Major-General Sir David Bruce
KCB FRS FRSE (29 May 1855, Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...
- 27 November 1931, London) was a Scottish
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...
pathologist and microbiologist
A microbiologist is a scientist who works in the field of microbiology. Microbiologists study organisms called microbes. Microbes can take the form of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists...
who investigated the Malta-fever and trypanosomes
Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids , a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano and soma because of their corkscrew-like motion. All trypanosomes are heteroxenous and are transmitted via a vector...
, identifying the cause of sleeping sickness.
He was born to Scottish parents, engineer David Bruce and his wife Jane Russell Hamilton, in Australia and returned with his family to Scotland at the age of 5. He was educated at Stirling High School
Stirling High School is a state high school for 11-18 year olds run by Stirling Council in Stirling, Scotland. It is one of seven high schools in the Stirling district, and currently has approximately 972 pupils attending...
and then studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a public research university located in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university...
After a brief period as a general practitioner in Reigate
Reigate is a historic market town in Surrey, England, at the foot of the North Downs, and in the London commuter belt. It is one of the main constituents of the Borough of Reigate and Banstead...
(1881–83) he joined the Army Medical Service (1883–1919) and in 1884 was stationed in Malta, where he identified Malta Fever
Brucellosis, also called Bang's disease, Crimean fever, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever, is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized milk or meat from infected animals or close contact with their secretions...
. In 1903 he identified the causative protozoa
Protozoa are a diverse group of single-cells eukaryotic organisms, many of which are motile. Throughout history, protozoa have been defined as single-cell protists with animal-like behavior, e.g., movement...
, and tsetse fly
Tsetse , sometimes spelled tzetze and also known as tik-tik flies, are large biting flies that inhabit much of mid-continental Africa between the Sahara and the Kalahari deserts. They live by feeding on the blood of vertebrate animals and are the primary biological vectors of trypanosomes, which...
as the vector, of African trypanosomiasis ("sleeping sickness").
He won the Leeuwenhoek Medal
The Leeuwenhoek Medal, established in 1877 by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, , in honor of the 17th- and 18th-century microscopist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, is granted every ten years to the scientist judged to have made the most significant contribution to microbiology during...
Brucella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. They are small , non-motile, non-encapsulated coccobacilli, which function as facultative intracellular parasites....
is the genus of the Bacteriaceae which is named after him. Brucella melitensis
-Introduction:Brucella melitensis is a gram negative coccobacillus bacteria from the Brucellaceae family. The bacterium causes Ovine Brucellosis, along with Brucella ovis. It can infect sheep, cattle, and sometimes humans and it can be transmitted by the stable fly...
is the cause of undulant fever in man and of abortion in goats. It is usually transmitted by goat's milk. Trypanosoma brucei
Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic protist species that causes African trypanosomiasis in humans and nagana in animals in Africa. There are 3 sub-species of T. brucei: T. b. brucei, T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense.These obligate parasites have two hosts - an insect vector and mammalian host...
, the cause of sleeping sickness, is also named after him.
Names of undulant fever
- Malta fever
- Mediterranean fever
- continued fever
- Cyprus fever
- goat fever
- Gibraltar fever
- mountain fever
- Neapolitan fever
- rock fever
- slow fever
- febris melitensis
- febris undulans
- Bruce's septicemia
- melitensis septicemia