an Iraqi-British architect.-Life and career:Hadid was born in 1950 in Baghdad, Iraq. She received a degree in mathematics from the American University of Beirut before moving to study at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London.After graduating she worked...

 won a competition to design the new Museum of Transport
Glasgow Museum of Transport
The Glasgow Museum of Transport in Glasgow, Scotland was established in 1964 and initially located at a former tram depot in Pollokshields. From 1987 the museum was relocated to the city's Kelvin Hall...

. Hadid's museum opened on the waterfront in 2011 and has been renamed the Riverside Museum
Riverside Museum
The Riverside Museum is a new development for the Glasgow Museum of Transport, completed on 20 June 2011, at Pointhouse Quay in the Glasgow Harbour regeneration district of Glasgow, Scotland. The next day it opened to the public.-Concept and design:...

 to reflect the change in location and to celebrate Glasgow's rich industrial heritage stemming from the Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

.

Glasgow's impressive historical and modern architectural traditions were celebrated in 1999 when the city was designated UK City of Architecture and Design, winning the accolade over Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

 and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

.

Economy



Glasgow has the largest economy in Scotland
Economy of Scotland
The economy of Scotland is closely linked with the rest of the United Kingdom and the wider European Economic Area. Scotland has the second largest GVA per capita of countries in the United Kingdom after England, though it is still lower than the average of the United Kingdom as a whole...

 and is at the hub of the metropolitan area of West Central Scotland. Glasgow also has the third highest GDP Per capita of any city in the UK (after London and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

). The city itself sustains more than 410,000 jobs in over 12,000 companies. Over 153,000 jobs were created in the city between 2000 and 2005 — a growth rate of 32%. Glasgow's annual economic growth rate of 4.4% is now second only to that of London. In 2005, over 17,000 new jobs were created, and 2006 saw private-sector investment in the city reaching £4.2 billion pounds, an increase of 22% in a single year. 55% of the residents in the Greater Glasgow
Greater Glasgow
Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area...

 area commute to the city every day. Once dominant export orientated manufacturing industries such as shipbuilding and other heavy engineering have been gradually replaced in importance by more diversified forms of economic activity, although major manufacturing firms continue to be headquartered in the city, such as Aggreko
Aggreko
Aggreko plc is the world's largest temporary power generation company, and a major supplier of temperature control equipment. It is headquartered in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom....

, Weir Group
Weir Group
The Weir Group plc is an engineering company headquartered in East Kilbride, Scotland. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.-History:...

, Clyde Blowers
Jim McColl
James Allan "Jim" McColl OBE is a Scottish businessman and entrepreneur. He is responsible for the development of Clyde Blowers plc. In 2007, he was placed tenth on the Sunday Times Rich List in Scotland...

, Howden
James Howden
James Howden was a Scottish engineer and inventor who is noted for his invention of the Howden forced draught system for steam boilers.-Life:...

, Linn Products
Linn Products
Linn Products is a Scottish company, based in Glasgow, that manufactures hi-fi audio equipment, home theatre, and multi-room integrated audio systems...

, Firebrand Games
Firebrand Games
Firebrand Games is a video game development company with studios in Glasgow, Scotland, Florida, USA, and Baton Rouge, USA. The team specialises in the production of racing games. Firebrand Games was founded and is run by Mark Greenshields who has been in the games industry his entire career...

, William Grant & Sons
William Grant & Sons
William Grant & Sons Ltd. is an independent, family-owned Scottish company which distills Scotch whisky and other selected categories of spirits. It was established in 1887 by William Grant, and is now run by the descendants of the founder. It is the largest of the handful of Scotch whisky...

, Whyte and Mackay
Whyte and Mackay
Whyte and Mackay Ltd is a Scottish company producing alcoholic beverages. It was founded in 1844 and is based in Glasgow. Since May 2007, Whyte and Mackay has been owned by United Breweries Group, a large Indian conglomerate....

, The Edrington Group
The Edrington Group
The Edrington Group Limited is a major Scotch whisky company involved in blending, bottling, distributing and marketing. It produces several well-known brands, including The Famous Grouse and Cutty Sark, and premium single malts The Macallan and Highland Park...

, British Polar Engines
British Polar Engines
British Polar Engines is a manufacturer of diesel engines based in Glasgow, Scotland. The company has over seventy years' experience in the manufacture and supply of spare parts for diesel engines...

 and Albion Motors
Albion Motors
Albion Automotive of Scotstoun, Glasgow is a former Scottish automobile and commercial vehicle manufacturer, currently involved in the manufacture and supply of Automotive component systems....

.

Glasgow was once one of the most significant cities in the UK for manufacturing, which generated a great deal of the city's wealth; the most prominent industry being shipbuilding based on the River Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

. Although Glasgow owed much of its economic growth to the shipbuilding industry, which still continues today in the form of BAE Systems Surface Ships' two shipyards, the city has its roots in the tobacco trade and is noted to have "risen from its medieval slumber" from trade in tobacco, pioneered by figures such as John Glassford
John Glassford
John Glassford of Dougalston and Whitehill was a Scottish Tobacco Lord, considered by his contemporaries to be the greatest of the era. He owned tobacco plantations in Virginia and Maryland.-Background and family:...

. The city was also noted for its locomotive construction industry — led by firms such as the North British Locomotive Company
North British Locomotive Company
The North British Locomotive Company was created in 1903 through the merger of three Glasgow locomotive manufacturing companies; Sharp Stewart and Company , Neilson, Reid and Company and Dübs and Company , creating the largest locomotive manufacturing company in Europe.Its main factories were...

 — which grew during the 19th century before entering a decline in the 1960s.


Whilst manufacturing has declined, Glasgow's economy has seen significant relative growth of tertiary sector industries such as financial and business services, communications, biosciences, creative industries, healthcare, higher education, retail and tourism. Glasgow is now the second most popular foreign tourist destination in Scotland (fourth in the UK) and its largest retail centre.

Between 1998 and 2001, the city's financial services sector grew at a rate of 30%, making considerable gains on Edinburgh, which has historically been the centre of the Scottish financial sector. Glasgow is now one of Europe's sixteen largest financial centres, with a growing number of Blue chip financial sector companies establishing significant operations or headquarters in the city.

The 1990s and first decade of the 21st century saw substantial growth in the number of call centre
Call centre
A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. A call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. Outgoing calls for telemarketing,...

s based in Glasgow. In 2007 roughly 20,000 people, a third of all call centre employees in Scotland, were employed by Glasgow call centres. This growth and its high use of recruitment agencies to hire graduates as temporary workers has led to accusations of exploitative practices such as long hours, poor pay and lack of job security by the TUC
Trades Union Congress
The Trades Union Congress is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in the United Kingdom, representing the majority of trade unions...

 and other union bodies. In recent years some call centres have taken steps to rectify this criticism.

The city's main manufacturing industries include companies involved in; shipbuilding, engineering, construction, brewing and distilling, printing and publishing, chemicals and textiles as well as newer growth sectors such as optoelectronics
Optoelectronics
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics. In this context, light often includes invisible forms of radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet and infrared, in addition to visible light...

, software development
Software development
Software development is the development of a software product...

 and biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

. Glasgow forms the western part of the Silicon Glen
Silicon Glen
Silicon Glen is a nickname for the high tech sector of Scotland. It is applied to the Central Belt triangle between Dundee, Inverclyde and Edinburgh, which includes Fife, Glasgow and Stirling; although electronics facilities outside this area may also be included in the term. The term has been in...

 high tech sector of Scotland.

Public transport



Glasgow has a large urban transport system, mostly managed by the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport
Strathclyde Partnership for Transport
The Strathclyde Partnership for Transport is a public body which is responsible for planning and co-ordinating regional transport, and especially the public transport system, in the Strathclyde area of western Scotland...

 (SPT).

The city has many bus services; since bus deregulation almost all are provided by private operators though SPT part-funds some services. The principal bus operators within the city are: First Glasgow
First Glasgow
First Glasgow is the largest bus company serving the Greater Glasgow area in, Scotland. It forms part of FirstGroup, a company operating transport services across the British Isles and in North America...

, Arriva Scotland West
Arriva Scotland West
Arriva Scotland West Ltd is a bus operating subsidiary of Arriva based in Inchinnan, near Paisley, Scotland, trading simply as Arriva. It is currently the group's sole operation in Scotland.-Operation:...

, Stagecoach West Scotland
Stagecoach West Scotland
Stagecoach West Scotland is an operating region of Stagecoach UK Bus, comprising Western Buses Ltd and Stagecoach Glasgow Ltd, based in Ayr, Scotland.-Operation:...

 and Glasgow Citybus
Glasgow Citybus
Glasgow Citybus is a Scottish bus operator, operating a number of bus routes throughout Greater Glasgow, primarily in Glasgow and Dunbartonshire...

. The main bus terminal in the city is Buchanan bus station
Buchanan bus station
Buchanan Bus Station is the main bus terminus in Glasgow, Scotland.The bus station is the terminus for journeys between the city and other towns in United Kingdom and international journeys. It was originally built in 1977, close to the former site of Buchanan Street railway station which was...

.

Glasgow has the most extensive urban rail network in the UK outside of London with rail services travelling to a large part of the West of Scotland
Strathclyde
right|thumb|the former Strathclyde regionStrathclyde was one of nine former local government regions of Scotland created by the Local Government Act 1973 and abolished in 1996 by the Local Government etc Act 1994...

. All trains running within Scotland, including the local Glasgow trains, are operated by First ScotRail
First ScotRail
ScotRail Railways Ltd. is the FirstGroup-owned train operating company running domestic passenger trains within Scotland, northern England and the cross-border Caledonian Sleeper service to London using the brand ScotRail which is the property of the Scottish Government...

, who own the franchise as determined by the Scottish Government. Central Station
Glasgow Central station
Glasgow Central is the larger of the two present main-line railway terminals in Glasgow, the largest city in Scotland. The station was opened by the Caledonian Railway on 31 July 1879 and is currently managed by Network Rail...

 and Queen Street Station
Glasgow Queen Street railway station
Glasgow Queen Street is a railway station in Glasgow, Scotland, the smaller of the city's two main line railway termini and the third-busiest station in Scotland. It is between George Street to the south and Cathedral Street Bridge to the north, at the northern end of Queen Street adjacent to...

 are the two main railway terminals. Glasgow Central is the terminus of the 641.6 kilometres (398.7 mi) long West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
The West Coast Main Line is the busiest mixed-traffic railway route in Britain, being the country's most important rail backbone in terms of population served. Fast, long-distance inter-city passenger services are provided between London, the West Midlands, the North West, North Wales and the...

 from London Euston. All services to and from England use this station. Glasgow Central is also the terminus for suburban services on the south side of Glasgow, Ayrshire and Inverclyde, as well as being served by the cross city link from Dalmuir to Motherwell. Most other services within Scotland — the main line to Edinburgh, plus services to Aberdeen, Dundee, Inverness and the Western Highlands — operate from Queen Street station.

The city's suburban network is currently divided by the River Clyde, and the Crossrail Glasgow initiative has been proposed to link them; it is currently awaiting funding from the Scottish Government. The city is linked to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...

 by four direct railway links. In addition to the suburban rail network, SPT operates the Glasgow Subway
Glasgow Subway
The Glasgow Subway is an underground metro line in Glasgow, Scotland. Opened on 14 December 1896, it is the third-oldest underground metro system in the world after the London Underground and the Budapest Metro. Formerly a cable railway, the Subway was later electrified, but its twin circular lines...

. The Subway is the United Kingdom's only completely underground metro
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system, and is generally recognised as the world's third underground railway after the London Underground
London Underground
The London Underground is a rapid transit system serving a large part of Greater London and some parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Essex in England...

 and the Budapest Metro
Budapest Metro
The Budapest Metro is the rapid transit system in the Hungarian capital Budapest. It is the second-oldest underground metro system in the world after the London Underground. Its iconic Line 1, dating from 1896, was declared a World Heritage Site in 2002.-Lines:The Metro consists of three lines,...

. Both rail and subway stations have a number of park and ride
Park and ride
Park and ride facilities are car parks with connections to public transport that allow commuters and other people wishing to travel into city centres to leave their vehicles and transfer to a bus, rail system , or carpool for the rest of their trip...

 facilities.

As part of the wider regeneration along the banks of the River Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

, a Pre-Tram System, using dedicated bus lanes, called Clyde Fastlink
Clyde Fastlink
Clyde FastLink is a proposed high frequency dedicated bus link in Glasgow, United Kingdom. It is planned to run between Glasgow city centre and several local and regional destinations, including Glasgow Harbour, the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre and Renfrew. The scheme is being led by...

 is currently under construction.

Shipping


Ferries used to link opposite sides of the Clyde in Glasgow but they have been rendered near-obsolete, by bridges and tunnels including the Erskine Bridge
Erskine Bridge
The Erskine Bridge is a cable-stayed box girder bridge spanning the River Clyde in west central Scotland, connecting West Dunbartonshire with Renfrewshire....

, Kingston Bridge
Kingston Bridge, Glasgow
The Kingston Bridge is a balanced cantilever dual-span ten lane road bridge made of triple-cell segmented prestressed concrete box girders crossing the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. The largest urban bridge in the United Kingdom, it carries the M8 motorway through the city centre...

, and the Clyde Tunnel
Clyde Tunnel
The Clyde Tunnel is a crossing beneath the River Clyde in Glasgow, Scotland. Two parallel tunnel tubes connect the districts of Whiteinch to the north and Govan to the south in the west of the city.-History:...

. The only remaining crossings are the Renfrew Ferry
Renfrew Ferry
The Renfrew Ferry is a passenger ferry service linking the north and south banks of the River Clyde in Scotland. The service, operated by Clydelink without subsidy, crosses between Renfrew and Yoker, close to Glasgow City Centre and the last Clyde crossing this far upstream.-History:Originally the...

 between Renfrew
Renfrew
-Local government:The town of Renfrew gave its name to a number of local government areas used at various times:*Renfrew a town to the west of Glasgow*Renfrewshire, the present unitary local council area in which Renfrew is situatated....

 and Yoker
Yoker
Yoker is a western district of Glasgow, in Scotland, UK, lying on the northern bank of the Clyde to the east of Clydebank. It is located approximately 5 miles west of the City Centre. From the fourteenth century a ferry has linked Yoker with the burgh of Renfrew on the south bank...

, and the Kilcreggan Ferry in Inverclyde
Inverclyde
Inverclyde is one of 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Together with the Renfrewshire and East Renfrewshire council areas, Inverclyde forms part of the historic county of Renfrewshire - which current exists as a registration county and lieutenancy area - located in the west...

, both run by SPT but outwith the city boundary. The PS Waverley
PS Waverley
PS Waverley is the last seagoing passenger carrying paddle steamer in the world. Built in 1946, she sailed from Craigendoran on the Firth of Clyde to Arrochar on Loch Long until 1973...

, the world's last operational seagoing paddle-steamer
Paddle steamer
A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat, powered by a steam engine, using paddle wheels to propel it through the water. In antiquity, Paddle wheelers followed the development of poles, oars and sails, where the first uses were wheelers driven by animals or humans...

, provides services from Glasgow city Centre, mainly catering to the pleasure cruise market. A regular waterbus
Water taxi
A water taxi or water bus, also known as a commuter boat, is a watercraft used to provide public transport, usually but not always in an urban environment. Service may be scheduled with multiple stops, operating in a similar manner to a bus, or on demand to many locations, operating in a similar...

 service links the city Centre with Braehead
Braehead
Braehead is a commercial development located at the former site of Braehead Power Station in Renfrew on the south bank of the River Clyde in Renfrewshire. It is particularly notable for its large shopping centre, arena and leisure facilities....

 in Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire is one of 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Located in the west central Lowlands, it is one of three council areas contained within the boundaries of the historic county of Renfrewshire, the others being Inverclyde to the west and East Renfrewshire to the east...

, some 30 minutes downstream. A service by Loch Lomond Seaplanes
Loch Lomond Seaplanes
Loch Lomond Seaplanes is an airline based in Scotland. After receiving approval from the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority and Clydeport to launch services from Glasgow Seaplane Terminal, by Glasgow's Science Centre on the River Clyde in Glasgow city centre its maiden scheduled service from...

, connecting the city with destinations in Argyll and Bute
Argyll and Bute
Argyll and Bute is both one of 32 unitary council areas; and a Lieutenancy area in Scotland. The administrative centre for the council area is located in Lochgilphead.Argyll and Bute covers the second largest administrative area of any Scottish council...

 started in 2007. The only operational dock left in Glasgow operated by Clydeport
Peel Group
The Peel Group is a diversified real estate, transport and infrastructure investment company in the United Kingdom. It has assets owned and under management approaching £6 billion...

 is the King George V Dock
King George V Dock, Glasgow
King George V Dock is a dock for ocean-going vessels operated by the Clyde Port Authority in the Govan area of Glasgow in the west central Lowlands of Scotland...

, near Braehead. Since the advent of Containerization
Containerization
Containerization is a system of freight transport based on a range of steel intermodal containers...

, most other facilities, such as Hunterston Terminal
Hunterston Terminal
Hunterston Terminal, in North Ayrshire, Scotland, is a coal-handling port located at Fairlie on the Firth of Clyde, and operated by Clydeport. It lies adjacent to Hunterston estate, site of Hunterston Castle....

 are located in the deep waters of the Firth of Clyde, which together handle some 7.5 million tonnes of cargo each year. Longer distant commercial sea shipping from Glasgow occurs regularly to many European destinations including Mediterranean and Baltic ports via passage through the Sea of the Hebrides
Sea of the Hebrides
The Sea of the Hebrides is a portion of the North Atlantic Ocean, located off the coast of western Scotland, separating the mainland and the northern Inner Hebrides islands from the southern Outer Hebrides islands...

.

Roads



The main M8 motorway passes through the city centre and connects to the M77
M77 motorway
The M77 motorway is a motorway in Scotland. It originally began in southern Glasgow at the M8 motorway at Kinning park, and terminates near Kilmarnock at the village of Fenwick. However, changes were made in autumn 2005 segregating a lane on the M8 motorway almost as far as the Kingston Bridge,...

, M73
M73 motorway
The M73 is a motorway in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. It is long and connects the M74 motorway with the M80 motorway, providing an eastern bypass for Glasgow. The short stretch between Junctions 1 and 2 is part of unsigned international E-road network E05, where it continues along the M8 through...

, and M80
M80 motorway
The M80 is a motorway in central Scotland, running through Glasgow, North Lanarkshire, Falkirk and Stirling and links the M8, the M73 and M9 motorways. Following completion in 2011, this road is long. From 1992 - 2011, the road was in two sections; the southern section, Glasgow to Stepps and the...

 motorways. The A82
A82 road
The A82 is a trunk road in Scotland. It is the principal route from Lowland Scotland to the western Scottish Highlands, running from Glasgow to Inverness, going by Loch Lomond, Glen Coe and Fort William. It is the second longest primary A-road in Scotland after the A9, which is the other...

 connects the city to Argyll
Argyll and Bute
Argyll and Bute is both one of 32 unitary council areas; and a Lieutenancy area in Scotland. The administrative centre for the council area is located in Lochgilphead.Argyll and Bute covers the second largest administrative area of any Scottish council...

 and the western Highlands
Scottish Highlands
The Highlands is an historic region of Scotland. The area is sometimes referred to as the "Scottish Highlands". It was culturally distinguishable from the Lowlands from the later Middle Ages into the modern period, when Lowland Scots replaced Scottish Gaelic throughout most of the Lowlands...

. The M74 runs directly south towards Carlisle; the M74 completion scheme has extended the motorway from Tollcross
Tollcross, Glasgow
Tollcross is an area north of the River Clyde in Glasgow and has a popular park which is famed for its international rose trials. It lies approximately a mile east of the neighbouring suburb of Parkhead, and just north of Braidfauld and south of Shettleston....

 into the Tradeston
Tradeston
Tradeston is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow adjacent to the city centre on the south bank of the River Clyde.-Geography:Tradeston is bounded by the River Clyde to the north, the Glasgow to Paisley railway line on the east and south and the Kingston Bridge and M8 motorway to the west...

 area to join the M8.

Other road projects in the city include East End Regeneration Route
Glasgow East End Regeneration Route
The Glasgow East End Regeneration Route is a new road in the East End of Glasgow, Scotland. Currently under construction, the first phase was opened in 2011 with the second phase planned to open in 2012...

, which aims to provide easier access to deprived areas of the East End by linking the M8 to the extended M74.

Airports


The city is served by two international airports and a seaplane terminal: Glasgow International Airport
Glasgow International Airport
Glasgow International Airport is an international airport in Scotland, located west of Glasgow city centre, near the towns of Paisley and Renfrew in Renfrewshire...

 (GLA) (13 km (8 mi) west of the city centre), Glasgow Prestwick International Airport
Glasgow Prestwick International Airport
Glasgow Prestwick Airport is an international airport serving the Greater Glasgow urban area, situated northeast of the town of Prestwick in South Ayrshire and 32 miles from the city centre of Glasgow....

 (PIK) which is approximately 30 miles (48.3 km) south west of Glasgow in Ayrshire and Glasgow Seaplane Terminal
Glasgow Seaplane Terminal
Glasgow Seaplane Terminal is a new seaplane airport terminal in Glasgow, Scotland. It opened in August 2007.The terminal is located on Pacific Quay by the Glasgow Science Centre, on the River Clyde, in the city centre...

, by the Glasgow Science Centre on the River Clyde. There is also a small airfield at Cumbernauld
Cumbernauld Airport
Cumbernauld Airport is located northeast of Glasgow at Cumbernauld in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. The airport is primarily used for the training of fixed wing and rotary wing pilots, it also boasts a helicopter charter company and a light aircraft charter operation along with aircraft...

 (29 km (18 mi) to the north-east) and Glasgow City Heliport
Glasgow City Heliport
Glasgow City Heliport is a heliport located in Glasgow, Scotland, approximately from the City Centre. The Heliport is located at Stobcross Quay, within the grounds of the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre and directly across the River Clyde from the Glasgow Science Centre and BBC...

 located at Stobcross Quay on the banks of the Clyde. A plan to provide a direct rail link to Glasgow International was dropped with the cancelling of the Glasgow Airport Rail Link in 2009.

Housing



Glasgow is known for its tenements. These were the most popular form of housing in 19th- and 20th-century Glasgow and remain the most common form of dwelling in Glasgow today. Tenements are commonly bought by a wide range of social types and are favoured for their large rooms, high ceilings and original period features. The Hyndland
Hyndland
Hyndland is a residential area in the West End of the city of Glasgow, Scotland.Bordering the Broomhill, Maryhill, Dowanhill, Kelvinside and Partickhill areas, it is a middle-class area populated mainly by professionals and young bourgeois bohemians including a number of noted authors, poets,...

 area of Glasgow is the only tenement conservation area in the UK and includes some tenement houses with as many as six bedrooms.
Like many cities in the UK, Glasgow witnessed the construction of high-rise housing in tower block
Tower block
A tower block, high-rise, apartment tower, office tower, apartment block, or block of flats, is a tall building or structure used as a residential and/or office building...

s in the 1960s, along with large overspill estate
Overspill estate
An overspill estate is a housing estate planned and built for the rehousing of people from decaying inner city areas usually as part of the process of slum clearance....

s on the periphery of the city, in areas like Pollok
Pollok
Pollok is a large district on the south-western side of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It was built to house families from the overcrowded inner city...

, Nitshill
Nitshill
Nitshill is a district on the south side of Glasgow. It is north of South Nitshill, south of Crookston, and southwest of Silverburn and Pollok. Nitshill was originally a coal mining village...

, Castlemilk
Castlemilk
Castlemilk is a district of Glasgow, Scotland. It lies to the south of the city adjacent to Rutherglen, Croftfoot, Simshill and the separate village of Carmunnock...

, Easterhouse
Easterhouse
Easterhouse is a suburb about east of Glasgow city centre, Scotland. It was partially built on land gained from the county of Lanarkshire as part of a boundary expansion of Glasgow before the Second World War. Building began in the mid-1950s by the then local authority, Glasgow Corporation...

, Milton
Milton, Glasgow
Milton is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde.Building on Milton in Glasgow started in the late 1940s as part of a general post-war construction programme by Glasgow Corporation to deal with the housing shortage and slum clearances.The housing scheme...

 and Drumchapel
Drumchapel
Drumchapel , known to locals and residents as 'The Drum', is part of the city of Glasgow, Scotland, having been annexed from Dunbartonshire in 1938. It borders Bearsden to the east and Clydebank to the west . The area is bordered by Knightswood and Yoker in Glasgow. The name derives from the...

. These were built to replace the decaying inner-city tenement buildings originally built for workers who migrated from the surrounding countryside, the Highlands, and the rest of the United Kingdom, particularly Ireland, in order to feed the local demand for labour. The massive demand outstripped new building and many, originally fine, tenements often became overcrowded and unsanitary. Many degenerated into the infamous Glasgow slum
Slum
A slum, as defined by United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security. According to the United Nations, the percentage of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the...

s, such as the Gorbals.

Efforts to improve this housing situation, most successfully with the City Improvement Trust in the late 19th century, cleared the slums of the old town areas such as the Trongate
Trongate
Trongate is one of the oldest streets in the city of Glasgow, Scotland.Located in the area of the Merchant City commonly known as "Old Glasgow", it is the main route into the central area from the East End...

, High Street
High Street (Glasgow)
High Street in Glasgow, Scotland is the city's oldest and one of its most historically significant streets.Originally the city's main street in medieval times, it formed a direct north-south artery between the Cathedral of St...

 and Glasgow Cross
Glasgow Cross
Glasgow Cross is a major junction in the city centre of Glasgow, which has, at its centre, five streets running from it: the High Street, Gallowgate, London Road, the Saltmarket and the Trongate ....

. Subsequent urban renewal
Urban renewal
Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in areas of moderate to high density urban land use. Renewal has had both successes and failures. Its modern incarnation began in the late 19th century in developed nations and experienced an intense phase in the late 1940s – under the rubric of...

 initiatives, such as those motivated by the Bruce Report
Bruce Report
The Bruce Report is the name commonly given to two urban redevelopment reports of the Glasgow Corporation ....

, entailed the comprehensive demolition of slum tenement areas, the development of new towns
New towns in the United Kingdom
Below is a list of some of the new towns in the United Kingdom created under the various New Town Acts of the 20th century. Some earlier towns were developed as Garden Cities or overspill estates early in the twentieth century. The New Towns proper were planned to disperse population following the...

 on the periphery of the city, and the construction of tower blocks.

The policy of tenement demolition is now considered to have been short-sighted, wasteful and largely unsuccessful. Many of Glasgow's worst tenements were refurbished into desirable accommodation in the 1970s and 1980s and the policy of demolition is considered to have destroyed many fine examples of a "universally admired architectural" style. The Glasgow Housing Association
Glasgow Housing Association
Glasgow Housing Association is one of the largest social landlords in the UK, with more than 50,000 tenants and 26,500 factored homeowners across Glasgow....

 took ownership of the housing stock from the city council on 7 March 2003, and has begun a £96 million clearance and demolition programme to clear and demolish many of the high-rise flats.

Healthcare



Medical care is mainly provided by NHS Scotland
NHS Scotland
NHS Scotland is the publicly funded healthcare system of Scotland. Although they are separate bodies the organisational separation between NHS Scotland and the other three healthcare organisations each commonly called the National Health Service in the United Kingdom tends to be hidden from its...

 and is directly administered by NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde.

Major hospitals, including those with Accident & Emergency
Emergency department
An emergency department , also known as accident & emergency , emergency room , emergency ward , or casualty department is a medical treatment facility specialising in acute care of patients who present without prior appointment, either by their own means or by ambulance...

 provision, are: the Western Infirmary
Western Infirmary
The Western Infirmary is a teaching hospital situated in the West End of Glasgow, Scotland. There is also a Maggie's centre at the hospital to help cancer patients, as well as the Glasgow Clinical Research Facility....

, Gartnavel General Hospital
Gartnavel General Hospital
Gartnavel General Hospital is a teaching hospital in the West End of Glasgow, Scotland. The hospital is located next to the Great Western Road, between Hyndland, Anniesland and Kelvindale. Hyndland railway station is adjacent to the hospital. The name Gartnavel is derived from the Gaelic Gart ...

 and the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in the West End, Glasgow Royal Infirmary
Glasgow Royal Infirmary
The Glasgow Royal Infirmary is a large teaching hospital, operated by NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde,. With a capacity of around 1000 beds, the hospital campus covers an area of around 20 acres, situated on the north-eastern edge of the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.-History:Designed by Robert...

 and the Dental Hospital
Glasgow Dental Hospital and School
The Glasgow Dental Hospital and School is a dental teaching hospital, situated in the Garnethill area of the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland.Dental students have been educated in Glasgow since 1879, and the Dental School began issuing the Bachelor of Dental Surgery Degree of the University of...

 in the city Centre, Stobhill Hospital
Stobhill Hospital
Stobhill Hospital is an Ambulatory Care and Diagnostic Hospital, located in the district of Springburn in the north of Glasgow, Scotland. It serves the population of North Glasgow and part of East Dunbartonshire.-History:...

 in the North and the Victoria Infirmary
Glasgow Victoria Infirmary
The Glasgow Victoria Infirmary is a teaching hospital with an acute operational bed complement of approximately 370. The hospital is situated at Langside in the south-east of Glasgow, providing a range of high quality health care services including Accident and Emergency, General Medicine , General...

 and Southern General Hospital
Southern General Hospital
The Southern General Hospital is a large teaching hospital with an acute operational bed complement of approximately 900 beds. The Hospital is located in Linthouse in the south west of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom and provides a comprehensive range of acute and related clinical...

 in the South Side.

There is also an emergency telephone service provided by NHS 24 and 24 hour access to General Practitioners
General practitioner
A general practitioner is a medical practitioner who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. They have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues and comorbidities...

 through Out of hours centres. Paramedic
Paramedic
A paramedic is a healthcare professional that works in emergency medical situations. Paramedics provide advanced levels of care for medical emergencies and trauma. The majority of paramedics are based in the field in ambulances, emergency response vehicles, or in specialist mobile units such as...

 services are provided by the Scottish Ambulance Service
Scottish Ambulance Service
The Scottish Ambulance Service is part of NHS Scotland, and serves all of Scotland. It is a Special Health Board funded directly by the Scottish Government Health Department....

 and supported by voluntary bodies like the St. Andrew's Ambulance Association
St. Andrew's Ambulance Association
St Andrew's First Aid is a first aid charity based in Scotland. Founded in 1882, St Andrew's was Scotland's first ambulance service. Now a voluntary organisation it uses the brand "St Andrew's First Aid" and seeks to preserve the lives of people in Scotland by through the provision of education...

. A strong Teaching
Teaching hospital
A teaching hospital is a hospital that provides clinical education and training to future and current doctors, nurses, and other health professionals, in addition to delivering medical care to patients...

 tradition is maintained between the city's main hospitals and the University of Glasgow Medical School.

All Pharmacies provide a wide range of services including minor ailment advice, emergency hormonal contraception, public health aradvice, some provide oxygen and needle exchange.

There are private clinics and hospitals at the Nuffield
Nuffield Health
Nuffield Health is a non-profit organisation in the United Kingdom, established in 1957, which operates a range of health and wellbeing facilities including Nuffield Health Hospitals and Nuffield Health Fitness & Wellbeing Centres.It is independent of the National Health Service and is constituted...

 in the West end and Ross Hall in the South Side of the city.

Academia


Glasgow is a major centre of higher and academic research, with four universities within 10 miles (16 km) of the city centre:
  • University of Glasgow
    University of Glasgow
    The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

  • University of Strathclyde
    University of Strathclyde
    The University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, Scotland, is Glasgow's second university by age, founded in 1796, and receiving its Royal Charter in 1964 as the UK's first technological university...

  • Glasgow Caledonian University
    Glasgow Caledonian University
    Glasgow Caledonian University is a public university in Glasgow, Scotland.The university was constituted by an Act of Parliament on 1 April 1993 as a result of a merger between Glasgow Polytechnic and The Queen's College, Glasgow....

  • University of the West of Scotland


There are also currently seven further education
Further education
Further education is a term mainly used in connection with education in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is post-compulsory education , that is distinct from the education offered in universities...

 colleges in the city: Anniesland College
Anniesland College
Anniesland College is a small, local further education college in Glasgow, Scotland, established in 1964.Kenny Dalglish, the Scottish international football player was briefly a student, as an apprentice joiner, in the 1970s....

, Cardonald College
Cardonald College
Cardonald College is a medium-sized Further education institute located in Glasgow's South Side, in Scotland. Officially opened in 1972, it has over 12,000 full-time and part-time students. Cardonald college takes both students who have just left school and mature students.The Main Campus is...

, City of Glasgow College, Stow College
Stow College
-History:The college is named after David Stow, whose primary teaching seminary was founded close to the college at Dundasvale. Stow was the first purpose-built Further Education college in Glasgow, celebrating its 75th anniversary in 2009....

, North Glasgow College
North Glasgow College
North Glasgow College is a college located at Springburn in Glasgow and one of the main providers of further education in the city. After the liquidation of the North British Locomotive Company in 1961, the main administration building of the company was bought by Glasgow Corporation and used as an...

, John Wheatley College
John Wheatley College
John Wheatley College was founded in 1989 and has its main campuses in Easterhouse and Haghill in Glasgow.The college supports learning throughout the communities of east Glasgow, working in partnership with the city council's community planning teams, with Glasgow Regeneration Agency and Glasgow...

, and Langside College
Langside College
Langside College is a further and higher education college located in the Mount Florida / Battlefield region of Glasgow.It was established in 1947 and enrols over 10,000 students every year of whom over 1,500 are from countries outwith the European Union, the college currently operates in four main...

. Higher education colleges in the city include Jordanhill Teacher Training College
Jordanhill College
Jordanhill Campus, in Jordanhill, Glasgow, Scotland, is now home to the Faculty of Education of the University of Strathclyde. Within the University of Strathclyde faculty of education, departments include Childhood and Primary Studies, Creative and Aesthetic Studies, Curricular Studies,...

, the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland and the Glasgow School of Art
Glasgow School of Art
Glasgow School of Art is one of only two independent art schools in Scotland, situated in the Garnethill area of Glasgow.-History:It was founded in 1845 as the Glasgow Government School of Design. In 1853, it changed its name to The Glasgow School of Art. Initially it was located at 12 Ingram...

.

Glasgow is home to a student population in excess of 168,000, the largest in Scotland and second largest in the United Kingdom. The majority of those who live away from home reside in Shawlands
Shawlands
Shawlands is a district of Glasgow, Scotland located less than 2 miles south of the River Clyde. The area has an approximate population of 8000 people, with over 82% dwelling in flats, 74% owner occupied and 79% living alone or with one other person...

, Dennistoun
Dennistoun
Dennistoun is a district of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. It is situated north of the River Clyde in the east end of the city. It is made up of a number of smaller districts - Milnbank to the north, 'The Drives' in the centre of the area and Bellgrove below Duke Street to the south. In a 2004...

 and the West End of the city.

The City Council operates twenty-nine secondary schools, 149 primary schools and three specialist schools — the Dance School of Scotland, Glasgow School of Sport and the Glasgow Gaelic School (Sgoil Ghàidhlig Ghlaschu), the only secondary school in Scotland to teach exclusively in Gaelic. Outdoor Education facilities are provided by the city council at the Blairvadach Centre, near Helensburgh
Helensburgh
Helensburgh is a town in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. It lies on the north shore of the Firth of Clyde and the eastern shore of the entrance to the Gareloch....

. Jordanhill School
Jordanhill School
Jordanhill School educates children from age 5-18. It is located on Chamberlain Road in Glasgow, Scotland.Uniquely among mainstream Scottish schools, it is funded directly by the Scottish Executive, rather than through the local authority, in this case Glasgow City Council...

 is operated directly by the Scottish Government. Glasgow also has a number of Independent school
Independent school
An independent school is a school that is independent in its finances and governance; it is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operations, nor reliant on taxpayer contributions, and is instead funded by a combination of tuition charges, gifts, and in some cases the...

s operating outwith the state sector, such as Fernhill School
Fernhill School
Fernhill School is an independent Catholic school in Rutherglen, South Lanarkshire, Scotland.-History:The school originated in a primary school run by the Sisters of Notre Dame since 1953, which in 1971 was announced for closure. A committee of parents was formed to keep the school open, and in...

, St. Aloysius College
St. Aloysius' College, Glasgow
St. Aloysius' College is a selective fee-paying independent Jesuit school in Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 1859, and named after the famous Jesuit, Aloysius Gonzaga. Its strong Jesuit ethos emphasises practice of the Roman Catholic faith both in the church and in the community, with many...

, Hutchesons' Grammar School
Hutchesons' Grammar School
Hutchesons' Grammar School is a co-educational independent school in the southside of Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded by the brothers George Hutcheson and Thomas Hutcheson in 1641 and was opened originally to teach orphans, starting with "twelve male children, indigent orphans".In 1876 a girls'...

, Kelvinside Academy
Kelvinside Academy
Kelvinside Academy is a private school in the City of Glasgow, Scotland, founded in 1878. It has a capacity of 640 pupils and spans two years of Junior Start , six years of Junior School , and seven years of Senior School , comprising fifteen years in all...

, Glasgow Academy and The High School of Glasgow.

Football


The world's first international football match was held in 1872 at the West of Scotland Cricket Club
West of Scotland Cricket Club
The West of Scotland Cricket Club is a large cricket club based in Glasgow, Scotland. Their ground is Hamilton Crescent located in the Partick area of Glasgow's West End...

's Hamilton Crescent
Hamilton Crescent
Hamilton Crescent is a cricket ground located in the Partick area of Glasgow, Scotland. It is the home of the West of Scotland Cricket Club.Hamilton Crescent is famous for holding the first ever international football match, played between Scotland and England...

 ground in the Partick
Partick
Partick is an area of Glasgow on the north bank of the River Clyde, just across from Govan. To the west lies Whiteinch. Partick was a Police burgh from 1852 until 1912 when it was incorporated into the city.-History:...

 area of the city. The match, between Scotland
Scotland national football team
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. Scotland are the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside England, whom they played in the world's first international football match in 1872...

 and England
England national football team
The England national football team represents England in association football and is controlled by the Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England is the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first...

 finished 0–0.

Glasgow is one of only three cities (along with Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

 in 1985 and Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 in 1986) to have had two football teams in European finals in the same season: in 1967 Celtic F.C.
Celtic F.C.
Celtic Football Club is a Scottish football club based in the Parkhead area of Glasgow, which currently plays in the Scottish Premier League. The club was established in 1887, and played its first game in 1888. Celtic have won the Scottish League Championship on 42 occasions, most recently in the...

 competed in the European Cup
European Champion Clubs' Cup
The European Champion Clubs' Cup, also known as Coupe des Clubs Champions Européens, or simply the European Cup, is a trophy awarded annually by UEFA to the football club that wins the UEFA Champions League...

 final with Rangers F.C.
Rangers F.C.
Rangers Football Club are an association football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, who play in the Scottish Premier League. The club are nicknamed the Gers, Teddy Bears and the Light Blues, and the fans are known to each other as bluenoses...

 competing in the Cup Winners' Cup
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
The UEFA Cup Winners' Cup was a football club competition contested annually by the most recent winners of all European domestic cup competitions. The cup is one of the many inter-European club competitions that have been organised by UEFA. The first competition was held in the 1960–61 season—but...

 final. Celtic F.C. were the first British team to win the European Cup, under the management of Jock Stein
Jock Stein
John 'Jock' Stein CBE was a Scottish association football player and manager. He became the first manager of a British side to win the European Cup, with Celtic in 1967...

 in 1967.

Hampden Park, which is Scotland's national football stadium, holds the European record for attendance at a football match: 149,547 saw Scotland beat England 3-1 in 1937, in the days before leading British stadia became all-seated
All-seater stadium
An all-seater stadium is a sports stadium in which every spectator has a seat. This is commonplace in football stadiums in nations such as the United Kingdom, Spain, and the Netherlands. Most soccer and American football stadiums in the United States and Canada are all-seaters, as are most baseball...

. Hampden Park has hosted the final of the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League, known simply the Champions League and originally known as the European Champion Clubs' Cup or European Cup, is an annual international club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations since 1955 for the top football clubs in Europe. It...

 on three occasions, most recently in 2002 and hosted the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
The UEFA Europa League is an annual association football cup competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. It is the second most prestigious European club football contest after the UEFA Champions League...

 Final in 2007. Celtic Park
Celtic Park
Celtic Park is a football stadium in the Parkhead area of Glasgow, which is the home ground of Celtic FC. Celtic Park, an all-seater stadium with a capacity of 60,832, is the largest football stadium in Scotland and the sixth-largest stadium in the United Kingdom, after Murrayfield, Old Trafford,...

 (60,832 seats) is located in the east end of Glasgow, and Ibrox Stadium
Ibrox Stadium
Ibrox Stadium is a football stadium located on the south side of the River Clyde, on Edmiston Drive in the Ibrox district of Glasgow. It is the home ground of Scottish Premier League club Rangers and has an all-seated capacity of 51,082...

 (51,082 seats) on the south side.

Glasgow has three professional football clubs: Rangers F.C.
Rangers F.C.
Rangers Football Club are an association football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, who play in the Scottish Premier League. The club are nicknamed the Gers, Teddy Bears and the Light Blues, and the fans are known to each other as bluenoses...

 and Celtic F.C.
Celtic F.C.
Celtic Football Club is a Scottish football club based in the Parkhead area of Glasgow, which currently plays in the Scottish Premier League. The club was established in 1887, and played its first game in 1888. Celtic have won the Scottish League Championship on 42 occasions, most recently in the...

 together known as the Old Firm
Old Firm
The Old Firm is a common collective name for the association football clubs Celtic and Rangers, both based in Glasgow, Scotland.The origin of the term is unclear. One theory has it that the expression derives from Celtic's first game in 1888, which was played against Rangers. However, author,...

, and Partick Thistle F.C.
Partick Thistle F.C.
Partick Thistle Football Club are a professional association football club from Glasgow. Despite their name, the club are based in the Maryhill area of the city, and have not played in Partick since 1908...

 A fourth club, Queen's Park F.C.
Queen's Park F.C.
Queen's Park Football Club are an association football club based in Glasgow, Scotland. The club are currently the only amateur club in the Scottish League; their amateur status is reflected by their motto, Ludere Causa Ludendi – to play for the sake of playing.Queen's Park are the oldest...

, is an amateur club which plays in the Scottish Division 3
Scottish Football League Third Division
The Scottish Football League Third Division is the lowest division of the Scottish Football League and the fourth overall in the Scottish football league system....

. Prior to this, Glasgow had five other professional clubs: Clyde F.C.
Clyde F.C.
Clyde Football Club are a Scottish professional football team currently playing in the Third Division of the Scottish Football League. Although based for the last fifteen years in the new town of Cumbernauld, they are traditionally associated with an area that covers Rutherglen in South...

, which moved to Cumbernauld
Cumbernauld
Cumbernauld is a Scottish new town in North Lanarkshire. It was created in 1956 as a population overspill for Glasgow City. It is the eighth most populous settlement in Scotland and the largest in North Lanarkshire...

, plus Third Lanark A.C.
Third Lanark A.C.
Third Lanark Athletic Club was a football club that originally existed between 1872 and 1967, 95 years in existence, based in Glasgow, Scotland. Third Lanark were known as Thirds, the Warriors, the Redcoats and the Hi Hi's...

, Cambuslang F.C.
Cambuslang F.C.
Cambuslang Football Club was a Scottish football club, based in the Cambuslang area of Glasgow. Cambuslang was one of the founding members of the Scottish Football League, but left the league after just two seasons....

, Cowlairs F.C.
Cowlairs F.C.
Cowlairs Football Club was a 19th century football club from Glasgow, Scotland. One of the founder members of the Scottish Football League in 1890, the club was based in Cowlairs, in the Springburn area of the city.-History:...

 and Clydesdale F.C.
Clydesdale F.C.
Clydesdale F.C. were a nineteenth-century Glasgow-based soccer club, who were attached to Clydesdale Cricket Club during the 1870s. In 1873, Clydesdale was one of the teams to found the Scottish Football Association....

, who all went bankrupt. There are a number of Scottish Junior Football Association
Scottish Junior Football Association
The Scottish Junior Football Association is an affiliated national association of the Scottish Football Association and is the governing body for the Junior grade of football in Scotland. The term "Junior" refers to the level of football played...

 clubs within the city as well, such as Pollok F.C.
Pollok F.C.
Pollok Football Club are a Scottish football club based in Newlands in the southside of the city of Glasgow. They are one of the biggest football clubs operating in Scottish Junior football, regularly attracting crowds of around 550, more than many clubs in the third division and even some in the...

, Maryhill F.C.
Maryhill F.C.
Maryhill Football Club are a football team based in the Maryhill area of Glasgow, Scotland. Members of the Scottish Junior Football Association, they currently play in the West Region, Central Division Two....

, Ashfield F.C.
Ashfield F.C.
Ashfield Football Club are a Scottish football club from Possilpark in the North of Glasgow. Formed in 1886, they are based at Saracen Park, which they share with the Glasgow Tigers speedway team...

 and Petershill F.C.
Petershill F.C.
Petershill Football Club are a Scottish football club from Springburn in the north of Glasgow. Nicknamed the Peasy, they were formed in 1897 and are traditionally one of the stronger clubs at their level, although they have not been as successful in recent years as they have historically.The play...

, as well as countless numbers of amateur teams.

The history of football in the city, as well as the status of the Old Firm
Old Firm
The Old Firm is a common collective name for the association football clubs Celtic and Rangers, both based in Glasgow, Scotland.The origin of the term is unclear. One theory has it that the expression derives from Celtic's first game in 1888, which was played against Rangers. However, author,...

, attracts many visitors to football matches in the city throughout the season. The Scottish Football Association
Scottish Football Association
The Scottish Football Association is the governing body of football in Scotland and has the ultimate responsibility for the control and development of football in Scotland. Members of the SFA include clubs in Scotland, affiliated national associations as well as local associations...

, the national governing body, and the Scottish Football Museum
Scottish Football Museum
The Scottish Football Museum is the Scottish Football Association's National Museum of football, located in Hampden Park in Glasgow.-The Museum:...

 are based in Glasgow, as are the Scottish Football League
Scottish Football League
The Scottish Football League is a league of football teams in Scotland, comprising theScottish First Division, Scottish Second Division and Scottish Third Division. From the league's foundation in 1890 until the breakaway Scottish Premier League was formed in 1998, the Scottish Football League...

, Scottish Premier League
Scottish Premier League
The Scottish Premier League , also known as the SPL , is a professional league competition for association football clubs in Scotland...

, Scottish Junior Football Association
Scottish Junior Football Association
The Scottish Junior Football Association is an affiliated national association of the Scottish Football Association and is the governing body for the Junior grade of football in Scotland. The term "Junior" refers to the level of football played...

 and Scottish Amateur Football Association
Scottish Amateur Football Association
The Scottish Amateur Football Association is the organising body for amateur football across Scotland. An affiliate of the Scottish Football Association, the SAFA has in turn 50 regional associations affiliated to it and some 67 different league competitions organised by these associations...

. The Glasgow Cup
Glasgow Cup
The Glasgow Cup is a knockout football tournament open to teams from Glasgow. It was competed for annually by senior Glasgow clubs from 1887 until 1988. It is now competed for between the youth teams of Rangers, Celtic, Clyde, Partick Thistle and Queen's Park.It is dominated by the Old Firm of...

 was a once popular tournament, which was competed for by Celtic, Rangers, Clyde, Partick Thistle and Queen's Park. The competition is now played for by the youth sides of the five teams.
Club League Venue Capacity
Celtic F.C.
Celtic F.C.
Celtic Football Club is a Scottish football club based in the Parkhead area of Glasgow, which currently plays in the Scottish Premier League. The club was established in 1887, and played its first game in 1888. Celtic have won the Scottish League Championship on 42 occasions, most recently in the...

Scottish Premier League
Scottish Premier League
The Scottish Premier League , also known as the SPL , is a professional league competition for association football clubs in Scotland...

Celtic Park
Celtic Park
Celtic Park is a football stadium in the Parkhead area of Glasgow, which is the home ground of Celtic FC. Celtic Park, an all-seater stadium with a capacity of 60,832, is the largest football stadium in Scotland and the sixth-largest stadium in the United Kingdom, after Murrayfield, Old Trafford,...

60,832
Partick Thistle F.C.
Partick Thistle F.C.
Partick Thistle Football Club are a professional association football club from Glasgow. Despite their name, the club are based in the Maryhill area of the city, and have not played in Partick since 1908...

Scottish Football League
Scottish Football League
The Scottish Football League is a league of football teams in Scotland, comprising theScottish First Division, Scottish Second Division and Scottish Third Division. From the league's foundation in 1890 until the breakaway Scottish Premier League was formed in 1998, the Scottish Football League...

Firhill Stadium
Firhill Stadium
Firhill Stadium or Firhill Arena is a football, rugby union and rugby league stadium located in the Maryhill area of Glasgow, Scotland. As of 2010 it is the home ground of football club Partick Thistle F.C...

10,887
Queen's Park F.C.
Queen's Park F.C.
Queen's Park Football Club are an association football club based in Glasgow, Scotland. The club are currently the only amateur club in the Scottish League; their amateur status is reflected by their motto, Ludere Causa Ludendi – to play for the sake of playing.Queen's Park are the oldest...

Scottish Football League Hampden Park
Hampden Park
Hampden Park is a football stadium in the Mount Florida area of Glasgow, Scotland. The 52,063 capacity venue serves as the national stadium of football in Scotland...

52,670
Rangers F.C.
Rangers F.C.
Rangers Football Club are an association football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, who play in the Scottish Premier League. The club are nicknamed the Gers, Teddy Bears and the Light Blues, and the fans are known to each other as bluenoses...

Scottish Premier League Ibrox Stadium
Ibrox Stadium
Ibrox Stadium is a football stadium located on the south side of the River Clyde, on Edmiston Drive in the Ibrox district of Glasgow. It is the home ground of Scottish Premier League club Rangers and has an all-seated capacity of 51,082...

51,082



Rugby union


Glasgow has a professional rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 club, the Glasgow Warriors
Glasgow Warriors
The Glasgow Warriors, formerly Glasgow Rugby, are one of two professional rugby union teams in Scotland, Edinburgh being the other. They play in the RaboDirect Pro12 and their home ground is Firhill Stadium, also the home of Partick Thistle Football Club.-History:Glasgow Rugby were created to...

, which plays in the RaboDirect PRO12 alongside teams from Scotland, Ireland, Wales and Italy.

In the Scottish League, Glasgow Hawks
Glasgow Hawks
Glasgow Hawks are an amateur rugby union team in Glasgow, Scotland. They were Premiership Division One champions for 3 consecutive seasons from 2003/04 to 2005/06.-The short history of Glasgow Hawks RFC:...

 was formed in 1997 by the merger of two of Glasgow's oldest clubs: Glasgow Academicals and Glasgow High Kelvinside (GHK). Despite the merger, the second division teams of Glasgow Academicals and Glasgow High Kelvinside re-entered the Scottish rugby league in 1998.

In the South Glasgow suburb of Giffnock is based another of Glasgow's most prominent clubs Glasgow Hutchesons Aloysians RFC
Glasgow Hutchesons Aloysians RFC
Glasgow Hutchesons' Aloysians Rugby Football Club, colloquially referred to as G-HA!! , is a Scottish Rugby Union club based in the Giffnock area of Glasgow, which currently plays in Scottish Premiership Division Three...

 (GHA). GHA was formed in 2002 with the merger of two of Glasgow's leading clubs at the time, Glasgow Southern RFC and Hutchesons' Aloysians RFC.

Rugby league


The Easterhouse Panthers
Easterhouse Panthers
Easterhouse Panthers are an amateur rugby league team based in Easterhouse in the East End of Glasgow. They play in the Scotland Division of the Rugby League Conference.-History:...

 based in the East End of Glagow are a rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 team who play in the Rugby League Conference Scotland Division
Rugby League Conference Scotland Division
The Rugby League Conference Scotland Division, also known as the Scottish conference, is the Scottish domestic league for the sport of rugby league. It also forms a division of the Rugby League Conference competition which covers all of Great Britain...

. Scotstoun Stadium
Scotstoun Stadium
Scotstoun Stadium is an athletics and Rugby union venue located in the West End of Glasgow. It first opened it doors to the public in 1915 and in 2008 underwent a huge renovation before reopening on 14 January 2010 by the Princess Royal. Glasgow Warriors have trained at the stadium since 2009 and...

 has also hosted many rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 tournaments/events.

Ice hockey


The City of Glasgow has no ice rinks, though a temporary one is set up in George Square during the Christmas holidays.

Since October 2010 a team called the Braehead Clan
Braehead Clan
Braehead Clan are a Scottish professional ice hockey team. They were formed in 2010 as the UK Elite Ice Hockey League expanded into the Glasgow and West of Scotland market, and are based at the 4,000 capacity Braehead Arena in Renfrewshire, around two miles outside the Glasgow City limits...

 based in the nearby Braehead Arena
Braehead Arena
The Braehead Arena is a multi-purpose arena in Renfrewshire, Scotland, in the western part of the Glasgow conurbation. The arena was built in 1999, and is located within the Braehead Complex....

 in Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire is one of 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Located in the west central Lowlands, it is one of three council areas contained within the boundaries of the historic county of Renfrewshire, the others being Inverclyde to the west and East Renfrewshire to the east...

 has played in the professional Elite Ice Hockey League
Elite Ice Hockey League
Several competitions fall under the jurisdiction of the Elite League. In 2006–07, the EIHL ran a total of four competitions: the league, playoffs, Challenge Cup and Knockout Cup. The league consists of a single division, each team playing three home games and three away games against the other...

 alongside two other Scottish teams, the Edinburgh Capitals
Edinburgh Capitals
The Edinburgh Capitals are a Scottish ice hockey club, playing in the UK-wide Elite Ice Hockey League.They are based in the Scottish capital, Edinburgh...

 and the Dundee Stars. This is the first time that a top level ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 team has played in Glasgow.

Swimming


The Arlington Baths Club
Arlington Baths Club
The Arlington Baths Club is a nineteenth century baths in Glasgow, Scotland. It was not formed as a "Swimming Club" in the meaning today and the oldest swimming club in England, and therefore probably in the UK is Brighton Swimming Club formed in 1860...

 is the oldest swimming club in the world, founded in 1870. The Club in Arlington Street, in the Woodlands
Woodlands, Glasgow
Woodlands is a residential area in the west-end of Glasgow, Scotland. It is to the east of Hillhead, the south of Maryhill and Woodside, and north of the city's Park District...

 area of the city is still thriving today. It is believed the Club's first Baths Master William Wilson
William Wilson (aquatics)
William Wilson was a late 19th-century British journalist, swimming instructor and coach, and contributor to the scientific techniques behind competitive swimming...

 invented water polo
Water polo
Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more goals. Game play involves swimming, treading water , players passing the ball while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a...

 at the Club. The Arlington inspired other Swimming Clubs and the Western Baths
Western Baths
The Western Baths Club is a Victorian era private swimming and leisure club founded in 1876. The club remains at its original site at 12 Cranworth Street, Hillhead, Glasgow. The 19th-century baths are proteced as a category B listed building...

, which opened in 1876, is also still in existence in nearby Hillhead
Hillhead
Hillhead is a district of Glasgow, Scotland. Situated north of Kelvingrove Park and to the south of the River Kelvin, Hillhead is at the heart of Glasgow's fashionable West End, with Byres Road forming the western border of the area, the other boundaries being Dumbarton Road to the south and the...

. Most of Glasgow's Victorian and Edwardian Municipal Pools have been closed or demolished, with the city council investing in large new leisure centres such as Tollcross
Tollcross, Glasgow
Tollcross is an area north of the River Clyde in Glasgow and has a popular park which is famed for its international rose trials. It lies approximately a mile east of the neighbouring suburb of Parkhead, and just north of Braidfauld and south of Shettleston....

, Springburn
Springburn
Springburn is an inner city district in the north of the Scottish city of Glasgow, home to various working and middle-class households.Springburn developed from a small rural hamlet at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Its industrial expansion began with the establishment of a chemical...

, Gorbals, Scotstoun
Scotstoun
Scotstoun is a historic district of Glasgow, Scotland, west of Glasgow City Centre. It is bounded by Yoker and Knightswood to the west, Victoria Park, Broomhill and Whiteinch to the east, Jordanhill to the north and the River Clyde to the south...

 and Bellahouston
Bellahouston
Bellahouston is a district in the southwest of the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is bordered by Ibrox, Dumbreck and Pollokshields.-History:...

. A community group is however hoping to re-open Govanhill
Govanhill
Govanhill is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated south of the River Clyde between the Gorbals, Mount Florida and Queen's Park...

 Baths, on the city's southside.

Basketball


Glasgow hosts Scotland's only professional basketball team, the Glasgow Rocks, who compete in the British Basketball League
British Basketball League
The British Basketball League, often abbreviated to the BBL, is the premier men's professional basketball league in the United Kingdom. The BBL runs two knockout competitions alongside the league championship; the BBL Cup and the BBL Trophy....

. Since moving out of Renfrewshire's Braehead Arena
Braehead Arena
The Braehead Arena is a multi-purpose arena in Renfrewshire, Scotland, in the western part of the Glasgow conurbation. The arena was built in 1999, and is located within the Braehead Complex....

, the Rocks have been based at the 1,200 seater Kelvin Hall
Kelvin Hall
The Kelvin Hall in Glasgow, Scotland, is a mixed-use arts and sports venue that opened as an exhibition centre in 1927. It has been a music hall, indoor arena and barrage balloon factory, and is currently home to the Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena and from 1987 to 2010, Glasgow's Museum of...

. It has been confirmed that the Rocks will be the tenants of the new stadium being constructed in the Parkhead area of the city for the Commonwealth Games.

Other sports


Major international sporting arenas include the Kelvin Hall
Kelvin Hall
The Kelvin Hall in Glasgow, Scotland, is a mixed-use arts and sports venue that opened as an exhibition centre in 1927. It has been a music hall, indoor arena and barrage balloon factory, and is currently home to the Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena and from 1987 to 2010, Glasgow's Museum of...

 and Scotstoun
Scotstoun
Scotstoun is a historic district of Glasgow, Scotland, west of Glasgow City Centre. It is bounded by Yoker and Knightswood to the west, Victoria Park, Broomhill and Whiteinch to the east, Jordanhill to the north and the River Clyde to the south...

 Sports Centre. In 2003 the National Academy for Badminton was completed in Scotstoun. In 2003, Glasgow was also given the title of European Capital of Sport.

Glasgow is home to the Founder of the Korean martial art of Taekwon-do, Grand Master Rhee Ki Ha. The United Kingdom Taekwon-Do Association
United Kingdom Taekwon-Do Association
The United Kingdom Taekwon-Do Association was established in 1967 by Korean taekwondo grandmaster Ki Ha Rhee, at that time a 5th dan black belt. This was the start of taekwondo in the UK. The UKTA continues to this day although several groups have splintered from it over the years...

 (UKTA) frequently host the Scottish Open Championships at the Kelvin Hall
Kelvin Hall
The Kelvin Hall in Glasgow, Scotland, is a mixed-use arts and sports venue that opened as an exhibition centre in 1927. It has been a music hall, indoor arena and barrage balloon factory, and is currently home to the Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena and from 1987 to 2010, Glasgow's Museum of...

.

Glasgow is also host to many cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 clubs including Clydesdale Cricket Club
Clydesdale Cricket Club
Clydesdale Cricket Club is a sporting club situated at Titwood on the periphery of Pollokshields in the south of Glasgow. Founded in Kinning Park in 1848 by Archibald Campbell, it was formed by members of two previous clubs which played on Glasgow Green, to cater for the burgeoning residential...

 who have been title winners for the Scottish Cup many times. This club also acted as a neutral venue for a One Day International match between India and Pakistan in 2007, but due to bad weather it was called off.

Smaller sporting facilities include an abundance of outdoor playing field
Playing field
A playing field is a field used for playing sports or games. They are generally outdoors, but many large structures exist to enclose playing fields from bad weather. Generally, playing fields are wide expanses of grass, dirt or sand without many obstructions...

s, as well as golf clubs such as Haggs Castle
Haggs Castle
Haggs Castle is a fine example of a large 16th century tower house, located in the neighbourhood of Pollokshields, in Glasgow, Scotland. The richly decorated building was restored in the 19th century, and today is once more occupied as a residence.-History:...

 and artificial ski slopes. Between 1998 and 2004, the Scottish Claymores
Scottish Claymores
The Scottish Claymores were an American football team from Scotland. The franchise played in the World League of American Football between 1995 and 2004, initially playing all home games at Murrayfield Stadium, Edinburgh and latterly sharing home games with Hampden Park, Glasgow...

 American football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 team played some or all of their home games each season at Hampden Park and the venue also hosted World Bowl
World Bowl
The World Bowl was the American football Championship game of NFL Europe, similar to the Super Bowl of the National Football League.The World Bowl trophy itself was a globe made of glass measuring 35.5 cm in diameter and weighing 18.6 kg .-World League of American Football:When NFL Europe was...

 XI.

Glasgow Green and the Gorbals
Gorbals
The Gorbals is an area on the south bank of the River Clyde in the city of Glasgow, Scotland. By the late 19th century, it had become over-populated and adversely affected by local industrialisation. Many people lived here because their jobs provided this home and they could not afford their own...

 are home to a number of rowing
Rowing (sport)
Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other on rivers, on lakes or on the ocean, depending upon the type of race and the discipline. The boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed against the water...

 clubs, some with open membership the rest belonging to universities or schools. Historically, rowing races on the River Clyde
River Clyde
The River Clyde is a major river in Scotland. It is the ninth longest river in the United Kingdom, and the third longest in Scotland. Flowing through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire....

 here attracted huge crowds of spectators to watch regattas in the late 19th century and early 20th century; before football caught the public imagination. Two of Glasgow's rowing clubs separately claim that it was their members who were among the founders of Rangers Football Club.

Motorcycle speedway
Motorcycle speedway
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit. Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually...

 racing was first introduced to Glasgow in 1928 and is currently staged at Saracen Park in the North of the city.

Glasgow is also one of five places in Scotland which hosts the final of the Scottish Cup of Shinty
Shinty
Shinty is a team game played with sticks and a ball. Shinty is now played mainly in the Scottish Highlands, and amongst Highland migrants to the big cities of Scotland, but it was formerly more widespread, being once competitively played on a widespread basis in England and other areas in the...

, better known as the Camanachd Cup
Camanachd Cup
The Camanachd Association Challenge Cup AKA the Camanachd Cup or Scottish Cup is the premier prize in the sport of shinty...

. This is usually held at Old Anniesland. Once home to numerous Shinty clubs, there is now only one senior club in Glasgow, Glasgow Mid-Argyll, as well as two university sides from University of Strathclyde
University of Strathclyde
The University of Strathclyde , Glasgow, Scotland, is Glasgow's second university by age, founded in 1796, and receiving its Royal Charter in 1964 as the UK's first technological university...

 and University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Located in Glasgow, the university was founded in 1451 and is presently one of seventeen British higher education institutions ranked amongst the top 100 of the...

.

Glasgow is currently bidding to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics
2018 Summer Youth Olympics
The 2018 Summer Youth Olympics will be the third Summer Youth Olympic Games, a major international multi-sport event and cultural festival to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games, in 2018 during the XXXI Olympiad. It will be the fifth Youth Olympic Games overall, with the Winter...

.

2014 Commonwealth Games


On 9 November 2007, Glasgow was selected to be the host city of the 2014 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
The Commonwealth Games is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930 and takes place every four years....

. The games will be based on a number of existing and newly constructed sporting venues across the city, including a refurbished Hampden Park
Hampden Park
Hampden Park is a football stadium in the Mount Florida area of Glasgow, Scotland. The 52,063 capacity venue serves as the national stadium of football in Scotland...

, Kelvingrove Park
Kelvingrove Park
Kelvingrove Park is a public park located on the River Kelvin in the West End of the city of Glasgow, Scotland, containing the world-famous Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum.-History:...

, the Kelvin Hall
Kelvin Hall
The Kelvin Hall in Glasgow, Scotland, is a mixed-use arts and sports venue that opened as an exhibition centre in 1927. It has been a music hall, indoor arena and barrage balloon factory, and is currently home to the Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena and from 1987 to 2010, Glasgow's Museum of...

, and the planned Scottish National Arena
Scotland's National Arena
The Scottish Hydro Arena, is an arena in Glasgow, Scotland currently under construction. It is planned for completion in 2013 at an estimated cost of £125 million. It has been designed by architects Foster and Partners. The building will be used for concerts and other entertainment events and will...

 at the SECC
Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre
The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre , located on the north bank of the River Clyde, in Glasgow, is Scotland's largest exhibition centre....

. The opening ceremony will be held at Celtic Park
Celtic Park
Celtic Park is a football stadium in the Parkhead area of Glasgow, which is the home ground of Celtic FC. Celtic Park, an all-seater stadium with a capacity of 60,832, is the largest football stadium in Scotland and the sixth-largest stadium in the United Kingdom, after Murrayfield, Old Trafford,...

. Plans have already been drawn up for a Commonwealth Games campus in the east end of the city, which will include a new indoor arena, velodrome
Velodrome
A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights...

 and accommodation facilities in Dalmarnock
Dalmarnock
Dalmarnock is a district in the Scottish city of Glasgow. It is situated north of the River Clyde. It is bounded by the Clyde to the south and east, Parkhead to the north, and Bridgeton at Dunn Street to the north west...

 and Parkhead
Parkhead
Parkhead is a district in the East End of Glasgow. Its name comes from a small weaving hamlet at the meeting place of the Great Eastern Road and Westmuir Street. Duke Street and Springfield Road also meet there, to form a turreted Edwardian five-way junction at Parkhead Cross...

, with an upgraded Aquatics Centre at nearby Tollcross Park
Tollcross, Glasgow
Tollcross is an area north of the River Clyde in Glasgow and has a popular park which is famed for its international rose trials. It lies approximately a mile east of the neighbouring suburb of Parkhead, and just north of Braidfauld and south of Shettleston....

. 2014 will be the third time the Games have been held in Scotland.

Twin towns and sister cities


Glasgow is twinned with various cities.
  • Nuremberg
    Nuremberg
    Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

     (since 1985)
  • Rostov-on-Don
    Rostov-on-Don
    -History:The mouth of the Don River has been of great commercial and cultural importance since the ancient times. It was the site of the Greek colony Tanais, of the Genoese fort Tana, and of the Turkish fortress Azak...

     (1986)
  • Dalian
    Dalian
    Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

     (1997)
  • Havana
    Havana
    Havana is the capital city, province, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city proper has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of — making it the largest city in the Caribbean region, and the most populous...

     (2002)
  • Turin
    Turin
    Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

      (2003)
  • Lahore
    Lahore
    Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

     (2006)
  • Marseille
    Marseille
    Marseille , known in antiquity as Massalia , is the second largest city in France, after Paris, with a population of 852,395 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Marseille extends beyond the city limits with a population of over 1,420,000 on an area of...

     (2006)
  • Bethlehem
    Bethlehem
    Bethlehem is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank of the Jordan River, near Israel and approximately south of Jerusalem, with a population of about 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism...

    (2007)

External links