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Frederick I, Margrave of Baden

Frederick I, Margrave of Baden

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Frederick I of Baden was Margrave of Baden and claimant Duke of Austria from October 4, 1250 until his death. He was born at Alland
Alland
Alland is a town in the district of Baden in Lower Austria in Austria. It is about 20 km southwest of Vienna and is one of the many towns in Lower Austria located in the Wienerwald.-History:...

, the only son of Margrave Herman VI of Baden
Baden
Baden is a historical state on the east bank of the Rhine in the southwest of Germany, now the western part of the Baden-Württemberg of Germany....

 and Gertrude of Babenberg, the niece and heiress of late Duke Frederick II
Frederick II, Duke of Austria
Frederick II, known as the Quarrelsome or the Warlike , from the House of Babenberg, was the duke of Austria and Styria from 1230 to 1246....

 of Austria
Archduchy of Austria
The Archduchy of Austria , one of the most important states within the Holy Roman Empire, was the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy and the predecessor of the Austrian Empire...

.

When Duke Frederick II of Austria had been killed at the 1246 Battle of the Leitha River
Battle of the Leitha River
The Battle of the Leitha River was fought on 15 June 1246 near the banks of the Leitha river between the forces of the King Béla IV of Hungary and Duke Frederick II of Austria. The battle resulted in a Hungarian victory, ending Austrian claims to the western counties of Hungary...

, the ducal line of the Babenberg dynasty had become extinct. Margrave Herman VI of Baden through his marriage had raised inheritance claims to the Babenberg possessions, he could however not prevail against the mighty King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia and his son Ottokar II Přemysl
Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II , called The Iron and Golden King, was the King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278. He was the Duke of Austria , Styria , Carinthia and Carniola also....

, who upon Herman's death in 1250 occupied the Austrian lands.

Young Frederick succeeded his father as Margrave of Baden, together with his uncle Rudolf I
Rudolf I, Margrave of Baden-Baden
Rudolf I, Margrave of Baden was Margrave of Baden from 1250 until his death.He was the son of Herman V and Irmengard, Countess Palatinate of the Rhine. She was the daughter of Henry I, Count Palatinate of the Rhine. He inherited Baden, together with his brother Herman VI, until Herman VI's...

, and through his mother also as claimant to the Austrian and Styrian
Duchy of Styria
The history of Styria concerns the region roughly corresponding to the modern Austrian state of Styria and the Slovene region of Styria from its settlement by Germans and Slavs in the Dark Ages until the present...

 duchies. When Ottokar II moved into Austria, he had to flee and later grew up at the court of Duke Louis II of Bavaria
Louis II, Duke of Bavaria
Duke Louis II of Bavaria was Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253. Born in Heidelberg, he was a son of duke Otto II and Agnes of the Palatinate...

 together with his friend Conradin
Conradin
Conrad , called the Younger or the Boy, but usually known by the diminutive Conradin , was the Duke of Swabia , King of Jerusalem , and King of Sicily .-Early childhood:Conradin was born in Wolfstein, Bavaria, to Conrad...

 of Swabia
Duke of Swabia
The following is a list of Dukes of Swabia in southwest Germany.Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom, and its dukes were thus among the most powerful magnates of Germany. The most notable family to hold Swabia were the Hohenstaufen, who held it, with a brief...

, the son of German king Conrad IV
Conrad IV of Germany
Conrad IV was king of Jerusalem , of Germany , and of Sicily .-Biography:...

 and heir to the Imperial Hohenstaufen dynasty. From him Frederick expected support in enforcing his claims to power.

In 1267 he made the fatal decision to accompany Conradin on his Italian
Kingdom of Italy (medieval)
The Kingdom of Italy was a political entity under control of Carolingian dynasty of Francia first, after the defeat of the Lombards in 774. It was finally incorporated as a part of the Holy Roman Empire in 962....

 expedition, after Conradin's uncle King Manfred of Sicily
Manfred of Sicily
Manfred was the King of Sicily from 1258 to 1266. He was a natural son of the emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen but his mother, Bianca Lancia , is reported by Matthew of Paris to have been married to the emperor while on her deathbed.-Background:Manfred was born in Venosa...

 had been killed at the 1266 Battle of Benevento
Battle of Benevento
The Battle of Benevento was fought near Benevento, in present-day Southern Italy, on February 26, 1266, between the troops of Charles of Anjou and Manfred of Sicily. Manfred's defeat and death resulted in the capture of the Kingdom of Sicily by Charles....

 by the troops of Charles of Anjou. Conradin's troops were defeated at the Battle of Tagliacozzo
Battle of Tagliacozzo
The Battle of Tagliacozzo was fought on 23 August 1268 between the French, Provençal, and Italian forces of Charles of Anjou and the Italian, Spanish, Roman, Arab and German troops of the Hohenstaufen army, led by Conradin , the sixteen year old Duke of Swabia and claimant to the throne of Sicily...

, whereafter he and Frederick passed into captivity on September 8, 1268 at Torre Astura
Torre Astura
thumb|260px|The medieval coastal Tower of the [[Frangipani family|Frangipani]].Torre Astura, formerly an island called by the ancients merely Astura , is now a peninsula in the comune of Nettuno, on the coast of Latium, Italy, at the southeast extremity of the Bay of Antium, on the road to Circeii...

, south of Anzio
Anzio
Anzio is a city and comune on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about south of Rome.Well known for its seaside harbour setting, it is a fishing port and a departure point for ferries and hydroplanes to the Pontine Islands of Ponza, Palmarola and Ventotene...

. Handed over by the Frangipani
Frangipani family
The Frangipani or Frangipane is a princely family with roots in Ancient Rome. The family was powerful as a Roman patrician clan in the Middle Ages. The family was typically Guelff in sympathy and thus often bravely supported the papacy...

 to Charles of Anjou, both remained in degrading imprisonment at the Castel dell'Ovo
Castel dell'Ovo
Castel dell'Ovo is a castle located on the former island of Megaride, now a peninsula, on the gulf of Naples...

 in Naples
Naples
Naples is a city in Southern Italy, situated on the country's west coast by the Gulf of Naples. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields, it is the capital of the region of Campania and of the province of Naples...

 until publicly beheaded
Decapitation
Decapitation is the separation of the head from the body. Beheading typically refers to the act of intentional decapitation, e.g., as a means of murder or execution; it may be accomplished, for example, with an axe, sword, knife, wire, or by other more sophisticated means such as a guillotine...

 in the Piazza del Mercato on October 29.

Frederick's and Conradin's mortal remains were at first hastily buried, but later transferred to the church of Santa Maria del Carmine
Santa Maria del Carmine (Naples)
Santa Maria del Carmine is a church in Naples, Italy. It is at one end of Piazza Mercato , the centre of civic life in Naples for many centuries until it was cut off from the rest of the city by urban renewal in 1900...

, at the behest of Conradin's mother Elisabeth of Wittelsbach.