Defense Science Board

Defense Science Board

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The Defense Science Board (or DSB) is a committee
Committee
A committee is a type of small deliberative assembly that is usually intended to remain subordinate to another, larger deliberative assembly—which when organized so that action on committee requires a vote by all its entitled members, is called the "Committee of the Whole"...

 of civilian
Civilian
A civilian under international humanitarian law is a person who is not a member of his or her country's armed forces or other militia. Civilians are distinct from combatants. They are afforded a degree of legal protection from the effects of war and military occupation...

 experts appointed to advise the U.S. Department of Defense on scientific
Science
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

 and technical matters. It was established in 1956 on the recommendation of the second Hoover Commission
Hoover Commission
The Hoover Commission, officially named the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, was a body appointed by President Harry S. Truman in 1947 to recommend administrative changes in the Federal Government of the United States...

.

Charter


The Board's charter
Charter
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified...

 states its mission as:
"The Board shall provide the Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer in the United States Armed Forces, and is the principal military adviser to the President of the United States, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council and the Secretary of Defense...

 and, as requested, other Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Principal Staff Assistants, the Secretaries of the Military Departments, the Commanders of the Combatant Commands, independent advice and recommendations on scientific, technical
Technical
Technical may refer to:*Technical , a fighting vehicle based on a pickup truck*Technical analysis, a discipline for forecasting the future direction of prices through the study of past market data*Technical drawing, also known as drafting...

, manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

, acquisition
Acquisition
Acquisition may refer to:* Takeover, the acquisition of a company* Mergers and acquisitions, strategy of buying and selling of various companies to quickly grow a company...

 process, and other matters of special interest to the Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

. The Board is not established to advise on individual DoD procurements, but instead shall be concerned with the pressing and complex technology
Technology
Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. The word technology comes ;...

 problems facing the Department of Defense in such areas as research
Research
Research can be defined as the scientific search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method...

, engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

, and manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

, and will ensure the identification of new technologies and new applications of technology in those areas to strengthen national security
National security
National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic, diplomacy, power projection and political power. The concept developed mostly in the United States of America after World War II...

. No matter shall be assigned to the Board for its consideration thatwould require any Board Member to participate personally and substantially in the conduct of any specific procurement or place him or her in the position of acting as a "procurement officials," as that term is defined pursuant to law. The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics or designated representative shall be authorized to act upon the advice and recommendations of the Board."


The DSB conducts multiple simultaneous studies each year. Study topics are selected from requests made by Department of Defense or Congressional leaders. In addition to studies that can start and stop at any time during the calendar year, the DSB usually conducts one or more "summer studies" each year; the term "summer study" refers to the fact that the panels meet as a large group in August each year (usually in Irvine, California) to work on these particular studies. Given the fact that these meeting dates are well-established, it is a normal practice for senior DoD personnel interested in the particular study topics for that year to come to the last day of the meeting and be briefed in person on the study findings to-date. All DSB studies result in a written report, many of which are released to the public.

Current study topics are also mostly listed on the DSB web page.

Membership and Designation


The Board shall be composed of not more than 45 members and not more than 12 Senior Fellow members, who are eminent authorities in the fields of scientific, technical, manufacturing, acquisition process, and other matters of special interest to the Department of Defense. The Board members shall be appointed by the Secretary of Defense, and their appointments will be renewed on an annual basis. Those members, who are not full-time federal officers or employees, shall be appointed as experts and consultants under the authority of 5 U.S.C. Sec. 3109, and serve as special government employees. Members may be appointed for terms ranging from one to four years. Such appointments will normally be staggered among the Board membership to ensure an orderly turnover in the Board's overall composition on a periodic basis. With the exception of travel and per diem for official travel, they shall normally serve without compensation, unless otherwise authorized by the appointing authority. The Secretary of Defense, based upon the recommendation of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics), shall appoint the Board�s Chairperson. The Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics) shall appoint the Vice Chairperson. The Board Chairman and Vice Chairman shall serve two-year terms and, with the Secretary of Defense's approval, may serve additional terms. The Secretary of Defense may invite other distinguished U.S. Government officers to serve as non-voting observers, and the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics may invite chairpersons from other DoD-supported federal advisory committees to serve as non-voting observers. The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics may appoint experts and consultants, with special expertise, to assist the Board on an ad hoc basis. These experts and consultants, appointed under the authority of 5 U.S.C. Sec. 3109, shall also serve as special government employees; however, they shall have no voting rights on the Board. Non-voting observers and those non-voting experts and consultants appointed by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics shall not count toward the Board�s total membership.

History


The Defense Science Board was established in 1956 in response to recommendations of the Hoover Commission:

"The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research and Development) will appoint a standing committee, reporting directly to him, of outstanding basic and applied scientists. This committee will canvass periodically the needs and opportunities presented by new scientific knowledge for radically new weapons systems."

The original membership of the Board, totaling twenty-five, consisted of the chairman of the eleven technical advisory panels in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research and Development), the chairmen of the senior advisory committees of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, the Directors of the National Science Foundation, the National Bureau of Standards, and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (predecessor of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration), the President of the National Academy of Sciences, and seven members-at-large drawn from the scientific and technical community.

The Board met for the first time on September 20, 1956. Its initial assignment concerned the program and administration of basic research, component research, and the advancement of technology in areas of interest to the Department of Defense.

On December 31, 1956, a charter was issued specifying the Board as advisory to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research and Development). Following the consolidation of the offices of the Assistant Secretaries of Defense for R&D and Applications Engineering in 1957, the Board reconstituted as advisory to the Secretary of Defense through the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Research and Engineering). Its membership was increased to 28, including as ex officio members, the Chairmen of the President’s Science Advisory Committee and the Scientific Advisory Committee in the Office of Guided Missiles, Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). A revised Board charter was issued on October 30, 1957.

In accordance with the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, which stipulated the responsibilities, functions, and authority of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E), the Board’s charter was revised on November 23, 1959. This revision harmonized the role and mission of the Defense Science Board with DDR&D’s responsibilities, prescribing eight members-at-large and modifying ex officio membership to conform with the establishment or dissolution of advisory panels in the office of the DDR&E.

In the course of organizing his staff, the DDR&E appointed Assistant Directors for several types of warfare systems. Following this action in late 1959, the Board made a study of the structure of scientific and engineering advisory bodies. Its report on this study was implemented by DoD Directive 5129.22, "Defense Science Board Charter," dated April 10, 1961. This directive was revised and reissued on February 17, 1971. In 1978, the title, Director of Defense Research and Engineering, was changed to Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (USDRE). On July 1, 1986, the title, the Undersecretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, was changed to Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition (USD/A). On January 1, 1990, the Defense Manufacturing Board, which had reported directly to the USD(A), merged into the Defense Science Board, adding manufacturing issues to the list of items of interest.

Currently, the Board’s authorized strength is thirty-two members and seven ex officio members (the chairmen of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Policy, Defense Business Board and Defense Intelligence Agency advisory committees). The members are appointed for terms ranging from one to four years and are selected on the basis of their preeminence in the fields of science, technology and its application to military operations, research, engineering, manufacturing and acquisition process.

The Board operates by forming Task Forces consisting of Board members and other consultants/experts to address those tasks referred to it by formal direction. The products of each Task Force typically consist of a set of formal briefings to the Board and appropriate DoD officials, and a written report containing findings, recommendations and a suggested implementation plan. The Board reports directly to the Secretary of Defense through the USD (AT&L) while, at the same time, working in close coordination with the DDR&E to develop and strengthen the Department's research and development strategies for the 21st Century.

In recognition of the outstanding advice provided by the DSB to the Department over the past forty plus years, the Secretary of Defense established the Eugene G. Fubini award in 1996 for Outstanding Service to the Defense Community in an Advisory Capacity. This special honor marked yet another important milestone in the Board's long and distinguished history of service to the Department and the Nation.

Chairmen

Name Tenure
Howard P. Robertson
Howard Percy Robertson
Howard Percy Robertson was an American mathematician and physicist known for contributions related to physical cosmology and the uncertainty principle...

1956 – 1961
Clifford C. Furnas
Clifford C. Furnas
Clifford Cook Furnas was an author, Olympic athlete, scientist, expert on guided missiles, university president, and public servant...

1961 – 1965
Robert L. Sproull
Robert Sproull
Robert Lamb Sproull is a retired American educator, physicist, and US Department of Defense official.Sproull was born in Lacon, Illinois. A graduate of Deep Springs College, Sproull studied English literature at Cornell University before taking a Ph.D. at the same university in physics...

1965 - 1972
Solomon J. Buchsbaum 1972 – 1977
Norman R. Augustine
Norman Ralph Augustine
Norman Ralph Augustine is a U.S. aerospace businessman who served as Under Secretary of the Army from 1975-77. Augustine currently serves as chairman of the Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee.-Career:...

1982 – 1986
Robert R. Everett
Robert Everett (computer science)
Robert R. Everett is a computer scientist. He is an honorary board member of the Mitre Corporation.In 1945 he worked with Jay Forrester on the Whirlwind project, one of the first real time electronic computers...

1988 – 1989
John S. Foster, Jr. 1990 – 1993
Paul G. Kaminski 1993 – 1994
Craig I. Fields 1994 – 2001
William J. Schneider, Jr.
William Schneider, Jr.
William J. Schneider, Jr. is an American who has served in a number of prominent federal government positions.Schneider served as Under-Secretary of State in the Reagan administration, and later became a member of the Project for the New American Century...

2001 – 2009
Paul G. Kaminski 2009 – Present

Eugene G. Fubini Award
Eugene G. Fubini Award
The Eugene G. Fubini award is made by the Defense Science Board on an annual basis to recognize an individual from the private sector who has made highly significant contributions to the Department of Defense in an advisory capacity over a sustained period of time....

 Recipients


For Outstanding Contributions To The Department Of Defense In An Advisory Capacity
Year Recipient
1996 Eugene G. Fubini
Eugene Fubini
Dr. Eugene G. Fubini was a defense policy maker of the Cold War.He immigrated from Italy to the United States in 1939, and in 1942 joined the war effort, working with America despite his native nationality...

1997 No award presented
1998 Dr. John S. Foster, Jr.
1999 Dr. Joseph Braddock
2000 Mr. Norman R. Augustine
Norman Ralph Augustine
Norman Ralph Augustine is a U.S. aerospace businessman who served as Under Secretary of the Army from 1975-77. Augustine currently serves as chairman of the Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee.-Career:...

2001 Mr. Charles A. (Bert) Fowler
2002 Mr. David R. Heebner
2003 Gen Larry D. Welch
Larry D. Welch
General Larry D. Welch was the 12th Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force. As chief, he served as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training and equipage of a combined active duty, Guard, Reserve and civilian force serving at locations in the United...

, USAF (Ret.)
2004 Dr. Robert Hermann
Robert J. Hermann
Robert Jay Hermann was the ninth Director of the National Reconnaissance Office.Dr. Hermann was the major architect of the National Security Agency's expanded role in space reconnaissance. In addition, he advocated broadening the NRO's support to tactical military customers. Dr...

2005 Dr. Craig Fields
2006 Dr. James Burnett
2007 Dr. Theodore Gold
2008 Mr. Robert R. Everett
2009 Dr. James R. Schlesinger
James R. Schlesinger
Dr. James Rodney Schlesinger is an American politician. He is best known for serving as Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford...

2010 Mr. Daniel J. Fink