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Economic Community of West African States

Economic Community of West African States

Overview
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen West Africa
West Africa
West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. Geopolitically, the UN definition of Western Africa includes the following 16 countries and an area of approximately 5 million square km:-Flags of West Africa:...

n countries. Founded on 28 May 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos
Treaty of Lagos
The Economic Community of West African States was created by the Treaty of Lagos on May 28, 1975 in Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria. ECOWAS was established to promote cooperation and integration in order to create an economic and monetary union for promoting economic growth and development in West...

, its mission is to promote economic integration across the region.

Considered one of the pillars of the African Economic Community
African Economic Community
The African Economic Community is an organization of African Union states establishing grounds for mutual economic development among the majority of African states...

, the organization was founded in order to achieve "collective self-sufficiency" for its member states by creating a single large trading bloc through an economic and trading union.
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Encyclopedia
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen West Africa
West Africa
West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. Geopolitically, the UN definition of Western Africa includes the following 16 countries and an area of approximately 5 million square km:-Flags of West Africa:...

n countries. Founded on 28 May 1975, with the signing of the Treaty of Lagos
Treaty of Lagos
The Economic Community of West African States was created by the Treaty of Lagos on May 28, 1975 in Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria. ECOWAS was established to promote cooperation and integration in order to create an economic and monetary union for promoting economic growth and development in West...

, its mission is to promote economic integration across the region.

Considered one of the pillars of the African Economic Community
African Economic Community
The African Economic Community is an organization of African Union states establishing grounds for mutual economic development among the majority of African states...

, the organization was founded in order to achieve "collective self-sufficiency" for its member states by creating a single large trading bloc through an economic and trading union. It also serves as a peacekeeping force in the region. The organization operates officially in three co-equal languages—English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

, and Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

.

The ECOWAS consists of two institutions to implement policies, the ECOWAS Secretariat and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development, formerly known as the Fund for Cooperation until it was renamed in 2001. James Victor Gbeho
Victor Gbeho
James Victor Gbeho is a prominent Ghanaian lawyer and diplomat who has been President of the ECOWAS Commission since 2010. He was Ghana's Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1997 to 2001, under President Jerry Rawlings, and he was the Member of Parliament for the Anlo constituency from January 2001...

, the Advisor to the President of Ghana on Foreign Affairs, currently serves as the President of the commission. The current chairman is President Goodluck Jonathan
Goodluck Jonathan
Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan, GCFR, BNER, GCON is the 14th Head of State and current President of Nigeria.He was Governor of Bayelsa State from 9 December 2005 to 28 May 2007, and was sworn in as Vice President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 29 May 2007. Jonathan is a member of the...

 of Nigeria
Nigeria
Nigeria , officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic comprising 36 states and its Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in...

.

A few members of the organization have come and gone over the years. In 1976 Cape Verde
Cape Verde
The Republic of Cape Verde is an island country, spanning an archipelago of 10 islands located in the central Atlantic Ocean, 570 kilometres off the coast of Western Africa...

 joined ECOWAS, and in December 2000 Mauritania
Mauritania
Mauritania is a country in the Maghreb and West Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, by Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest...

 withdrew, having announced its intention to do so in December 1999.

Current members








—reinstated after being suspended because of the 2010 elections 






















President of the Commission, Current and Former



From 1977 to 2006 the post name was Executive Secretary
  • Aboubakar Diaby Ouattara
    Aboubakar Diaby Ouattara
    Aboubakar Diaby Ouattara is a diplomat from Côte d'Ivoire. He served as the first Executive Secretary in the Economic Community of West African States from its inception in 1977 until 1985.-External links:*...

     (Côte d'Ivoire) January 1977–1985
  • Momodu Munu
    Momodu Munu
    Momodu Munu is a former diplomat from Sierra Leone. From 1985-1989, Munu served as the Executive Secretary of the Economic Community of West African States....

     (Sierra Leone) 1985–1989
  • Abass Bundu
    Abass Bundu
    Dr. Abass Chernor Bundu is a former politician and diplomat from Sierra Leone. Bundu was bon in the town of Gbinti, Port Loko District in the Northern Province of Sierra Leone to Fula and Temne parentage...

     (Sierra Leone) 1989–1993
  • Édouard Benjamin
    Edouard Benjamin
    Édouard Benjamin is a diplomat from Guinea. He served as Executive Secretary of the Economic Community of West African States from 1993 to 1997.-References:...

     (Guinea) 1993–1997
  • Lansana Kouyaté
    Lansana Kouyate
    Lansana Kouyaté is a Guinean diplomat and political figure who served as Prime Minister of Guinea from 2007 to 2008.-Background and earlier career:...

     (Guinea) September 1997 – 31 January 2002
  • Mohammed Ibn Chambas (Ghana) 1 February 2002 – 31 December 2006


From the restructuring
  • Mohammed Ibn Chambas (Ghana) 1 January 2007 – 18 February 2010
  • James Victor Gbeho
    Victor Gbeho
    James Victor Gbeho is a prominent Ghanaian lawyer and diplomat who has been President of the ECOWAS Commission since 2010. He was Ghana's Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1997 to 2001, under President Jerry Rawlings, and he was the Member of Parliament for the Anlo constituency from January 2001...

     (Ghana) 18 February 2010 – present

Chairmen

  • Gnassingbé Eyadéma
    Gnassingbé Eyadéma
    General Gnassingbé Eyadéma , was the President of Togo from 1967 until his death in 2005. He participated in two successful military coups, in January 1963 and January 1967, and became President on April 14, 1967...

     (Togo) 1977–1978
  • Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria) 1978–1979
  • Léopold Sédar Senghor
    Léopold Sédar Senghor
    Léopold Sédar Senghor was a Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal . Senghor was the first African elected as a member of the Académie française. Before independence, he founded the political party called the Senegalese...

     (Senegal) 1979–1980
  • Gnassingbé Eyadéma
    Gnassingbé Eyadéma
    General Gnassingbé Eyadéma , was the President of Togo from 1967 until his death in 2005. He participated in two successful military coups, in January 1963 and January 1967, and became President on April 14, 1967...

     (Togo) 1980–1981
  • Siaka Stevens
    Siaka Stevens
    Siaka Probyn Stevens was the 3rd prime minister of Sierra Leone from 1967–1971 and the 1st president of Sierra Leone from 1971–1985. Stevens is generally criticised for dictatorial methods of government in which many of his political opponents were executed, as well as for mismanaging...

     (Sierra Leone) 1981–1982
  • Mathieu Kérékou
    Mathieu Kérékou
    Mathieu Kérékou, was President of Benin from 1972 to 1991 and again from 1996 to 2006. After seizing power in a military coup, he ruled the country for 17 years, for most of that time under an officially Marxist-Leninist ideology, before he was stripped of his powers by the National Conference of...

     (Benin) 1982–1983
  • Ahmed Sékou Touré
    Ahmed Sékou Touré
    Ahmed Sékou Touré was an African political leader and President of Guinea from 1958 to his death in 1984...

     (Guinea) 1983–1984
  • Lansana Conté
    Lansana Conté
    Lansana Conté was the second President of Guinea from 3 April 1984 until his death. He was a Muslim and a member of the Susu ethnic group.-Early life:...

     (Guinea) 1984–1985
  • Muhammadu Buhari
    Muhammadu Buhari
    Muhammadu Buhari was a military ruler of Nigeria and an unsuccessful candidate for president in the 2003, 2007 and 2011 presidential elections...

     (Nigeria) 1985 – 27 August 1985
  • Ibrahim Babangida
    Ibrahim Babangida
    General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida CFR DSS mni , popularly known as IBB, was a Nigerian Army officer and military ruler of Nigeria...

     (Nigeria) 27 August 1985–1989
  • Dawda Jawara
    Dawda Jawara
    Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara, GCMG was the first leader of The Gambia, serving first as Prime Minister from 1962 to 1970 and then as President from 1970 to 1994....

     (The Gambia) 1989–1990
  • Blaise Compaoré
    Blaise Compaoré
    Blaise Compaoré has been the President of Burkina Faso since 1987 following a coup d'état that ousted then-President Thomas Sankara. In 2011, a mutiny by soldiers over unpaid housing allowances forced him to flee the capital for his hometown...

     (Burkina Faso) 1990–1991
  • Dawda Jawara
    Dawda Jawara
    Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara, GCMG was the first leader of The Gambia, serving first as Prime Minister from 1962 to 1970 and then as President from 1970 to 1994....

     (The Gambia) 1991–1992
  • Abdou Diouf
    Abdou Diouf
    Abdou Diouf was the second President of Senegal, serving from 1981 to 2000. Diouf is notable both for coming to power by peaceful succession, and leaving willingly after losing the 2000 presidential election to Abdoulaye Wade...

     (Senegal) 1992–1993
  • Nicéphore Soglo
    Nicéphore Soglo
    Nicéphore Dieudonné Soglo is a Beninois politician who was Prime Minister of Benin from 1990 to 1991 and President from 1991 to 1996. He has been the Mayor of Cotonou since 2003.-Biography:Soglo was born in Togo...

     (Benin) 1993–1994
  • Jerry John Rawlings
    Jerry Rawlings
    Jerry John Rawlings is a former leader of the Republic of Ghana and now the African Union envoy to Somalia. Rawlings ruled Ghana as a military dictator in 1979 and from 1981 to 1992 and then as the first elected president of the Fourth Republic from 1993 to 2001...

     (Ghana) 1994 – 27 July 1996
  • Sani Abacha
    Sani Abacha
    General Sani Abacha was a Nigerian military leader and politician. A Kanuri from Borno by tribe, he was born and brought up in Kano, Nigeria. He was the de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998....

     (Nigeria) 27 July 1996 – 8 June 1998
  • Abdulsalami Abubakar
    Abdulsalami Abubakar
    General Abdulsalami Alhaji Abubakar is a Nigerian general who was President of Nigeria from June 9, 1998 until May 29, 1999. He succeeded Sani Abacha upon Abacha's death. It was during Abubakar's leadership that Nigeria adopted its new constitution on May 5, 1999, which provided for multiparty...

     (Nigeria) 9 June 1998–1999
  • Gnassingbé Eyadéma
    Gnassingbé Eyadéma
    General Gnassingbé Eyadéma , was the President of Togo from 1967 until his death in 2005. He participated in two successful military coups, in January 1963 and January 1967, and became President on April 14, 1967...

     (Togo) 1999
  • Alpha Oumar Konaré
    Alpha Oumar Konaré
    Alpha Oumar Konaré was the President of Mali for two five-year terms , and was Chairperson of the African Union Commission from 2003 to 2008.-Scholarly career:...

     (Mali) 1999 – 21 December 2001
  • Abdoulaye Wade
    Abdoulaye Wade
    Abdoulaye Wade is the third and current President of Senegal, in office since 2000. He is also the Secretary-General of the Senegalese Democratic Party and has led the party since it was founded in 1974...

     (Senegal) 21 December 2001 – 31 January 2003
  • John Agyekum Kufuor
    John Kufuor
    John Kofi Agyekum Kufuor was the second president of the 4th Republic of Ghana and Chairperson of the African Union...

     (Ghana) 31 January 2003 – 19 January 2005
  • Mamadou Tandja (Niger) 19 January 2005 – 19 January 2007
  • Blaise Compaoré
    Blaise Compaoré
    Blaise Compaoré has been the President of Burkina Faso since 1987 following a coup d'état that ousted then-President Thomas Sankara. In 2011, a mutiny by soldiers over unpaid housing allowances forced him to flee the capital for his hometown...

     (Burkina Faso) 19 January 2007 – 19 December 2008
  • Umaru Musa Yar'Adua
    Umaru Musa Yar'Adua
    Umaru Musa Yar'Adua was the President of Nigeria and the 13th Head of State. He served as governor of Katsina State in northern Nigeria from 29 May 1999 to 28 May 2007. He was declared the winner of the controversial Nigerian presidential election held on 21 April 2007, and was sworn in on 29 May...

     (Nigeria) 19 December 2008 – 18 February 2010
  • Goodluck Jonathan
    Goodluck Jonathan
    Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan, GCFR, BNER, GCON is the 14th Head of State and current President of Nigeria.He was Governor of Bayelsa State from 9 December 2005 to 28 May 2007, and was sworn in as Vice President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 29 May 2007. Jonathan is a member of the...

     (Nigeria) 18 February 2010 – present

Regional security cooperation


The ECOWAS nation assigned a non-aggression protocol in 1990 along with two earlier agreements in 1978 and 1981. They also signed a Protocol on Mutual Defence Assistance in Freetown, Sierra Leone, on 29 May 1981, that provided for the establishment of an Allied Armed Force of the Community.

The Community Court of Justice


The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice was created by a protocol signed in 1991 and was later included in Article 6 of the Revised Treaty of the Community in 1993. However, the Court didn’t officially begin operations until the 1991 protocol came into effect on 5 November 1996. The jurisdiction of the court is outlined in Article 9 and Article 76 of the Revised Treaty and allows rulings on disputes between states over interpretations of the Revised Treaty. It also provides the ECOWAS Council with advisory opinions on legal issues (Article 10). Like its companion courts the European Court of Human Rights and the East African Court of Justice
East African Court of Justice
The East African Court of Justice is a treaty-based judicial body of the East African Community tasked to ensure adherence to law in the interpretation and application of and compliance with the East African Treaty of 1999. The Court is made up of two divisions: a First Instance Division and an...

, it possess authority over fundamental human rights breaches.

Sporting and cultural exchange


ECOWAS nations organize a broad array of cultural and sports event under the auspices of the body, ranging from the CEDEAO Cup
CEDEAO Cup
CEDEAO Cup was a tournament for Western African nations, held biannually between 1983 and 1991. A tournament may also have been held in 1977 but few data are known....

 in football, to the Miss CEDEAO Beauty pageant
Beauty contest
A beauty pageant or beauty contest, is a competition that mainly focuses on the physical beauty of its contestants, although such contests often incorporate personality, talent, and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria...

.

West African Economic and Monetary Union




The West African Economic and Monetary Union (also known as UEMOA from its name in French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

, Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine) is an organization of eight West African states. It was established to promote economic integration
Economic integration
Economic integration refers to trade unification between different states by the partial or full abolishing of customs tariffs on trade taking place within the borders of each state...

 among countries that share the CFA franc
CFA franc
The CFA franc is the name of two currencies used in Africa which are guaranteed by the French treasury. The two CFA franc currencies are the West African CFA franc and the Central African CFA franc...

 as a common currency. UEMOA was created by a Treaty signed at Dakar
Dakar
Dakar is the capital city and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert Peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland...

, Senegal
Senegal
Senegal , officially the Republic of Senegal , is a country in western Africa. It owes its name to the Sénégal River that borders it to the east and north...

, on 10 January 1994, by the heads of state and governments of Benin
Benin
Benin , officially the Republic of Benin, is a country in West Africa. It borders Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. Its small southern coastline on the Bight of Benin is where a majority of the population is located...

, Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso – also known by its short-form name Burkina – is a landlocked country in west Africa. It is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north, Niger to the east, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and Côte d'Ivoire to the southwest.Its size is with an estimated...

, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali
Mali
Mali , officially the Republic of Mali , is a landlocked country in Western Africa. Mali borders Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and the Côte d'Ivoire on the south, Guinea on the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania on the west. Its size is just over 1,240,000 km² with...

, Niger
Niger
Niger , officially named the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. It borders Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, Algeria and Libya to the north and Chad to the east...

, Senegal
Senegal
Senegal , officially the Republic of Senegal , is a country in western Africa. It owes its name to the Sénégal River that borders it to the east and north...

, and Togo
Togo
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic , is a country in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north. It extends south to the Gulf of Guinea, on which the capital Lomé is located. Togo covers an area of approximately with a population of approximately...

. On 2 May 1997, Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
The Republic of Guinea-Bissau is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Senegal to the north, and Guinea to the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean to its west....

, a former Portuguese colony
Portuguese Empire
The Portuguese Empire , also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or the Portuguese Colonial Empire , was the first global empire in history...

, became the organization’s eighth (and only non-Francophone
Francophone
The adjective francophone means French-speaking, typically as primary language, whether referring to individuals, groups, or places. Often, the word is used as a noun to describe a natively French-speaking person....

) member state.

UEMOA is a customs union
Customs union
A customs union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff. The participant countries set up common external trade policy, but in some cases they use different import quotas...

 and currency union
Currency union
A currency union is where two or more states share the same currency, though without there necessarily having any further integration such as an Economic and Monetary Union, which has in addition a customs union and a single market.There are three types of currency unions:#Informal - unilateral...

 between the members of ECOWAS. Its objectives include the following:
  • Greater economic competitiveness, through open markets, in addition to the rationalization and harmonization of the legal environment
  • The convergence of macro-economic policies and indicators
  • The creation of a common market
  • The coordination of sectoral policies
  • The harmonization of fiscal policies


Among its achievements, the UEMOA has successfully implemented macro-economic convergence criteria and an effective surveillance mechanism. It has adopted a customs union and common external tariff
Common external tariff
When a group of countries form a customs union they must introduce a common external tariff. The same customs duties, import quotas, preferences or other non-tariff barriers to trade apply to all goods entering the area, regardless of which country within the area they are entering...

 and has combined indirect taxation regulations, in addition to initiating regional structural and sectoral policies. A September 2002 IMF survey cited the UEMOA as "the furthest along the path toward integration" of all the regional groupings in Africa.

ECOWAS and UEMOA have developed a common plan of action on trade liberalization and macroeconomic policy convergence. The organizations have also agreed on common rules of origin to enhance trade, and ECOWAS has agreed to adopt UEMOA’s customs declaration forms and compensation mechanisms.

Membership

(Founding Member) (Founding Member) (Founding Member) (Joined on 2 May 1997) (Founding Member) (Founding Member) (Founding Member) (Founding Member)

West African Monetary Zone



Formed in 2000, the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) is a group of six countries within ECOWAS that plan to introduce a common currency, the Eco
Eco (currency)
The Eco is the proposed name for the common currency that the West African Monetary Zone plans to introduce in the framework of ECOWAS. Originally the introduction of the currency was planned for December 1, 2009, however this date was revised to 2015. The original five member states are the...

, by the year 2015. The WAMZ is largely dominated by Nigeria, due to its status as Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

's largest oil producer and most populous country. All the members of group are English-speaking countries, apart from Guinea, which is Francophone. Along with Mauritania
Mauritania
Mauritania is a country in the Maghreb and West Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, by Western Sahara in the north, by Algeria in the northeast, by Mali in the east and southeast, and by Senegal in the southwest...

, Guinea opted out of the CFA franc
CFA franc
The CFA franc is the name of two currencies used in Africa which are guaranteed by the French treasury. The two CFA franc currencies are the West African CFA franc and the Central African CFA franc...

 currency shared by all other former French colonies in West
West Africa
West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. Geopolitically, the UN definition of Western Africa includes the following 16 countries and an area of approximately 5 million square km:-Flags of West Africa:...

 and Central Africa
Central Africa
Central Africa is a core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda....

.

the WAMZ attempts to establish a strong stable currency to rival the CFA franc, whose exchange rate is tied to that of the Euro and is guaranteed by the French Treasury. The eventual goal is for the CFA franc and Eco to merge, giving all of West and Central Africa a single, stable currency. The launch of the new currency is being developed by the West African Monetary Institute based in Accra
Accra
Accra is the capital and largest city of Ghana, with an urban population of 1,658,937 according to the 2000 census. Accra is also the capital of the Greater Accra Region and of the Accra Metropolitan District, with which it is coterminous...

, Ghana. However, several of the WAMZ's countries currently suffer from weak currencies and chronic budget deficits. Unfortunately, their attempts to close this economic gap by printing more currency has further encouraged inflation.

Membership

(Founding Member) (Founding Member) (Founding Member) (Joined on 16 February 2010) (Founding Member) (Founding Member)

Transport


A Trans-ECOWAS project, established in 2007, plans to upgrade railways in this zone, including Ghana
Railway stations in Ghana
List of Railway stations in Ghana includes:- Maps :* * * - East :* Accra - - port, capital city* Batchona* Asoprochona - suburban terminus* Koforidua * Pokoasi - - junction** Shai Hills -...

.

See also

  • The Arab League
    Arab League
    The Arab League , officially called the League of Arab States , is a regional organisation of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa, and Southwest Asia . It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan , Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a...

  • North American Free Trade Agreement
    North American Free Trade Agreement
    The North American Free Trade Agreement or NAFTA is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It superseded the Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement...

     (NAFTA)
  • The European Union
    European Union
    The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

  • European Free Trade Association
    European Free Trade Association
    The European Free Trade Association or EFTA is a free trade organisation between four European countries that operates parallel to, and is linked to, the European Union . EFTA was established on 3 May 1960 as a trade bloc-alternative for European states who were either unable to, or chose not to,...

  • Brown card system–motor insurance scheme of ECOWAS
  • East African Community
    East African Community
    The East African Community is an intergovernmental organisation comprising the five east African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. Pierre Nkurunziza, the President of the Republic of Burundi, is the current Chairman of the East African Community. The EAC was originally...


External links

  • West-African Monetary Institute (In French)
  • WAEMU Treaty
  • ECOWAS Official Web Site
  • ECOWAS Secretariat Official Web Site: includes calendar of meetings.
  • ECOWAS Parliament
  • ECOWAS Revised Treaty
  • ECOBANK—African banking group, present in thirty (30) countries on the Africa
    Africa
    Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

    n continent plus France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     in Europe
    Europe
    Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

    . ECOBANK's Initial Public Offer of eight million plus shares in Accra, Ghana in May 2006 was oversubscribed. The listing of this IPO, landed ECOBANK on the Ghana Stock Exchange
    Ghana Stock Exchange
    The Ghana Stock Exchange is the principal stock exchange of Ghana. The exchange was incorporated in July 1989 with trading commencing in 1990. It currently has around 30 listed companies and 2 corporate bonds. All types of securities can be listed. Criteria for listing include capital adequacy,...

    . As of December 2009, ECOBANK stock is also listed on the Nigeria Stock Exchange and on the Bourse Régionale des Valeurs Mobilières (BRVM
    BRVM
    The Bourse Régionale des Valeurs Mobilières SA or BRVM, is a regional stock exchange serving the following west African countries: Benin Burkina Faso Guinea Bissau Côte d'Ivoire Mali Niger Senegal Togo....

    ), the stock exchange of Francophone
    Francophone
    The adjective francophone means French-speaking, typically as primary language, whether referring to individuals, groups, or places. Often, the word is used as a noun to describe a natively French-speaking person....

     West African countries in Abidjan
    Abidjan
    Abidjan is the economic and former official capital of Côte d'Ivoire, while the current capital is Yamoussoukro. it was the largest city in the nation and the third-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, and Kinshasa but before Montreal...

    , Ivory Coast.
  • More About Ecobank
  • PowerPoint presentation of ECOWAS, 2004
  • Mbendi profile
  • Security by proxy? The EU and (sub-)regional organisations: the case of ECOWAS, by Bastien Nivet, Occasional Paper No. 63, March 2006, European Union Institute for Security Studies
    European Union Institute for Security Studies
    The European Union Institute for Security Studies is a Paris-based EU agency of the Common Foreign and Security Policy . Its goals are to find a common security culture for the EU, to help develop and project the CFSP, and to enrich Europe’s strategic debate.The EUISS is an autonomous agency with...