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Cumberland

Cumberland

Overview
Cumberland is a historic county
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England are subdivisions of England established for administration by the Normans and in most cases based on earlier Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and shires...

 of North West England
North West England
North West England, informally known as The North West, is one of the nine official regions of England.North West England had a 2006 estimated population of 6,853,201 the third most populated region after London and the South East...

, on the border with Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

, from the 12th century until 1974. It formed an administrative county
Administrative counties of England
Administrative counties were a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government from 1889 to 1974. They were created by the Local Government Act 1888 as the areas for which county councils were elected. Some large counties were divided into several administrative...

 from 1889 to 1974 (excluding Carlisle from 1914) and now forms part of Cumbria
Cumbria
Cumbria , is a non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local authority, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's largest settlement and county town is Carlisle. It consists of six districts, and in...

.

What was to become Cumberland had a complicated political history before the 12th century. The first record of the term "Cumberland" appears in 945, when the Anglo Saxon Chronicle recorded that the area was ceded to Malcolm I of Scotland
Malcolm I of Scotland
Máel Coluim mac Domnaill was king of Scots , becoming king when his cousin Causantín mac Áeda abdicated to become a monk...

 by King Edmund of England
Edmund I of England
Edmund I , called the Elder, the Deed-doer, the Just, or the Magnificent, was King of England from 939 until his death. He was a son of Edward the Elder and half-brother of Athelstan. Athelstan died on 27 October 939, and Edmund succeeded him as king.-Military threats:Shortly after his...

.
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Encyclopedia
Cumberland is a historic county
Historic counties of England
The historic counties of England are subdivisions of England established for administration by the Normans and in most cases based on earlier Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and shires...

 of North West England
North West England
North West England, informally known as The North West, is one of the nine official regions of England.North West England had a 2006 estimated population of 6,853,201 the third most populated region after London and the South East...

, on the border with Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

, from the 12th century until 1974. It formed an administrative county
Administrative counties of England
Administrative counties were a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government from 1889 to 1974. They were created by the Local Government Act 1888 as the areas for which county councils were elected. Some large counties were divided into several administrative...

 from 1889 to 1974 (excluding Carlisle from 1914) and now forms part of Cumbria
Cumbria
Cumbria , is a non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local authority, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's largest settlement and county town is Carlisle. It consists of six districts, and in...

.

Early history and formation of county


What was to become Cumberland had a complicated political history before the 12th century. The first record of the term "Cumberland" appears in 945, when the Anglo Saxon Chronicle recorded that the area was ceded to Malcolm I of Scotland
Malcolm I of Scotland
Máel Coluim mac Domnaill was king of Scots , becoming king when his cousin Causantín mac Áeda abdicated to become a monk...

 by King Edmund of England
Edmund I of England
Edmund I , called the Elder, the Deed-doer, the Just, or the Magnificent, was King of England from 939 until his death. He was a son of Edward the Elder and half-brother of Athelstan. Athelstan died on 27 October 939, and Edmund succeeded him as king.-Military threats:Shortly after his...

. At the time of the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
Domesday Book , now held at The National Archives, Kew, Richmond upon Thames in South West London, is the record of the great survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086...

 in 1086 most of the future county remained part of Scotland although some villages in the far south west, which were the possessions of the Earl of Northumbria
Earl of Northumbria
Earl of Northumbria was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. The earldom of Northumbria was the successor of the ealdormanry of Bamburgh, itself the successor of an independent Bernicia. Under the Norse kingdom of York, there were earls of...

, were included in the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been increasingly undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have also been subject to periodic reform...

 section with the Furness
Furness
Furness is a peninsula in south Cumbria, England. At its widest extent, it is considered to cover the whole of North Lonsdale, that part of the Lonsdale hundred that is an exclave of the historic county of Lancashire, lying to the north of Morecambe Bay....

 region.

In 1092 King William Rufus of England invaded the Carlisle district, settling it with colonists. He created an Earldom of Carlisle, and granted the territory to Ranulf Meschyn. In 1133 Carlisle was made the see of a new diocese
Diocese of Carlisle
The Diocese of Carlisle was created in 1133 by Henry I out of part of the Diocese of Durham, although many people of Celtic descent in the area looked to Glasgow for spiritual leadership. The first bishop was Æthelwold, formerly the king's confessor and now prior of the Augustinian priory at...

, identical with the area of the earldom. However, on the death of King Henry I
Henry I of England
Henry I was the fourth son of William I of England. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106...

 in 1135, the area was regained by Scotland's King David I
David I of Scotland
David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians and later King of the Scots...

. He was able to consolidate his power and made Carlisle one of his chief seats of government, while England descended into a lengthy civil war
The Anarchy
The Anarchy or The Nineteen-Year Winter was a period of English history during the reign of King Stephen, which was characterised by civil war and unsettled government...

. In 1157 Henry II of England
Henry II of England
Henry II ruled as King of England , Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Henry, the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, was the...

 resumed possession of the area from Malcolm IV of Scotland
Malcolm IV of Scotland
Malcolm IV , nicknamed Virgo, "the Maiden" , King of Scots, was the eldest son of Earl Henry and Ada de Warenne...

, and formed two new counties from the former earldom: Westmorland
Westmorland
Westmorland is an area of North West England and one of the 39 historic counties of England. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974, after which the entirety of the county was absorbed into the new county of Cumbria.-Early history:...

 and "Carliol". The silver-mining area of Alston
Alston Moor
Alston Moor is an area of moorland and civil parish in Cumbria, England, based around the small town of Alston. The parish had a population of 2,156 at the 2001 census. As well as the town of Alston, the parish includes the villages of Garrigill and Nenthead, along with the hamlets of Nenthall,...

, previously associated with the Liberty of Durham
Liberty of Durham
The Liberty of Durham was a Saxon regional division of the North of England under the control of the Bishop of Durham.The liberty was known variously as the "Liberty of Durham", "Liberty of St Cuthbert's Land" "The lands of St. Cuthbert between Tyne and Tees" or "The Liberty of Haliwerfolc". The...

, was also added to the new county of Carliol for financial reasons. By 1177 the county of Carliol was known as Cumberland. The border between England and Scotland was made permanent by the Treaty of York
Treaty of York
The Treaty of York was an agreement between Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland, signed at York on 25 September 1237. It detailed the future status of several feudal properties and addressed other issues between the two kings, and indirectly marked the end of Scotland's attempts to...

 in 1237.

Boundaries and subdivisions


The boundaries formed in the 12th century did not change substantially over the county's existence. It bordered four English counties and two Scottish counties. These were Northumberland
Northumberland
Northumberland is the northernmost ceremonial county and a unitary district in North East England. For Eurostat purposes Northumberland is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three boroughs or unitary districts that comprise the "Northumberland and Tyne and Wear" NUTS 2 region...

 and County Durham
County Durham
County Durham is a ceremonial county and unitary district in north east England. The county town is Durham. The largest settlement in the ceremonial county is the town of Darlington...

 to the east; Westmorland
Westmorland
Westmorland is an area of North West England and one of the 39 historic counties of England. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974, after which the entirety of the county was absorbed into the new county of Cumbria.-Early history:...

 to the south, the Furness
Furness
Furness is a peninsula in south Cumbria, England. At its widest extent, it is considered to cover the whole of North Lonsdale, that part of the Lonsdale hundred that is an exclave of the historic county of Lancashire, lying to the north of Morecambe Bay....

 part of Lancashire
Lancashire
Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Although Lancaster is still considered to be the county town, Lancashire County Council is based in Preston...

 to the southwest; Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire or the County of Dumfries is a registration county of Scotland. The lieutenancy area of Dumfries has similar boundaries.Until 1975 it was a county. Its county town was Dumfries...

 to the north and Roxburghshire
Roxburghshire
Roxburghshire or the County of Roxburgh is a registration county of Scotland. It borders Dumfries to the west, Selkirk to the north-west, and Berwick to the north. To the south-east it borders Cumbria and Northumberland in England.It was named after the Royal Burgh of Roxburgh...

 to the northeast.

To the west the county was bounded by the Solway Firth
Solway Firth
The Solway Firth is a firth that forms part of the border between England and Scotland, between Cumbria and Dumfries and Galloway. It stretches from St Bees Head, just south of Whitehaven in Cumbria, to the Mull of Galloway, on the western end of Dumfries and Galloway. The Isle of Man is also very...

 and the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
The Irish Sea separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. It is connected to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Atlantic Ocean in the north by the North Channel. Anglesey is the largest island within the Irish Sea, followed by the Isle of Man...

. The northern boundary was formed by the Solway Estuary
Solway
-Places:New Zealand*Solway, New Zealand, a suburb of MastertonUnited Kingdom*Solway Firth, the inlet between the north west of England and southern Scotland*Solway Moss, lowland peat bog in Cumbria, England, near the Scottish border...

 and the border with Scotland running east to Scotch Knowe at Kershope Burn. The boundary ran south from Scotch Knowe along the Cheviot Hills
Cheviot Hills
The Cheviot Hills is a range of rolling hills straddling the England–Scotland border between Northumberland and the Scottish Borders.There is a broad split between the northern and the southern Cheviots...

, then followed a tributary of the River Irthing
River Irthing
The River Irthing is a river in Cumbria, England and a major tributary of the River Eden.Rising in the hills around Paddaburn Moor in Border Forest Park, for the first 15 miles of its journey south it defines the border between Northumberland and Cumbria. After passing Butterburn Flow raised bog,...

 and crossed Denton Fell to the River Tees
River Tees
The River Tees is in Northern England. It rises on the eastern slope of Cross Fell in the North Pennines, and flows eastwards for 85 miles to reach the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar.-Geography:...

. From Tees Head the boundary crossed the Pennines
Pennines
The Pennines are a low-rising mountain range, separating the North West of England from Yorkshire and the North East.Often described as the "backbone of England", they form a more-or-less continuous range stretching from the Peak District in Derbyshire, around the northern and eastern edges of...

 to descend Crowdundale Beck, from where it followed the rivers Eden
River Eden, Cumbria
The River Eden is a river that flows through Cumbria, England on its way to the Solway Firth.-Course of river:The Eden rises in Black Fell Moss, Mallerstang, on the high ground between High Seat, Yorkshire Dales and Hugh Seat. Here it forms the boundary between the counties of Cumbria and North...

 and Eamont
River Eamont
The River Eamont is a river in Cumbria, England and one of the major tributaries of the River Eden.The river is formed by the outflow from Ullswater in the Lake District, later augmented by Dacre Beck from the west and the River Lowther which carries the water from Haweswater north to the Eamont at...

 to the centre of Ullswater
Ullswater
Ullswater is the second largest lake in the English Lake District, being approximately nine miles long and 0.75 miles wide with a maximum depth of slightly more than ....

. The line then followed the Glencoin Beck to the top of the Helvellyn
Helvellyn
Helvellyn is a mountain in the English Lake District, the apex of the Eastern Fells. At above sea level, it is the third highest peak in both the Lake District and England...

 ridge, thence to Wrynose Pass
Wrynose Pass
The Wrynose Pass is a mountain pass in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England between the Duddon Valley and Little Langdale.-Road:...

 and along the River Duddon
River Duddon
The Duddon is a river of north-west England. It rises at a point above sea level near the Three Shire Stone at the highest point of Wrynose Pass . The river descends to the sea over a course of about before entering the Irish Sea at the Duddon Sands. For its entire length the Duddon forms the...

 to the sea near Millom
Millom
Millom is a town and civil parish on the estuary of the River Duddon in the southwest of Cumbria, England. The name is Cumbrian dialect for "At the mills". The town is accessible both by rail and an A class road...

.

The highest point of the county was Scafell Pike
Scafell Pike
Scafell Pike is the highest mountain in England at . It is located in Lake District National Park sometimes confused with the neighbouring Sca Fell, to which it is connected by the col of Mickledore...

 at 3,208 feet (978 m); it is the highest mountain in England. Carlisle was the county town
County town
A county town is a county's administrative centre in the United Kingdom or Ireland. County towns are usually the location of administrative or judicial functions, or established over time as the de facto main town of a county. The concept of a county town eventually became detached from its...

.

Division into wards


The Earldom of Carlisle was divided into baronies, but on the creation of the county these were replaced by wards. These took the place of hundred
Hundred (division)
A hundred is a geographic division formerly used in England, Wales, Denmark, South Australia, some parts of the United States, Germany , Sweden, Finland and Norway, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller administrative divisions...

s found in most other English counties, and originated in military subdivisions organised for the defence of the county from incursions by Scottish troops.
Each ward was composed of a number of parishes, areas originally formed for ecclesiastical administration. In common with other counties of northern England, many parishes in Cumberland were very large, often consisting of a number of distinct townships and hamlets. Many of these subdivisions were eventually to become civil parishes and form the lowest level of local government.
The wards and their constituent parishes in 1821 were:

Ward Parishes Notes
Allerdale above Derwent
Arlecdon
Arlecdon
Arlecdon is a village in the Borough of Copeland in Cumbria, England, near the town of Whitehaven. It has an historic Grade II listed church, first built in 1829, which contains a stained glass window dedicated to Isaac Fletcher of Frizington. In 1904 the church was remodelled, with the addition...

Beckermet
Beckermet
Beckermet is a village, civil parish and post town in the English county of Cumbria, located near the coast between Egremont and Seascale. Historically within Cumberland, it is served by Braystones railway station and is less than a mile west of the A595 road...

 St John
Included part of township of Calder & Beckermet or Calderbridge
Beckermet St Bridget Included townships of Ennerdale
Ennerdale Bridge
Ennerdale Bridge is a settlement in the county of Cumbria, England.Ennerdale Bridge lies at the confluence of Croasdale Beck and the River Ehen and is on the border of the Lake District National Park that uses both watercourses as its boundary. The nearest town is Cleator Moor to its west...

 & Kinniside, Eskdale & Wasdale
Bootle
Bootle, Cumbria
Bootle is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Copeland in Cumbria, England. According to the 2001 census, it had a population of 745. Historically within Cumberland, the village is in the Lake District National Park, and is close to the Irish Sea coast...

Brigham Included townships of Blindbothel
Blindbothel
Blindbothel is a village and civil parish in the Allerdale district of Cumbria, England. It is on the edge of the Lake District National Park, and is a couple of miles south of Cockermouth. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 148....

, Buttermere
Buttermere
Buttermere is a lake in the English Lake District in North West England. The adjacent village of Buttermere takes its name from the lake. Historically within the former county of Cumberland, the lake is now within the county of Cumbria. It is owned by the National Trust, forming part of their...

, Cockermouth
Cockermouth
-History:The Romans created a fort at Derventio, now the adjoining village of Papcastle, to protect the river crossing, which had become located on a major route for troops heading towards Hadrian's Wall....

, Eaglesfield
Eaglesfield
Eaglesfield is a small town in south east Dumfriesshire , Scotland. It is not far from the English Border.-History:Eaglesfield is of ancient origin, and Blacket Tower is the former seat of an old Borders family...

, Embleton
Embleton, Cumbria
Embleton is a small village and civil parish in the Allerdale district in Cumbria, England. It is located east of Cockermouth on the A66 road, and within the boundaries of the Lake District National Park...

, Greysouthern, Mosser, Setmurthey, Whinfell
Cleator
Cleator
Cleator is a village in the English county of Cumbria and within the boundaries of the traditional county of Cumberland.Cleator is 1½ miles south of the town of Cleator Moor on the A5086 road. Cleator was the original village, Cleator Moor being the moor above the village. It is the site of the...

Corney
Corney
Corney is a small settlement in Cumbria, England. It is near the A595 road, in the civil parish of Waberthwaite and Corney.-External links:*...

Crosthwaite (part) Included township of Borrowdale
Borrowdale
Borrowdale is a valley and civil parish in the English Lake District in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England.Borrowdale lies within the historic county boundaries of Cumberland, and is sometimes referred to as Cumberland Borrowdale in order to distinguish it from another Borrowdale in the...

Dean
Dean, Cumbria
Dean is a village and civil parish in the Allerdale District, in the county of Cumbria. Dean has a Church of England School, a church called St Oswald's Church, Dean and a pub. Nearby settlements include the town of Workington, the village of Ullock and the hamlet of Deanscales...

Drigg and Carlton
Drigg
Drigg is a village situated in the civil parish of Drigg and Carleton on the West Cumbria coast of the Irish Sea and on the boundary of the Lake District National Park in the county of Cumbria, England....

Egremont
Egremont, Cumbria
Egremont is a market town and civil parish in the Borough of Copeland in Cumbria, England, south of Whitehaven and on the River Ehen. The town, which lies at the foot of Uldale Valley and Dent Fell, was historically within Cumberland and has a long industrial heritage including dyeing, weaving and...

Gosforth
Gosforth, Cumbria
Gosforth is a village and civil parish in the Lake District, in the Borough of Copeland in Cumbria, England. It is situated on the A595 road between Whitehaven and Barrow-in-Furness. It has a population of 1,230....

Included township of Bolton
Haile
Haile, Cumbria
Haile is a small village and civil parish in the Copeland District, in the county of Cumbria. Haile has a church. Nearby settlements include the town of Egremont and the villages of Thornhill and Beckermet. For transport there is the A595 road nearby....

Harrington
Harrington, Cumbria
Harrington is on the Cumbrian coast south of Workington and north of Whitehaven. Its industrial history, which largely ended in the late 1930s, included an iron works, coal mining, and steel making. It once had five railway stations...

Irton with Santon Included township of Santon & Murthwaite
Lamplugh
Lamplugh
Lamplugh is a scattered community and civil parish located in west Cumbria on the edge of the English Lake District. It is the starting point for a number of walks, and is on the Sea to Sea / C2C / Coast to Coast Cycle Route....

Included townships of Kelton & Winder, Murton
Lorton
Lorton, Cumbria
Lorton is a civil parish in the district of Allerdale, in the county of Cumbria, England, containing two small villages - Low Lorton and High Lorton, both approximately four miles south of Cockermouth. At the time of the 2001 census, the parish had a total population of 250 people...

Included townships of Brackenthwaite, Wythop
Loweswater
Loweswater, Cumbria
Loweswater is a village and civil parish in the county of Cumbria, England.-Village:The village lies between the Lake District lakes of Loweswater and Crummock Water, about south of Cockermouth and within the Lake District National Park...

Millom
Millom
Millom is a town and civil parish on the estuary of the River Duddon in the southwest of Cumbria, England. The name is Cumbrian dialect for "At the mills". The town is accessible both by rail and an A class road...

Included hamlet of Birker with Austhwaite, township of Ulpha
Moresby
Moresby, Cumbria
Moresby is a small village and civil parish in the Borough of Copeland in Cumbria, England. It had a population of 1,280 at the 2001 census. Moresby sits on Cumbria's west coast. Moresby contains Moresby Hall which is one of only three Grade I listed buildings in Copeland. The name of the hall and...

Included township of Parton
Muncaster
Ponsonby
Ponsonby, Cumbria
Ponsonby is a village and civil parish in the Copeland district of the county of Cumbria, England. Ponsonby has a church.- External links :*...

Included part of township of Calder & Beckermet or Calderbridge
St Bees
St Bees
St Bees is a village and civil parish in the Copeland district of Cumbria, in the North of England, about five miles west southwest of Whitehaven. The parish had a population of 1,717 according to the 2001 census. Within the parish is St...

Include townships of Hensingham, Lowside Quarter, Netherwasdale, Preston Quarter, Rottington, Sandwith, Wheddicarr, Whitehaven
Whitehaven
Whitehaven is a small town and port on the coast of Cumbria, England, which lies equidistant between the county's two largest settlements, Carlisle and Barrow-in-Furness, and is served by the Cumbrian Coast Line and the A595 road...

Waberthwaite
Whicham
Whitbeck
Workington
Workington
Workington is a town, civil parish and port on the west coast of Cumbria, England, at the mouth of the River Derwent. Lying within the Borough of Allerdale, Workington is southwest of Carlisle, west of Cockermouth, and southwest of Maryport...

Included townships of Great Clifton, Little Clifton, Stainburn, Winscales
Allerdale below Derwent Allhallows
Allhallows, Cumbria
Allhallows is a civil parish in the Allerdale district of Cumbria, England. It has a population of 548 . The parish includes the hamlets of Baggrow, Harbybrow, Watchhill, and Fletchertown.-External links:*...

Aspatria
Aspatria
Aspatria is a small town and civil parish in Cumbria, England, and lies half way between Maryport and Wigton, on the A596. Historically within Cumberland, it is about away from the coast. It is approximately seven miles from the northern boundary of the Lake District, and located to the south east...

Including townships of Hayton & Mealo, Oughterside & Allerby
Bassenthwaite
Bassenthwaite
Bassenthwaite is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 412. The village is about east of Cockermouth, and is approximately from Bassenthwaite Lake...

Bolton
Bolton, Cumbria
Bolton is a village and civil parish in the Eden District of Cumbria, England, about north west of Appleby-in-Westmorland, and on the River Eden. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 416...

Including townships of Bolton Gate, Bolton Wood & Quarry Hill, Bolton Lowside, Isel Old Park, Sunderland
Bridekirk
Bridekirk
Bridekirk is a village near Cockermouth in West Cumbria. It contains no shops but is does contain a small church.-Church: St. Bridgets:Bridekirk is named after its cruciform church, reconstructed in the late 1860s. Surviving are the remains of a ruined chancel with 16th-century east and south...

Including townships of Dovenby, Great Broughton, Little Broughton
Bromfield
Bromfield, Cumbria
Bromfield is a village and civil parish in the Allerdale district of Cumbria, England.It is about five miles north-east of Aspatria. According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 530. It has 2 farms, a church dedicated to St Mungo, and a pub....

 (part)
Including townships of Allonby
Allonby
Allonby is a village on the coast of the Allerdale district in Cumbria, England. The village is on the B5300 road five miles north of Maryport and eight miles south of Silloth....

, Langrigg & Mealrigg, Papcastle
Papcastle
Papcastle is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale in the English county of Cumbria. The village is now effectively a northern extension of Cockermouth, which lies to the south of the River Derwent. It has its own parish council and lies within Bridekirk Parish for Church of...

, Tallentire, Westnewton
Caldbeck
Caldbeck
Caldbeck is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale, Cumbria, England. Historically within Cumberland, the village had 714 inhabitants according to the census of 2001. It lies on the northern edge of the Lake District. The nearest town is Wigton, 6 miles north east of the village...

 (part)
Cammerton Including township of Seaton
Crosscanonby
Crosscanonby
Crosscanonby is a civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale, Cumbria, England. The parish includes the villages of Birkby, Crosby, Crosby Villa and Crosscanonby. It is situated within the Solway Coast area of outstanding natural beauty ....

Including townships of Birkby & Canonby, Blennerhasset & Kirkland, Crosby, Maryport
Crosthwaite (part) Included townships of Castlerigg St John's & Wythburn, Keswick
Keswick, Cumbria
Keswick is a market town and civil parish within the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England. It had a population of 4,984, according to the 2001 census, and is situated just north of Derwent Water, and a short distance from Bassenthwaite Lake, both in the Lake District National Park...

, Ribton, Underskiddaw
Dearham
Dearham
Dearham is a village and civil parish in the Allerdale district of Cumbria, England. It is situated in West Cumbria, about east of Maryport and west of Cockermouth. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 2,028. It is a large, strung-out village...

Including township of Ellenborough & Ewanrigg
Flimby
Flimby
Flimby is a village in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England. Historically within Cumberland, it forms part of the civil parish of Maryport.Flimby railway station is on the Cumbrian Coast Line...

Gilcrux
Gilcrux
Gilcrux is a populated place and civil parish in West Cumbria, EnglandFormerly part of Cockermouth Rural District Gilcrux is now part of the district of Allerdale.-External links:...

Holme Cultram
Abbeytown
Abbeytown, also known as Holme Abbey, is a village in Cumbria, England. It was built around the former Cistercian Holmcultram Abbey, the nave of the church of which now serves the parish as St. Mary's Church...

Including townships of Abbey Quarter (or Holme Abbey), Holme East Waver Quarter, Holme St Cuthbert's Quarter, Holme Low Quarter
Ireby
Ireby, Cumbria
Ireby is a village in Cumbria, England, with a population of over 300.Ireby forms part of the civil parish of Ireby and Uldale; for local government purposes it is in the ward of Boltons, under the authority of Allerdale borough council. Historically it was in the county of Cumberland – since...

Including townships of High Ireby, Low Ireby
Isel
Isel, Cumbria
Isel is a dispersed settlement, in the valley of the River Derwent within the Lake District National Park in Cumbria. It is an ecclesiastical parish within the civil parish of Blindcrake...

Including township of Blindcrake and Redmain
Plumbland
Plumbland
Plumbland is a village and civil parish in the Allerdale District, in the county of Cumbria. Plumbland has a school, a pub and a place of worship. Nearby settlements include the town of Aspatria and the hamlets of Threapland, Parsonby and Arkleby.-References:...

Torpenhow Including townships of Bewaldeth and Snittlegarth
Bewaldeth and Snittlegarth
Bewaldeth and Snittlegarth is a civil parish in the Allerdale district of Cumbria, England, on the edge of the Lake District. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 40 who live in . It contains Bewaldeth at , High Bewaldeth at and Snittlegarth at .According to Bulmer's History &...

, Bothel & Thrupland
Uldale
Uldale
Uldale is a small village in Cumbria, England.It is about five miles from Caldbeck, two miles from Ireby with which it forms the civil parish of Ireby and Uldale and Aughertree, 11 miles from Wigton and 12 miles from Cockermouth....

West Ward
Cumberland
Cumberland (ward)
The ward of Cumberland was one of the ancient divisions of the historic county of Cumberland, England. In most other counties these divisions were called hundreds or Wapentakes.The ward included Carlisle and Wigton and took in parts of Inglewood Forest...

Aikton
Aikton
Aikton is a small village in the north of the English county of Cumbria. There is a pub, phonebox and postbox; but no shops. The local church, St Andrew's, is over 900 years old, and is one of the oldest in the region. Many houses there have views of the Lake District. The surrounding area is...

Beaumont
Beaumont, Cumbria
Beaumont is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 447. The parish covers an area west of Carlisle, including Grinsdale, Kirkandrews-on-Eden, Monkhill, and Beaumont. The parish is bound by the River...

Bowness
Bowness-on-Solway
Bowness-on-Solway is a small village of less than 100 houses on the Solway Firth separating England and Scotland. It falls in North-West Cumbria to the west of Carlisle on the English side. The western end of Hadrian's Wall is a major tourist attraction, along with beaches and wading birds...

Included townships of Anthorn, Drumburg, Fingland
Bromfield (part) Included townships of Blencogo, Dundraw
Burgh by Sands
Burgh by Sands
Burgh by Sands is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England, situated near the Solway Firth. The parish includes the village of Burgh by Sands along with Longburgh, Dykesfield, Boustead Hill, Moorhouse and Thurstonfield....

Carlisle, St Mary's (part)† Townships of Caldewgate Quarter, Cummersdale Quarter, Wreay
Carlisle St Mary Within† Included township of Rickergate Quarter
Carlisle St Cuthbert's Within†
Carlisle St Cuthbert's Without†
Dalston
Dalston, Cumbria
Dalston is a large village and civil parish within the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England. It is situated on the B5299 road about four miles south-south-west of Carlisle city centre, and approximately five miles from Junction 42 of the M6 motorway.The village has a population of around...

Grinsdale
Grinsdale
Grinsdale is a hamlet in the parish of Beaumont, in the City of Carlisle district, in the English county of Cumbria.- Location :It is a few miles away from the city centre of Carlisle and is near the River Eden.- Nearby settlements :...

Kirkandrews upon Eden
Kirkbampton
Kirkbampton
Kirkbampton is a village and a civil parish on the B5307 road in the Allerdale District, in the English county of Cumbria. It is near the city of Carlisle. It has a church called St Peter's Church, and a primary school...

Kirkbride
Kirkbride, Cumbria
Kirkbride, Cumbria is a village in Cumbria in the north of England. Significant elements of ancient history are close to Kirkbride including the Kirkbride Roman fort and Hadrian's Wall. Hadrian's Wall in this western reach and the Kirkbride fort were predominantly of turf and timber construction...

Orton Included township of Baldwinholme
Rockcliffe
Sebergham
Sebergham
Sebergham is a small village and civil parish in the English county of Cumbria. It is located on the B5305, south of Carlisle and south-east of Wigton....

Low and High Quarters
Thursby
Thursby
Thursby is a village near Carlisle in north-western England. West of Thursby is the church of St Andrews, built in 1846. It was not the first church on the site; one existed since the 6th century....

Warwick
Wetheral
Wetheral
Wetheral is a village and civil parish in Cumbria, England. The village serves mostly as a dormitory town for nearby Carlisle. As of the 2001 census, the population of the Wetheral Ward is 4,039. The civil parish of Wetheral is slightly larger, with a population of 5,203...

Wigton
Wigton
Wigton is a small market town and civil parish outside the Lake District, in the administrative county of Cumbria in England, and traditionally in Cumberland. It is the bustling and thriving centre of the Solway Plain, situated between the Caldbeck Fells and the Solway coast...

Included townships of Oulton Water, Waverton High & Low, Woodside Quarter
Eskdale
Arthuret
Arthuret
Arthuret is a civil parish in the Carlisle district of Cumbria, England. According to the 2001 census it had a population of 2,434. The parish includes the small town of Longtown and the village of Easton...

Included townships of Braconhill, Lineside, Longtown
Longtown
Longtown may refer to several places:in the United Kingdom:* Longtown, Cumbria* Longtown, Herefordshire* Longtown, County Antrim, a townland in County Antrim, Northern Irelandin the United States:* Longtown, Missouri* Longtown, Mississippi...

, Netherby
Bewcastle
Bewcastle
Bewcastle is a large civil parish in the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England.According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 411. The parish is large and includes the settlements of Roadhead, Shopford, Blackpool Gate, Roughsike and The Flatt. To the north the parish extends...

Brampton
Brampton, Carlisle, Cumbria
Brampton is a small market town and civil parish within the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, England about 9 miles east of Carlisle and 2 miles south of Hadrian's Wall. It is situated off the A69 road which bypasses it...

Castlecarrock
Crosby
Crosby-on-Eden
Crosby-on-Eden is the combined name for two villages within the civil parish of Stanwix Rural near Carlisle, Cumbria, England.The two small villages are by the River Eden north-east of Carlisle, joined by a road that previously was the line of the Stanegate Roman road . and are called High Crosby...

High & Low
Cumrew
Cumrew
Cumrew is a small village and civil parish in north-east Cumbria, England about south of Brampton and east of Carlisle.Local farms include Helme Farm, Saughtregate, Turnberry, Albyfield and Cumrew Farm.-Governance:...

Outside and Inside
Cumwhitton
Cumwhitton
Cumwhitton is a small village and civil parish close to Carlisle in Cumbria, England. There is a church called St Mary's and a public house or inn called The Pheasant which offers a wide range of food and a good reputation for Real Ale....

Included township of Northsceugh
East Farlam
Farlam
Farlam is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle District, in the English county of Cumbria. It is near the small town of Brampton.-External links:...

Hayton
Hayton, Cumbria
Hayton is a small village and civil parish in Cumbria, England, roughly east of Carlisle, and from the England/Scotland border.The place name Hayton means hay farm and refers to the former farming in the area. There is a separate settlement named Hayton within Cumbria near Aspatria. St. Mary...

Included townships of Little Crosby, Fenton & Faugh, Talkin
Irthington
Irthington
Irthington is a village and civil parish within the City of Carlisle district in Cumbria, England, situated to the north-east of Carlisle Lake District Airport...

Included townships of Kingwater, Laversdale
Laversdale
Laversdale is a village in Cumbria, England, situated to the north of Carlisle Lake District Airport....

, Newby, Newtown
Kingmoor (hamlet) Extra-parochial liberty belonging to the Corporation of Carlisle
Kirkandrews upon Esk Included townships of Kirkandrews Moat, Kirkandrews Nether Quarter, Kirkandrews Upper Quarter, Nichol Forest
Kirklinton
Kirklinton
Kirklinton is a village in the City of Carlisle District, in the English county of Cumbria. It is a few miles away from the large village of Longtown. It has a church called St Cuthbert's Church...

Included townships of Hethersgill
Hethersgill
Hethersgill is a village and a civil parish in the City of Carlisle district, in the county of Cumbria, England. Hethersgill has a church called St Mary's Church. In 2001 the population of the civil parish of Hethersgill was 382.- External links :*...

, Westlinton
Westlinton
Westlinton is a small village and civil parish in Cumbria, England. It is in the City of Carlisle district, and is located north of Carlisle, on the A7 road between Carlisle and Longtown. In the south of the parish, and also on the A7, is another small village, Blackford. In the 2001 census,...

 (or Levington)
Lanercost
Lanercost
Lanercost is a village in the northern part of Cumbria, England. The settlement is in the civil parish of Burtholme, in the City of Carlisle local government district. Lanercost is known for the presence of Lanercost Priory and its proximity to Hadrian's Wall.-History:Lanercost Priory was founded...

Included townships of Askerton, Burtholme & Banks, Lineside
Nether Denton
Nether Denton
Nether Denton is a scattered settlement and civil parish in rural Cumbria, situated about north-east of Carlisle, by the A69 road.St. Cuthbert's Church at Nether Denton is built at the site of a Roman fort, around south of Hadrian's Wall on the Stanegate road. The present building dates from...

Scaleby
Scaleby
Scaleby is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle district, in the county of Cumbria, England. Scaleby has a castle called Scaleby Castle and a All saints' Church.- External links :* http://genuki.org.uk/big/eng/CUL/Scaleby/index.html...

East and West
Stanwix
Stanwix
Stanwix is a district of Carlisle, Cumbria in North West England. It is located on the north side of River Eden, across from Carlisle city centre. Although long counted as a suburb it did not officially become part of the city until 1912 when part of the civil parish of Stanwix became part of the...

Stapleton
Stapleton, Cumbria
Stapleton is a village and a civil parish in the City of Carlisle district, in the county of Cumbria, England. Stapleton has a church called St Mary's Church.- External links :* http://www.stevebulman.f9.co.uk/cumbria/1901/stapleton.html...

Included townships of Belbank, Solport Quarter, Trough
Upper Denton
Upper Denton
Upper Denton is a small village and civil parish in the north of Cumbria, England about 1 km north of the A69 road linking Haltwhistle and Brampton. The village is situated on the line of the Roman Stanegate which ran from Corbridge to Carlisle . Just 1 km to the north across the river...

Walton
Walton, Cumbria
Walton is a village and civil parish in the far north of Cumbria, England. The course of Hadrian's Wall skirts the village to the south. Nearby villages include Newtown, Banks and Lanercost....

High and Low
West Farlam
Farlam
Farlam is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle District, in the English county of Cumbria. It is near the small town of Brampton.-External links:...

Leath
Leath
Leath was one of the wards of the ancient county of Cumberland in north west England. Cumberland unlike most other English counties was divided into wards rather than hundreds....

Addingham Included townships of Gamblesby
Gamblesby
Gamblesby is a village near Melmerby in the civil parish of Glassonby, Cumbria, England. It appears first in written records in 1177 as Gamelesbi, and in 1212 as Gamelesby. It was a civil parish until 1934....

, Glassonby
Glassonby
Glassonby is a small village and civil parish in the Eden Valley of Cumbria, England, about south south east of Kirkoswald.There is a methodist church and a microlight flying centre in the village....

, Hunsonby
Hunsonby
Hunsonby is a hamlet and civil parish in the Eden Valley in the English county of Cumbria, about east of Penrith. Hunsonby more or less forms a combined settlement with Winskill.- Hunsonby Civil Parish :...

 & Winskill
Ainstable and Rushcroft
Ainstable
Ainstable is a small village and civil parish in the English county of Cumbria. The parish stretches from the banks of the River Eden to the summits of the North Pennines where it borders Northumberland and includes the villages of Croglin and Newbiggin as well as the hamlets of Dale, Walmersyke,...

Alston with Garrigill
Alston Moor
Alston Moor is an area of moorland and civil parish in Cumbria, England, based around the small town of Alston. The parish had a population of 2,156 at the 2001 census. As well as the town of Alston, the parish includes the villages of Garrigill and Nenthead, along with the hamlets of Nenthall,...

Included the Chapelry
Chapelry
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, and parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church...

 of Garrigill
Garrigill
Garrigill, Cumbria is a small village in the North Pennine region of the UK situated on the banks and close to the source of the River South Tyne...

 and the Liberty of The Fell
Caldbeck (part) Township of Mosedale
Carlisle, St Mary's (part) Township of Middlesceugh & Braithwaite
Castle Sowerby
Castle Sowerby
Castle Sowerby is a civil parish in the Eden District of Cumbria, England. It has a population of 337, and includes the hamlets of How Hill, Millhouse, Newlands, Sour Nook, Southernby and Sowerby Row....

Croglin
Croglin
Croglin is the name of a village, beck , and grange in Cumbria in England.Croglin is a quiet picturesque fellside village between the Pennines and the River Eden, about south-east of Carlisle. The surrounding land is used for agriculture, mainly sheep...

Dacre
Dacre, Cumbria
Dacre is a small village and civil parish in the Lake District National Park in the Eden District of Cumbria, England, and was historically in Cumberland...

Edenhall
Edenhall
Edenhall is a village located about a mile south of Langwathby, in the Eden district, in the county of Cumbria, England. Edenhall has a church called St Cuthbert's Church...

Included township of Langwathby
Langwathby
Langwathby is a village and civil parish in northern Cumbria, England. It is situated about north east of Penrith on the A686 road. The village lies on the banks of the River Eden....

Great Salkeld
Great Salkeld
Great Salkeld is a small village and civil parish in the Eden District of Cumbria, England, a few miles to the north east of Penrith.The village is believed to have been connected at one time by a bridge over the River Eden to Little Salkeld...

Greystoke
Greystoke
Greystoke may refer to:* Greystoke, Cumbria, a village and civil parish in Cumbria, England** Greystoke Castle in this village* Greystoke Park, an area of Newcastle upon Tyne, England* Greystoke Park, a modern housing development in Penrith, England...

Included townships of Berrier & Murrah, Bowscale, Matterdale
Matterdale
Matterdale is a civil parish in the Eden District of Cumbria, England. It has a population of 526....

, Mungrisdale
Mungrisdale
Mungrisdale is a small village and civil parish in the north east of the English Lake District in Cumbria. It is also the name of the valley in which the village sits....

, Threlkeld
Threlkeld
Threlkeld is a village and civil parish in the north of the Lake District in Cumbria, England, to the east of Keswick. It lies at the southern foot of Blencathra, one of the more prominent fells in the northern Lake District, and to the north of the River Glenderamackin.Historically a part of...

, Watermillock
Hesket in the Forest
Hesket, Cumbria
Hesket is a large civil parish in Eden District, Cumbria, England. It was formed in 1934 by a County Review Order which merged the civil parishes of Hesket in the Forest and Plumpton Wall.-Villages in the parish:...

Hutton in the Forest
Hutton in the Forest
Hutton in the Forest is a country house in the historic county of Cumberland, which now forms part of the modern county of Cumbria, England. It has belonged to the Fletcher-Vane family, latterly the Barons Inglewood, since 1605....

Included townships of Hutton John, Hutton Roof, Hutton Soil, Thomas Close
Kirkland Included townships of Culgaith, Kirkland & Blencarn
Kirkoswald
Kirkoswald, Cumbria
The village, civil parish and former market town of Kirkoswald lies in the Lower Eden Valley of Cumbria, formerly Cumberland, about from Penrith. The village is usually referred to locally as KO....

Included township of Staffield
Lazonby
Lazonby
Lazonby is a village and civil parish in the Lower Eden Valley of Cumbria about north north east of Penrith.The total population of the ward of Lazonby, which also includes the nearby villages of North Dykes, Great Salkeld and Salkeld Dykes, was 1,425 at the time of the 2001 UK Census...

Included township of Plumpton Wall
Plumpton, Cumbria
Plumpton is a small village about north of Penrith, Cumbria.The village is made up of the former separate hamlets of Salkeld Gate and Brockleymoor and consists mainly of houses along a minor road connecting the A6 to the B5305 near Skelton and also a few houses and farms along the A6 itself.Close...

Melmerby
Melmerby, Cumbria
Melmerby is a village in Cumbria, England. It is a small village with a population of around 200. It is relatively quiet because the area is not as popular with tourists as other parts of Cumbria...

Newton Reigny
Newton Reigny
Newton Reigny is a village in the Eden District, in the English county of Cumbria, near the town of Penrith....

Included township of Catterlen
Catterlen
Catterlen is a small village and civil parish north west of Penrith, Cumbria.The village is a linear one with the B5305 road dividing it into two...

Ousby
Ousby
Ousby is a village and civil parish in Eden District, in the English county of Cumbria. It is a Thankful Village, one of 52 parishes in England and Wales that suffered no casualties during World War I...

Penrith
Penrith, Cumbria
Penrith was an urban district between 1894 and 1974, when it was merged into Eden District.The authority's area was coterminous with the civil parish of Penrith although when the council was abolished Penrith became an unparished area....

Included townships of Middlegate, Netherend & Bridge
Eamont Bridge
Eamont Bridge is a small village immediately to the south of Penrith, Cumbria.The village is named after the River Eamont and straddles the boundary between the ancient counties of Cumberland and Westmorland...

, Burrowgate, Town Head, Dockray, Plumpton Head and Carleton
Renwick
Renwick, Cumbria
Renwick, formerly known as Ravenwick, is a small village in the English county of Cumbria. It forms part of the civil parish of Kirkoswald in the District of Eden...

Skirwith
Skirwith
Skirwith is a village in the English county of Cumbria.Skirwith is seven miles from Penrith in a generally north-easterly direction, on a minor road about a mile from Blencarn. Just to the south are remains of a priory, now incorporated in farm buildings....


† Parts or all of these parishes and townships constituted the City of Carlisle, and were largely outside the jurisdiction of Cumberland Ward.

Local government from the nineteenth century


During the nineteenth century a series of reforms reshaped the local government of the county, creating a system of district with directly-elected councils.

Poor law and municipal reform



The first changes concerned the administration of the poor law
Poor Law
The English Poor Laws were a system of poor relief which existed in England and Wales that developed out of late-medieval and Tudor-era laws before being codified in 1587–98...

, which was carried at parish level. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, sometimes abbreviated to PLAA, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Lord Melbourne that reformed the country's poverty relief system . It was an Amendment Act that completely replaced earlier legislation based on the...

 provided for the grouping of parishes into poor law union
Poor Law Union
A Poor Law Union was a unit used for local government in the United Kingdom from the 19th century. The administration of the Poor Law was the responsibility of parishes, which varied wildly in their size, populations, financial resources, rateable values and requirements...

s, each with a central workhouse
Workhouse
In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment...

 and an elected board of guardians
Board of Guardians
Boards of guardians were ad hoc authorities that administered Poor Law in the United Kingdom from 1835 to 1930.-England and Wales:The boards were created by the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, replacing the parish Overseers of the Poor established under the old poor law, following the recommendations...

. Cumberland was divided into nine unions: Alston with Garrigill, Bootle, Brampton, Carlisle, Cockermouth, Longtown, Penrith, Whitehaven and Wigton.

In the following year the Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
The Municipal Corporations Act 1835  – sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in the incorporated boroughs of England and Wales...

 was passed, reforming boroughs and cities in England and Wales as municipal borough
Municipal borough
Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002...

s with a uniform constitution. The corporation of the City of Carlisle was accordingly remodelled with a popularly elected council consisting of a mayor, aldermen and councillors.

Local boards and sanitary districts


Outside of municipal boroughs, there was no effective local government until the 1840s. In response to poor sanitary conditions and outbreaks of cholera
Cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking or eating water or food that has been contaminated by the diarrhea of an infected person or the feces...

, the Public Health Act 1848 and the Local Government Act 1858 allowed for the formation of local boards of health
Local board of health
Local Boards or Local Boards of Health were local authorities in urban areas of England and Wales from 1848 to 1894. They were formed in response to cholera epidemics and were given powers to control sewers, clean the streets, regulate slaughterhouses and ensure the proper supply of water to their...

 in populous areas. Local boards were responsible inter alia
Inter Alia
-Track listing:# Inter Alia# Outfox'd # Righteous Badass # The Altogether feat. Bix, Apt, UNIVERSE ARM and Cal# The Day-to-Daily# Trouble Brewing # The Prestidigitator# The Force...

for water supply, drainage, sewerage, paving and cleansing. Eleven local boards were initially formed at Brampton, Cleator Moor, Cockermouth, Egremont, Holme Cultram, Keswick, Maryport, Millom, Penrith, Whitehaven, Wigton and Workington.

Further reform under the Public Health Act 1875 saw the creation of sanitary district
Sanitary district
Sanitary districts were established in England and Wales in 1875 and in Ireland in 1878. The districts were of two types, based on existing structures:*Urban sanitary districts in towns with existing local government bodies...

s throughout England and Wales. The existing municipal boroughs and local boards became "urban sanitary districts", while "rural sanitary districts" were formed from the remaining areas of the poor law unions.

Three more local boards were formed: Arlecdon and Frizington in 1882, Harrington in 1891 and Aspatria in 1892. In addition Whitehaven and Workington received charters of incorporation to become municipal boroughs in 1894 and 1883 respectively.

Local government acts of 1888 and 1894



In 1889, under the Local Government Act 1888
Local Government Act 1888
The Local Government Act 1888 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which established county councils and county borough councils in England and Wales...

, the Cumberland County Council
Cumberland County Council
Cumberland County Council was the county council of Cumberland in the North West of England, an elected local government body responsible for most local services in the county. It was established in 1889 as a result of the Local Government Act 1888. Carlisle was initially within its area but became...

 was created as the county council
County council
A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries.-United Kingdom:...

 for Cumberland, taking over administrative functions from the Court of Quarter Sessions
Quarter Sessions
The Courts of Quarter Sessions or Quarter Sessions were local courts traditionally held at four set times each year in the United Kingdom and other countries in the former British Empire...

. The Local Government Act 1894
Local Government Act 1894
The Local Government Act 1894 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales outside the County of London. The Act followed the reforms carried out at county level under the Local Government Act 1888...

 reconstituted the existing sanitary districts as urban districts and rural districts, each with an elected council.

The Act of 1888 also allowed any municipal borough with a population of 50,000 people or more to become a "county borough
County borough
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, but continue in use for lieutenancy and shrievalty in...

", independent of county council control. In 1914, Carlisle successfully applied for this status, ceasing to form part of the administrative county
Administrative county
An administrative county was an administrative division in England and Wales and Ireland used for the purposes of local government. They are now abolished, although in Northern Ireland their former areas are used as the basis for lieutenancy....

, although remaining within Cumberland for the purposes such as Lieutenancy
Lord Lieutenant
The title Lord Lieutenant is given to the British monarch's personal representatives in the United Kingdom, usually in a county or similar circumscription, with varying tasks throughout history. Usually a retired local notable, senior military officer, peer or business person is given the post...

 and shrievalty
High Sheriff
A high sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement officer in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.In England and Wales, the office is unpaid and partly ceremonial, appointed by the Crown through a warrant from the Privy Council. In Cornwall, the High Sheriff is appointed by the Duke of...

.

Reform in 1934


The Local Government Act 1929
Local Government Act 1929
The Local Government Act 1929 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that made changes to the Poor Law and local government in England and Wales....

 imposed the duty on county councils of reviewing the districts within their administrative county so as to form more efficient units of local government. In general, this meant the merging of small or lightly populated areas into larger units. A review was carried in Cumberland in 1934. The following table lists the urban and rural districts before and after the changes.

District 1894–1934 District 1934–1974
Alston with Garrigill RD
Arlecdon & Frizington UD Part of Ennerdale RD
Aspatria UD Absorbed by Wigton RD
Bootle RD Part of Millom RD
Brampton RD Part of Border RD
Carlisle RD Part of Border RD
Cleator Moor UD Part of Ennerdale RD
Cockermouth RD
Cockermouth UD
Egremont UD Part of Ennerdale RD
Harrington UD Absorbed by Workington MB
Holme Cultram UD Absorbed by Wigton RD
Keswick UD
Longtown RD Part of Border RD
Maryport UD
Penrith RD
Penrith UD
Whitehaven RD Part of Ennerdale RD




The distribution of population in 1971 was as follows:
District Population
County Borough of Carlisle
County Borough of Carlisle
Carlisle was, from 1835 to 1974, a local government district in the northwest of England, coterminate with Carlisle. In 1835, following the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, Carlisle was constituted a municipal borough of Cumberland, but was promoted to county borough status in 1914, within its...

 
71,580
Cockermouth Urban District  6,366
Keswick Urban District  5,184
Maryport Urban District  11,612
Penrith Urban District  11,308
Municipal Borough of Whitehaven
Whitehaven
Whitehaven is a small town and port on the coast of Cumbria, England, which lies equidistant between the county's two largest settlements, Carlisle and Barrow-in-Furness, and is served by the Cumbrian Coast Line and the A595 road...

 
26,721
Municipal Borough of Workington  28,431
Alston with Garrigill Rural District  1,917
Border Rural District
Border Rural District
Border was a rural district of Cumberland, England from 1934 to 1974.It was formed by a County Review Order in 1934, by a merger of Longtown Rural District, most of Brampton Rural District and nearly all of Carlisle Rural District, as well as a part of Penrith Rural District...

 
29,267
Cockermouth Rural District
Cockermouth Rural District
Cockermouth was a rural district in Cumberland, England from 1894 to 1974.It was created by the Local Government Act 1894 based on Cockermouth rural sanitary district...

 
21,520
Ennerdale Rural District
Ennerdale Rural District
Ennerdale was a rural district in the county of Cumberland in England from 1934 to 1974.It was created in 1934 by a County Review Order, by the merger of the urban districts of Arlecdon and Frizington, Cleator Moor, Egremont, and Harrington along with part of Bootle Rural District and most of...

 
30,983
Millom Rural District
Millom Rural District
Millom was a rural district in Cumberland in England from 1934 to 1974.It was formed by a County Review Order in 1934 by the merger of the Millom urban district with most of the Bootle Rural District....

 
14,088
Penrith Rural District
Penrith Rural District
Penrith was a rural district within the administrative county of Cumberland, England that existed from 1894 to 1974 with slight boundary changes in 1934....

 
11,380
Wigton Rural District
Wigton Rural District
Wigton was a rural district in Cumberland, England from 1894 to 1974.It was created by the Local Government Act 1894 based on Wigton rural sanitary district. Wigton was originally an urban district but became a civil parish in the Wigton RD in 1934....

 
21,830



In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
The Local Government Act 1972 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974....

, the administrative county and county borough were abolished and their former area was combined with Westmorland
Westmorland
Westmorland is an area of North West England and one of the 39 historic counties of England. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974, after which the entirety of the county was absorbed into the new county of Cumbria.-Early history:...

 and parts of Lancashire
Lancashire
Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Although Lancaster is still considered to be the county town, Lancashire County Council is based in Preston...

 and the West Riding of Yorkshire
West Riding of Yorkshire
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England. From 1889 to 1974 the administrative county, County of York, West Riding , was based closely on the historic boundaries...

 to form the new county of Cumbria
Cumbria
Cumbria , is a non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local authority, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's largest settlement and county town is Carlisle. It consists of six districts, and in...

. The area from Cumberland went on to form the districts of Carlisle
City of Carlisle
The City of Carlisle is a local government district of Cumbria, England, with the status of a city and non-metropolitan district. It is named after its largest settlement, Carlisle, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Brampton and Longtown, as well as outlying villages...

, Allerdale
Allerdale
Allerdale is a non-metropolitan district of Cumbria, England, with borough status. Its council is based in Workington and the borough has a population of 93,492 according to the 2001 census....

, Copeland
Copeland, Cumbria
Copeland is a local government district and borough in western Cumbria, England. Its council is based in Whitehaven. It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the borough of Whitehaven, Ennerdale Rural District and Millom Rural District....

 and part of Eden
Eden, Cumbria
Eden is a local government district in Cumbria, England. Its council is based in Penrith. It is named after the River Eden which flows north through the district toward Carlisle....

.

Legacy


The name continues in use as a geographical and cultural term, and it survives in Cumberland sausages, the HMS Cumberland
HMS Cumberland (F85)
HMS Cumberland was a Batch 3 Type 22 frigate of the British Royal Navy. She was launched in 1986 and commissioned on 10 June 1989. The frigate was on station during the First Gulf War and was part of the Devonport Flotilla based at Devonport Dockyard. Cumberland was decommissioned on 23 June...

, which is nicknamed "The fighting sausage", the Cumberland County Cricket Club
Cumberland County Cricket Club
Cumberland County Cricket Club is one of the county clubs which make up the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Cumberland and playing in the Minor Counties Championship and the MCCA Knockout Trophy...

, the Cumberland Fell Runners Club, the Cumberland Athletics Club, and organisations and companies, such as the local newspapers The Cumberland News, and The West Cumberland Times and Star, and the Cumberland Building Society
Cumberland Building Society
The Cumberland Building Society was established on 16 April 1850 as the Cumberland Co-operative Land and Benefit Building Society. It has its headquarters in Carlisle, Cumbria, England...

.

In June 1994, during the 1990s UK local government reform
1990s UK local government reform
The structure of local government in the United Kingdom underwent large changes in the 1990s. The system of two-tier local government introduced in the 1970s by the Local Government Act 1972 and the Local Government Act 1973 was abolished in Scotland and Wales on April 1, 1996, and replaced with...

, the Local Government Commission published draft recommendations, suggesting as one option a North Cumbria unitary authority
Unitary authority
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national...

 (also including Appleby
Appleby-in-Westmorland
Appleby-in-Westmorland is a town and civil parish in Cumbria, in North West England. It is situated within a loop of the River Eden and has a population of approximately 2,500. It is in the historic county of Westmorland, of which it was the county town. The town's name was simply Appleby, until...

, the historic county town of Westmorland). It also suggested that Cumberland could be reinstated as an independent ceremonial county
Ceremonial counties of England
The ceremonial counties are areas of England to which are appointed a Lord Lieutenant, and are defined by the government as counties and areas for the purposes of the Lieutenancies Act 1997 with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England and Lieutenancies Act 1997...

. The final recommendations, published in October 1994, did not include such recommendations, apparently due to lack of expression of support for the proposal to the commission.

As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife
Plantlife
Plantlife is a wild plant conservation charity. As of 2007, its membership was 10,500 and it owned 23 nature reserves around the UK.-History:It was founded in 1989 with its first President being Professor David Bellamy. By 1999 it had 22 nature reserves....

 chose the Grass-of-Parnassus
Parnassia palustris
Parnassia palustris, commonly called Marsh Grass-of-Parnassus, Northern Grass-of-Parnassus, and Bog-star, is a species of the genus Parnassia....

 as the county flower. Parnassus flowers had been associated with the county since 1951, when they were included in the coat of arms
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon or on a surcoat or tabard used to cover and protect armour and to identify the wearer. Thus the term is often stated as "coat-armour", because it was anciently displayed on the front of a coat of cloth...

 granted to the Cumberland County Council. They subsequently featured in the arms granted to Cumbria County Council and Copeland Borough Council
Copeland, Cumbria
Copeland is a local government district and borough in western Cumbria, England. Its council is based in Whitehaven. It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the borough of Whitehaven, Ennerdale Rural District and Millom Rural District....

, in both cases to represent Cumberland.

See also

  • Lord Lieutenant of Cumberland
    Lord Lieutenant of Cumberland
    This is a list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Cumberland. From 1765 to 1974, all Lord Lieutenants were also Custos Rotulorum of Cumberland.*Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon 20 August 1586 – 14 December 1595*vacant?...

  • High Sheriff of Cumberland
    High Sheriff of Cumberland
    The High Sheriff is the oldest secular office under the Crown. Formerly the High Sheriff was the principal law enforcement officer in the county but over the centuries most of the responsibilities associated with the post have been transferred elsewhere or are now defunct, so that its functions...

  • List of MPs
    Cumberland (UK Parliament constituency)
    Cumberland is a former United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. It was represented by two Knights of...


External links